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{All riffhU reierved,] 



printed by Ballahttnk. Hanson 6- Co. 
At the Ballantyne PreM 



Book VL— Four Ck)UNTRiK8 • • 

. 1-43 

(i) Shi-lo-fu-shi-ti (^r&vasti) • 


(2) Bae-pi-lorfa-8U-tu (Kapilavastu) • 


(3) Lan-mo (R&magr&ma) 


(4) Eiu-shi-na-kie-lo (KuiSinagara) < 


Book VII.— Five Countries 

. 44-81 

(i) Fo-lo-ni-8se (Var&nasi) 


(2) Chen-chu (Qh&zipur) 


(3) Fei-8he-li (Y&imi) . . 


(4) Fo-U^hi (Vrtjji) . 


(5) Ni-po-lo (Nepal) . 


Book VIIL— Mo-kie-t'o (Maqadha) 

. 82-137 

Book IX.— Maoadha (continued) . 


Book X.— Sbvkntebn Countries . 


(i) I-lan-na-po-fa-to (Hiranyaparvata) 


(2) Chen-po (Champft) . 

. 191 

(3) Kie-cliu-hoh-khi-lo (Kajughira or ] 

Klaji&garha) . 193 

(4) Pun-na-fa-t'an-na (Pdndravarddhar 

la) . 194 

(5) Kia-mo-lu-po (Kamardpa) . 


(6) San-mo-ta-ch*a (Samotata) . 


(7) Tan-mo-li-ti (Tamralipti) . 


(8) Eie-lo-na-su-fa-la-na (Karnasuvani 

a) • • 201 

(9) U-ch'a(Udra). 


(10) Kong-u-fo (Kdnyddha 1) . 

. 206 

VX K^VJiy I XiiV i O. 

Book X. — continued 


(ii) Kie-ling-kia (Kalinga) 


(12) Kiao-8a-lo(K68ala) 


(13) 'An-ta-lo (Andhra) .... 


(14) To-na-kie-tse-kia (Dhanakataka) . 


(15) Chu-li-ye (Chulya or Ch61a) 


(16) Ta-lo-pi-ch'a (Drilvida) 


(17) Mo-lo-kiu-ch^a (Malakiita) . 


Book XI.— Twenty-three Countries 


(i) S&ng-kia-lo (Simhala) . . . . 


(2) Kong-kin-na-pu-lo (K6nkanapura) , 


(3) Mo-ho-la-ch'a (Mab&r&shtra) 

. 255 

(4) Po-lu-kie-ch'e-p'o (Bhamknchha) . 


(5) Mo-la-p'o (Maiavjl) .... 


(6) 'O-ch'a-li (Atali) 


(7) K'ie-ch'a (Kachha) 


(8) Fa-li-pi (Valabhl) . . 


(9) '0-nan-t*o-pu-lo (Anandapuni) . , 


(10) Su-la-ch'a (Surdshtra) 


(11) Kiu-che-lo (Gurjjara) . . 


(12) U-she-yen-na (Ujjayinl) . , , 




(14) Mo-hi-shi-fa-lo-pu-lo (Mali64varapura) 


(15) Sin-tu (Sindh) 


(16) Mu-lo-san-p'n-lo (Mfdasth&napura) 


(17) Po-fa-to (Parvata) .... 

. 275 

(18) 'O-tin-p'o-chi-lo (Atyanabakfila) . 


(19) Lang-kie-lo (LaAgala) 


(20) Po-la-sse (Peraia) .... 


(21) Pi-to-shi-lo (PitiUiU) 


(22) *0-fan-ch'a (Avanda 1) . . . 


(23) Fa-la-na (Varana or Varnu) , 


Book XII.— Twenty-two Countries 


(i) Tsu-ku-ch'a (Tsaukiita) 

. 283 

(2) Fo-li-8hi-8a-t'anj,'-na (Parfusth&na) . 


(3) 'An-ta-lo-po (Andarilb) 




Book XU.-^continued, 


(4) KVoh-Bi-to (Khost) . • . , 


(5) Hwoh (Kunduz) .... 


(6) Mung-kin (Munjftn). • . . . 


(7) '0-li-iii (Ahreng) . . . 


(8) Ho-lo-Lu (Ra-h) .... 


(9) Ki li-seh-mo (Khridlima, or Kishiii) 


(10) Po-li-ho (Bolor) . . . . . 


(11) Hi-mo-ta-lo(nimatala) 


(12) Po-to-chang-na (Badakshan) . 


(13) In-po-kin (Yamgan) 


(14) Kiu-lang-na (Kurfina) 


(15) Ta-mo-sih-teh-ti (Terniistat) 


(16) Shi-k'i-ni (Sliiklman) 


(17) Shang-nii (Sambi) .... 

. 296 

(18) K'ie-p'an-t'o (Khabaudba) . 

. 298 

(19) U-sha (Ocb) 


(20) Kie-sha (Kasbgdr) .... 

. 306 

(21) Cho-kiu-kia (Cbakuka ? Yarkiang) 


(22) Kiu-sa-ta-iia (Klidtau) . . . 


Index. ..••«. 

. 327 


. 370 



Coniaim an accmni of four eountne$f mz., (i) Shi-Io-fu^»hi'ti ; 
(2) Mt^pi'lofa^m-tu ; {3) Lanmo; (4) Eu-ehi-na-k^ie-Io, 

Ser-LO-FU-SHMi [^eAvabti]. 

The kingdom of SrS^vastl (Shi-lo-fu-shi-ti) ^ is atout 
6000 li ill circuit The chief town is desert and ruiDei 
Thtire is no record as to its exact limits (area). Tlie mind 
of the walls encompassing the royal precincts ^g'ive a circuit 

^ The town of f^rilvsiatt, idm called 
Dhariimpaf.fann [Trikdndwfhha^ iL i, 
13), 115 Utt.'irji (Northern I K^ji^iila, Ima 
been ideutitjed by Cunningham with 
a gre&t nitEied cilj on the south 
b&nk of the E4ptl oaUed B&het 
Mithct, iibout 58 miles north of 
AyMbyBL Aj Hiuen Tuiang gi^ea 
the btftikriiig north -eaiit, and the 
diAtimee fthflut 500 li, he evidently 
tiki not travel by the sbortcflt route, 
Fa hi An (cbapb kit.), on the contraiy, 
giv«t the di^t&nce eight ifSjitnag, axid 
the b€Ai-ing ( corrected ) due north, 
b*>th of which are correct. For & 
ftill account of Sfihc't M4hct see 
OTnciiti^hani^ ArcfL Sitn^e^ of Ind.^ 
vol. L |i* 331 C ; Bee also /, IL Ak. £l, 
voL V. pp. 122 fT. It figures also in 
Brahmiinical literature, in which it 
b said to have been fi^unded by 
Efdvjb»t!i, the mn of Sriv& And 

grandson of Yu van Siva. IIariVf^ffJa^ 
670; Vithi^ Fur.^ vol. ii(, pw 263; 
HflJrB Vdmtiadaiid, Int. p. S2 f 
MahdbMr., lii 1251S; PiLnitiif iv, 
2, 97; BMga^, ]Pttn, ix." 6, 21. 
With respect, however^ to the date 
of Vlkramdditya of Brilva^tl, Cun* 
ningham §eenia to be mii^k*d by the 
fltatement of Hiuen Taiang {ante^ p. 
106) that he lived in the miildk* of 
the thouBand years after Buddha, 
a« though this tnennt 500 a.b.| 
whereas it meAns, aa stated before, 
in the middle of the thauoand jenrt 
which succeeded the 500 yexm after 
BuddhA, in ttiQ middle of the " period 
of images/' in fact See ivko Bur- 
noufj fntrotl-t pp* 20 f.^ I^O^ zoq, 2S0 ; 
Lasa^in, IfvtL AU., vol. liL pp. 200 f.; 
Vass(U«f» pp. 38, 75, 188, 2iSl 

' Juliet) ttAualatea here and elae- 
where hung ahin^ by palacf, but it 


of about 20 \i Though mostly iu ruins, still there are a 
h\r iuhabitants* Cereals grow io great abundance ; the 
climate is soft and agreeable, the manners of the people 
are honest and pnre. They apply tliemselves to learning, 
and love religion {merit). There are several hundreds of 
miiglidrdmas, mostly in ruin, with very few religious 
followers, who stud}^ the books of the Saiiimatlya (Ching- 
liang-pu) schooL There aro lOO DSva torapJes with very 
many heretics. When Tath&gata was in the world, this 
was the capital of the country governed by Pras^najifca- 
rija (Po4o-si-na-chi-to-woug).^ 

Within the old precincts of the royal city are some 
ancient foundations ; these are the remains of the palace of 
King Shing-kwan (Pras6nRJita). 

From this not far to the east is a ruinous foundation, 
above which is built a small stdpa; these ruins represent 
the Great Hall of the Law,* which Xing Prasenajita buik 
for Buddha. 

By the side of this hall, not far from it, above the ruins 
EL stdpa is built. This is where stood the ^tAdra which 
King Prasenajita built for Prajlpati^ Bhikshuni, the 
maternal aunt of Buddha, 

Bboiild be'' the f o) al precincts/* or the 
portioB of the city in which the royal 
pftUce atood^ and which wajs defended 
by a aurruunding wsdl Cunnrng- 
ham iM right therefore iu hia i^marks 
cm this ptiint* p 332, /'»c. ciL 

* IVaHi^najit :— In the An6i:a Ara- 
ddna the fiiUDWitig gene&logy Ia 
givif& : — 

]. Bimbis^ra (cir, D.a 540-512), 
2^ AjfttaKatru, his san,, 5 1 2* 

3. Udavtbhadr^r hi^ jsod, 480^ 

4. Mutida, hijs mn, 46. 

5. K&l£avunuii« hm mttt 456- 
64 BikhftHn, Im ncn^ 

7. Tulftkuchi, his utm, 
H. Miihiltimn^iilo. Ui» ^in, cir, 375- 
9. l^rfuk!<najit, hia ftcin. 
to. Nflnd*, his eon. 

1 1, Rinduailm. hitf naiXt 295. 

12. Sualmo, hii hoel 

Little depeudenoo, however^CftDbe 
placed on thiu genealogy, but it mmy 
W cnmpared with thn Smghales^ 
and BnihmanlcAliljitB, /. At.S. Ben., 
vwh vL p. 714; A riot. Jic*.^ voL v* 
p. 2S6 I Livsi^en, Jitd, AlL^ voh i, pp, 
4*59, xxKviii., voL IL pp- 7 1, 532, 
1207 ; Bumouf, /ntr.j pp 128, 320 j 
Burgeds, Arch.(tcl, Sut%'. W. Indian 
Mep., vtA. V. p. 43, and Care TempUa^ . 
pp. 34 f * On PraK^HftjJt, see Kop- 1 
pen, J}ie litL tL Jlmt., vnl> L pp. 98, 
*'3i 495» S°7 » ViJihn. Pur., vol iv, 
p. 171 ; Mahdhfidr., iL 332, iii. 11072, 
3til. 5024 ; Ha7ii\j 709 t, 3054, 
^ The SavJdbaniia Maha«AliL 
* Prftjiipatl, fortiiei-ly written, as 
a note teJln 11 s J^njapati, with the 
meaning "lord of creatures ;** ft may 
be obftervtjil here that Hiuen Tswn^ 
in the fLn$t to introiuce the i:^atti- 


Still east of this is a stitpa to record the site of tlie 
home of Sudatta* (Sben-sUiJ, 

By the side of the house of Sudatta is a great si'dpa. 
This is tlie place where the Ailsulinmljra (Yang-kiu-li- 
xtio-lo) gave up his h(ire5j\ The Aftgulimalya>5^ are the 
unlucky caste (ik^ criminah) of SrSvasti They kill 
eveiythiiig that lives, and' maddening themselves, they 
murder men in the towns and conutry.and make chapleta 
for the head of their fingers. The man in question wished 
to kill his mother to complete the tmmher of fiii,rjers, wlien 
the Lord of the Wurld (Biiddlia), moved by pity, went to 
him to convert him. Beholding the Lord from far, the 
Aft'iulim5.1ya rejoicing said, ** Kow I shall he born in 
heaven ; our former teacher declared that whoever in- 
jnres a Buddha or kills his mother, ought to be born in 
the BrahmS. heaven." 

Addressing his mother, he said, "Old woman! I will 
leave you for a time till I have killed that great Sha- 
man/' Then taking a knife, he went to attack tlie Lord. 
On this Tath^gata stepped slo%vly as he went, whilst 
the AagulimMya rushed at liim without slacking hia 

The Lord of the World addressing him said, " Why do 
you persevere in your evil purpose and give up the better 
feelings of your nature and foster the source of evil ? '' 
The AfiguliTufdya, hearing these words, imderstood the 
wickedness of iiis condactt and on that paid reverence to 
Bnddha, and sought permission to enter the law (?*,c., Urn 
rdiffiom profession ofJhiddha),nnd having persevered with 

ktU formM of pmp^r imrne^ Into the 
Chinese tmnaitttjona. Bufor« Jiirn 
the Prdk/it. or pmvinciaU formi* 
ftre uxed ; far e^tiimplep in Fo-hiiin, 
maiead of Fa lo-fli-niv-chiti for Pra- 
fltoajjto, vve have Po-Bz-nih^ cornf- 
t|)OniiiTig with PfluB^nftt i>r Pdj;§ii- 
ftflli ; iiibteiid of 8r4vaiitt, we liAve 
Shti-wei for Si^wtit, kc. For further 

p, 313, notes If 2. 

* Sudatta^ formerly writ ben Su-tii« 
the B^tne as AniLthupind:ida, " the 
friend of the urphnn and doi^titiitf-.'' 
For an accntmt of hia coovei^ion jind 
Biibae4:ineiit ciir&sT, set: Fo-sho-hittff- 
Uan-hinfff p. 20 1 ^ T 

^ The AugulimillyaH w«re ft eect 
found lad by a, coiivurtad brigand, who 
vore ruund tiU uuck a string of 


diligence in his religious progress, he obtained the fmit of 
au ArliaU 

To the south of the city J or 6 li h the JItavaoa." 
This is where Aii^thapindada (Ki-kn-to) {otMnmM 
miled) Siidatta, the chief minister of Fraf=enajita-iAja, 
huilt for Buddha a vihdra, Tliere was a san^hdrdma 
here formerly, but now all is in ruins (desert). 

On the left and right of the eastern ^ate has been built 
a pillar about 70 feet high* on the left-hand pillar is 
engraved on the base a wheel ;^ on the right-hand pillar 
the figure of an ox is on the top. Botli columns were 
erected bv A^oka-raja, The residences (of the prirsis) are 
wholly destroyed; the foundations only remain ^ with the 
exception of one solitary brick building, which stands 
ulone in the midst of the ruiuB, and contains an image 
of Uuddha. 

Formerly, when Tathi^ata ascended into the Trftyas- 
triihlas heaven to preach for the benefit of his mother, 
Praslnajita-rftja, having heard that the king ITdS-yana had 
caused a sanduUwood figure of Buddha to be carved, also 
caused this image to be made, 

Tiie nobleman Sudatta was a man of " hamanity " and 
talent* He had amassed great wealth, and was liberal in 
its distribution. He succoured the needy and destitute^ 
and had compassion on the orphan and iiulped the aged. 
During bis lifetime they called him Anithapindada 
(Ki-ku-to — friend of the orphan) on account of hts virtue. 
He, hearing of the religious merit of Buddha, conceived a 

• Shi-to-lin, the garden of Jfit*, 
the princtf royal. For tbt? sale of 
tKU garden to Sudatta (Slien-^hi) 
find Ibe drcumAta&ccfl att^tidisg 
ft, fee Fo-tho-hvn^ Uaulinff, p. 217. 
For A rrpfesentation of the sqetie of 
the hiatory, st'« Bharhiit StUf^, pi. 

^ '^nliLm^a translfttioD of this piu- 
■Kge ift very confuAing. He 107 e. "On 
the top uf tbtr Left hAnd pillar is • 
liomc (cowpo^e) : on the pinnacle (/oiefj 
of the nght^hlkiid pilUr iu aqutptured 

the body of an elephant." But, in 
fact, the text flay«, " Un the face 
(pediistal, twan) af the left-hand 
pillar lA thc' uiArk (^'yrirr) nf A wheel 
^he jtymb^I of <ffmrfmi)\ oti the top 
r>f the rfght-liand pillar m the fortn 
i>f an OK. 'J bU h in ;igreemeiit with 
Fa- hi an' B account. 1 he only doubt 
is whether twan may not mvB^n " th« 
top ;" in that eaBe the wheel would 
be OD the tnp of the left- hand pillar, 
A3 Fa bmn lutya (uhnpp xx.) 



deep reverence for him, and vowed to build a vihdra for 
him* He therefore asked Buddha to condescend to come 
to receive it. Tlie Lord of the World commanded S^uripu- 
tra (She-li-t^eu) to accompany him and aid by his counsel 
Considering the garden of Jfita (Shi-to-yuen), the prince, 
to be a proper site on account of its pleasant and upland 
y^osition, ihey agreed to go to the prince to make known 
the circumstances of the case. The prince in a jeering 
way said, "If you can cover the ground with gold (pieces) 
I will sell it (t/mt> can hiiy it)" 

Sudatta, hearing it, was rejoiced He immediately 
opened hia treasuries, with a view to comply with the 
agreement, and cover the ground. There was yet a little 
space not filled.^'* The prince asked him to desist, but he 
said,** The field of Buddha is true;'^ I must plant good 
seed in it/' Then on the vacant spot of ^ound^^ he 
raised a rnhdra. 

The Lord of the World forthwith addressed Ananda 
and said, " The ground of the garden is what Sudatta has 
bought; the trees are given by Jfita. Both of tbein, 
eimilariy minded, have acquired the ntmost merit. From 
this time forth let the place be called the gro%^e of J^ta 
(Shi-to) and tlie garden of A nit hap in da da (Ki-ku-to), 

To the north-east of ihe garden of An4thapindada 
(Ki-ku-to) is a stilpa. This is the place where Tathagata 
washed with water the sick Bhikshu. Formerly, when 
Buddha was in the world, tliere was a sick Bhikshu (Pi-tsu)» 
who, cherishing his sorrow, lived apart by himself in a 

*' Tbfa ineyeiit of the broken pro* 
mise is refeireit to by AivaghoMho, 
Fn-nh/iJiifi/j-tManbin'/i p. 21 7* Mid 
lueseixu to bur the Hobject of the Bhftr- 
h«t Kculpturt!, pL ilv, fig^, g, where 
'* llie little ipace nut filled " Is re- 
pnsetitedr ii^di the broken promise 
doioted by ths brnkeu surface of the 
^itmtid. It would perhapa be toi> 
bold to sugE^£>nt dtitu. ptMdsi-la for 
the jnicription, where pddtUi would 
be th« oorist form ui proilt}. And 

the TOeanfn^ wcjuld be "taken or 
caught U^) in breaking what he 
gave.** The tree certainly favoura 
thu identificatujn ; anrl the ayguat 
figure by the md^ of J^Jta would de* 
nute the *' Lord of the World/' or per- 
h»pi "the naagirtratu ** or i^Jiriputra. 
^* Lt.i the fljatam of Bnddha i* 
founded i>ti itjdh ; aJluditig to ths 
wish of Ji3t» to »nnul the a^eo- 

^ Itt.^ where there wtr^ nu tree*. 


solitary place. The Lord of the World seeing him, inquired, 
"What IB your affliction, living thus by yourself ?" He 
answered, *' My natural disposition being a careless one 
and an idle one, I had no patience to look on a man sick 
(to aUc7id cm iht sick),^'^ and now M'hen I am entangled in 
sickness there is nobody to look on me {attend to me)." 
Tath&gata, moved with pity thereat, addressed bim and 
said, "My son I I will look on you !" and then touching 
bim, as be bent down, witb his band, lo ! tbe sickness was 
immediately healed ; then leading him forth to the outside 
of the door, he spread a fresh mat for him and himself, 
washed his body and changed his clothes for new ones. 

Tlien Euddha addressed the Ehikshu, *' From this tima 
be diligent and exert yoiirselC Hearing this, he re- 
pented of his idleness, was moved by gratitude, and, filled 
with joy, he followed him* 

To the north-west of the garden of Anfithapindada Is 
u little stAjpa, This is the place where Mudgalaputra 
{Mo4e-kia-lo-tsen) vainly exerted his spiritual power iu 
order to lift the girdle {smh) of SSriputra (She-li-tseu). 
Formerly, when Buddha was residing near the lake W u- 
jeh^no," in the midst of an assembly of men and 
1)6 vas, only ^{Lriputra (She-li-tseti) was absent {had not 
time to join the asstmhly). Then Buddha summoned 
Mudgalaputra, and bade him go and comnumd him to 
attend. Mudgalaputra accordingly went. 

SS.riputra was at the time engaged in repairing his 
religious vestments. Mudgalaputra addressing him said, 
** The Lord, who is now dwelling beside the Anavutapta 
lake, bas ordered me to summon you/' 

^driputra said, *'Wait a minute, till I have finished 
repairing my garment, and then I will go with you," 

^' Tbis differ* from JuUen'it ver- 
NVOD \ he makt'S the fault of the Bhik- 
tihu to cou^iHt Jn neglecting his own 
fiicknesA ; hut it seemfl mther U> 
hftFC been his former indifftrenct! lo 
the Breknea^ of others. For &n Inci- 

dent some wbiikt like tbiit f n the %e%% 
see S&crrff Sod^ of the BtiH, vd. 
KVii, p. 241* 

* Nil feverish affliction ^ f*f., cool; 
antftratttplii. See trit^f, voL L p* 1 1^ 
nute iS/ 



Mudgalapntm said^ " If you do not come quicWy, I will 
exert my spiritual power, and carry both you and your 
house to the great assembly," 

Tiien Snriputra, loosiug his sash, threw it on the 
ground ami said, "If you can lift this sash, then perhaps 
, my body will niove {or, then I will start)/' Mudgala- 
putra exerted all his spiritual power to raise the sash, 
yet it moved not Theu the earth trembled in conse- 
quence. On returning by his spiritual power of loco- 
iuotiou to the place where Buddha was, he found 6ari- 
putra already arrived and sitting in the assembly. 
Mudgalaputra sighing said, "Now then T have learned 
that the power of working miracles is not equal to tlie 
power of wisdom," ^^ 

Not far from the siitjm. just named is a well Tathi- 
gata, when in tlie world, drew from this well for his 
personal use. By the side of it is a st^pa which was 
built by Aioka-rSLja; in it are some hrtras^^ of Tathfl.- 
gnta ; here also are spots where there are traces of 
walking to and fro and preaching the law. To com- 
memorate both these circumstances, {the king} erected a 
pillar and built the si-^pd. A mysterious sense of awe 
sutTounds the precincts of the place ; many miracles are 
manifested also. Sometimes lieavenly music is heard, 
at other times divine odours are perceived, The lucky 
(happif) prtfsages {or, tlie omens that indicate religious 
merit) would be difficult to recount in full. 

Not far behind the mii^hdrdma (of Andthapindada) is 
the place where the Brahmnchiirins killed a eourtemn. in 
order to lay the charge of murdering her on Buddha {in 
order to dander him). Now Tath&gata was possessed of 
the tenfold powers,*^ without fear/® perfecily wise, honoured 

^ Mudgnlaputra excelk-d sAl the 
other dJaciples la mtraculouft iMiwer, 
8Ariputra eitceUed in wisdoni. Fv- 
Mo-Aif*/'i*ffa Hny, ver. 1406. 

^^ There U no mention of SAri' 
ptttra ill the text, aa Jullen tranf^* 
jfttet ; the two feymbolD, Ji/ir li^ fur 
pai'Diitj iuinied htm. 

^^ Buddha w»a CftHed Dmaiiolii 
{*hili) on aoccmtit uf tht* ten pswem 
he: p«>aiit?«a*d^ fuF whic*h wet Btinio^if, 
/jCrfujf \K 7^ if ^iiil Hardy, Atanmd 
0/ Jiudhiim^ p. 394. 

^* Abhaya, an c-pithet given to 
tvury UuUdlitt (Kitel, iiamibmk^ 

»* V.) 


by men and D&vas,^® reverenced by saints and satrts ; then 
the heretics coDsidting together said, "We nmst devise 
some evil about him, tliat we may slander him before the 
congregation." Accordingly they allured and bribL*d thia 
courtesan to come, as it were, to hear Buddba preach, and 
then, the congregation having knowledge of the fact of her , 
presence^ they (the kti'dics) took her and secretly killed 
her and buried her body beside a tree, and then, pretend- 
ing to be affected with resentment, they acquainted the 
king (imik the /act of the toomarCs death). The king ordered 
search to be made, and the body was found in the J^ta- 
vana. Then the heretics with a loud voice said, "This 
great ^ramana Gautama^ is ever preaching about moiul 
duty and about patience {fm-hmranct), but now having 
had secret correspondence with this woman, be has killed 
her so as to stop her mouth ; but now, in the presence of 
adultery and murder, what room is there for morality and 
continence ? '* The DSvaa then in the sky joined together 
their voices and chanted, " This is a slander of the infamous 

To the east of the aaiighdrdma lOO paces or so is a 
large and deep ditch; thb is where Devadatta^^^ having 
plotted to kill Buddha with some poisonous medicine, fell 
down into helh Devadatta was the son of Dr6nddana-r4j a 
(Ho-wang). Having applied himself for twelve years with 
earnestness, he was able to recite 80,000 (verses) from iJie 
treasury of the law. Afterwards, prompted by covetous- 
ness,he wislied to acquire the divine (mipertiaturaljhcxiltiQs. 
Associating himself with evil companions, they consulted 
together, and he spake thus : " I possess thirty marks 
{0/ a Buddha}^ not much less than Buddha himself; a gr^at 

^ DeTiLinAnuBiUipiijitaiD, 

^ Thia is Bud dim b gfitriv naine, 
t&lceD from the iiatne prtibably of 
the Pur6hitii of the :^kya«H It h 
us&l in Northern booki i&s a tenu at 

^ btivftdatu {Ti-po-ta-to) the 
cottiitt of BuddhAj lieing the ftf>!i of 
IMwiidatittj Buddha*B imcle. He in 

ideo said to be hi» br(»ther-iii-ljiw« 
being brother to Ya^dhata^ Bud- 
dha's H^iftf* He wjw tempted to a tin 
At the Bnjt phw& in the Buddhiat 
coramuuity, atid whon he faibd m 
this he plotttd to take the life of 
Baddt»A> (Stje Oldtitlbcrig, Buddfta^ 
p, 160,^ 


coinpauy of followers surround me ; in what respect do I 
differ from Tathigata ? " Having tliought thus, lie forth- 
with tried to put a stumbliDg-block in the iv^ay of the 
disciples, but S^lnputra and Mndgalaputra, obedient to 
Buddha's behest, and endowed with the spiritual power of 
Buddha himself, preached the law exhorting the disciples 
to re-union. Then Dfivadatta, not giviiig up his evil 
designs, wickedly placed some poison under Ins nails, 
designing to kOl Buddha when he was paying him homage. 
For the purpose of executing this design he came from a 
long distance to tliis spot^ but the earth opening, he went 
down alive into helL 

To the south of this again there is a great ditch, where 
Kukalt ^ the Bhikslnmi slandered Tathfigata, and went 
down alive into hell, 

To the south of the Kukai! ditch about Soo paces is 
a large and deep diteh. Chanlcha,^ the dau^^hter of 
a Bmhmfiij, calumniated Talhltgata, and here went down 
alive into hell. Buddha was preaching, for the sake of 
DSvas and men, the excellent doctrines of the law, when 
a female follower of the heretics, seeing from nfar the 
Lord of the World surrounded by a great con^Teg^tion 
who venerated and reverenced him, thought thu^i with 
herself, "I will this very day destroy the good name of 
this Gautama, in order that my teacher may alone enjoy 
a wide lepmation/' Then tying a piece of wood next 
her person, she went to the garden of An^thapindada, 
and in the midsi of the great congregation she cried with 
a loud voice and said, '*This preacher of yours has had 
private intercourse with me, and I bear his child in my 
womb, the oft'spring of the 6ikya tribe/' Tlie hei-etics 
all believed it, but the prudent knew it was a slander. 
At this time, ^akra, the king of D§vas, wishing to dis- 
sipate all doubt about the matter, took the form of a 

*■ KukAll {Kiu-lda-li'pi't»u) akc> ^ For the hi#tory of thU wouian, 

called KdkiH, intiirpretcd " bad called Chincht (Chnn-ehi?] or Cbtn- 

lime." She k bIbo CftUed 0^p4lt ; chiouiTxA, »Ke Hiirdy, Manual nf Bud- 

ihe wna m fdlQW<;r of UuvadtttUu ACswi, p. 275 ; ikbo F»-b)aii, ch&p^ xx* 



white rat, and nibbled through the bandage that fastened 
the (woodtn) pillow to her person. Having done so, it 
fell down to the grouml ^ith a great noise, which startled 
the assembly. Then the people, witnessing this event, 
were filled with increased joy; and one in the crowd 
picking up the wooden bolster, held it up and sljowed 
it to the womnii, saying, " Is this your child, thou bad 
one?'* Tlien the earth opened of itself, and she went 
down whole into the lowest hell of Avtcht and received 
her due punishment. 

These three ditches^ are unfathomable in theij depth; 
when the floods of summer and autumn fill all the lakes 
and ponds with water, these deep caverns show no signs 
of the water standing in tlienu 

East of the miighArdma 60 or 70 paces is a viJidra 
about 60 ft^et high* There is in it a figure of Buddha 
looking to the east in a sitting posture. When Tathft- 
gata was in the world in ohl days, he discussed here with 
the heretics. Farther east is a DSva temple of equal size 
with the vHidra. Wlieu the sun is rising, the Diva 
temple does not cast its shade on the viltdrat but when 
it is setting, the vihdra obscures the Deva temple. 

Three or four It to the east of the vihdra "which 
covers with its shadow" is a stilpa. This is where 
Mriputra diicus^ed with the heretics. When Sudatta 
first bought the garden of the Prince Jfita for the pur- 
pose of building a vihdra for Buddha, then SS-riputra 
accompanied the nohleman to iiispect aud assist the plan. 
On this occasion six masters of the heretics sought to 
deprive hini of his spiritnal power, ^ariputra, as occasion 
offered, brou^^ht them to reason and subdued them. There 
is a riJidra by the side, in front of which is built a siHpa; 
this is where Tathftgata defeated the heretics an^l acceded 
to the request of Yi^ilkha.*^ 

** TheKe gnlfB or ciitcbeH h&vfs 
nU been identified by Cuuningbaiu. 
Bee AftL Survfff, vol. i, p, 342, 

^ Thilt U, accepted her offer to 

bnUd a vihdra, Vt>)t the hi story 
tif ViAAkha, see Hardy, Man, q/ 
Bu4h.j p, 220 (»e(|« 

POOK Tfl.] 


On the south of the ddpa erectad on the spot ^vhere 
Buddha acceded to Viiiiklia's request is the pkce where 
Viriidlhaka-raja,^*' having raised an amiy to destroy 
the family of the ^dkyas, on seeing Buddha dispersed 
his soldiers. After King Virfldhaka hafl succeeded to 
the throne, stirred up to hatred by his former disgrace, 
he equipped an army and moved forward with a great 
force. The summer lieat being ended and everything 
arranged^ he commanded an advance. Afc this time a 
Bhikshu, liaving Ijeard of it^ told Buddha; on this the 
Lord of the World was sitting beneath a withered tree ; 
Virfidhaka-raja» seeing liim thus seated, some way off 
alighted from iiis chariot and paid him reverence, then 
as he stood up he said, ''There are plenty of green and 
umbrageous trees ; wliy do you not sit beneath one of 
ihese. instead of under this withered one with dried 

[ leaves, where you walk and sit?" The Lord said /'My 
honourable tribe is like branches and leaves; these being 
about to perish, %vhat shade can there be for one be- 
longing to it ? " The king said, " The Lord of the World 
by his honourable regard for his family is able to turn my 
chariot,*' Then looking at him with emotion, he disbanded 
his army and returned to his country, 

By tiie aide of this place is a sl4>pa; this is the spot 
where the Sakya maidens were slaughtered, Viriidhaka- 

[itja having destroyed the Slkyas, in celebration of hia 
victory, took 5C0 of the Silky a maidens for his harem. 
The girlSi filled with hatred and rage, said they would 
never obey the king, and reviled the king and his house- 
hold. The king, hearing of it, was filled with rage, and 
ordered them all to he slaughtered. Then the officers, 
obedient to the king's orders, cut off their hands and 
feet, and cast them into a ditch. Then all the Sikya 
maidens, nursing their grief, invoked Bnddlia. The Lord 

** Virftdhnkii was the Bon of of tht*tii, and they deceived him. S<i« 
Prftsenajit by ^ iervjmt-wnuiaii *if Ogfm. 
tha HStk^tu. He h»d wked » wif« 



by Hs sacred power of insijht having beheld their pain 
and agony, bade a Ehikshu take his garment and go to 
preiich the most profound doctrine to the ^3.kya girls, 
viz., on the bontls of the five desires, the mi^pry of trans- 
migration in tlie evil ways, the pain of separation be- 
tween loved ooes, and the long period {distance) ut birth 
and death. Then the S&kya maidens, liaving heard the 
instructions of Buddha, put away the defilement of sense, 
removed all polhuiona, and obtained the purity of the 
eyes of tht3 lawj then they died and were all born in 
heaven. Then Sakra, king of DSvas, taking the fr>rm of a 
Brdbman, collected their bones and burnt them. Men of 
snuceediijg years have kept tins record. 

By tlje side of the si4pa commemorating the slaughter 
of the !§akya3j and not far from it, is a great lake which 
has dried np. This is where Virii^haka-rija went down 
bodily into hell The world-honoured one having seen 
tl^e ^akya maidens, %vent back to the JStavana, and there 
told the Bhik^lius, ''Now is King VirMhnka's end come; 
after seven days' interval a fire will come forth to burn up 
the king" The kiug hearing the prediction, was very 
frightened and alarmed* On the seventh day he was 
rejoiced that no harm had come, and in order to gratify 
himself he ordered the women of his palace to go to tlie 
hike, and there he sported with them on its shores, stroll- 
ing here and there with music and drinking. Still, haw- 
ever, he feared lest fire sliould burst out. Suddenly, 
whilst he was on the pure waters of the lake, the wares 
divided, and flames burst forth and consumed the little ^ 
boat in which he was, and the king himself went down 
bodily into the lowest hell, there to suffer torments. 

To the north-west of tlie mn^hdrdma 3 or 4 li, we eome 
to the forest of Obtaining^Si//ht (AptanStravana ?) where 
are vestiges of Tatli^gata, who walked here for exercise, 
and the place where various lioly persons have engaged 
in profound meditation. Jn all these places they liave 
erected posts with inscriptions or else aldjpas. 

5tt VI.] 


I '3 

formerly there was in this country a baud of 500 
robbers, wlio roamed about through the tow us and villa^fes 
and pillaged the border of the country. Prase uajita-r^ja 
having seized them all, caused their eyes to be put out 
and abandoned them in the midst of a dark forest The 
robbers, racked with pain, sought compassion as they 
invoked Buddha. At this time TaLhagata was in the 
vikdra of the J^tavana, and hearing their piteous crie^i 
(t.e„ Jy hw ^iriiual powcr)^ he was moved to compassion, 
and caused a soft wind to blow gently from the Snowy 
Mountains, and bring with it some medicinal (leaves f) 
which filled up the cavity of their eye-sockets. They 
immediately recovered their sight, and lo ! the Lord of t!ie 
World wag standing before them. Arriving at tlie heart 
of wisdom, they rejoiced and worshipped. Fixing their 
walking-staves in the ground, they departed. This was 
how they took root and grew. 

To the north-west of the capital 16 li or so, there is an 
old town* In the Bhadra-kalpa when men lived to 
20,CXX> yeai3, this was the town in which K4syapa 
BuddJia was born* To the south of the town there is a 
Mpa, This is the place where he fii^gt met his father 
after arriving at enlightenment. 

To the north of the town is a dvipa, wldch contains 
relics of the entire body ^ of Kaiyapa Buddha. Both 
these were bnUt by AS6ka-r^a. Prom this point going 
Ifiouth-^east 500 li or so, we come to the country of E ie-pi- 
rlo^fa-sae-ti (Kapilavastu). 


This country*^ is about 4000 ii in circuit. There arc 

^ The eipTCBsion n«ed here Hei 

tht-'AAtne a» tjjat oroplofed bj Fa- 

hian when spt^i^klng of the great 

tKilii'yupa (chap, xxxiiS.), whose 

i^eniire body" is preserved in the 

[*i-{QQt Mountam n€&r Buddhft 

^ Thtit i« the country of Buddhn'si 
birth. The nUity of bin ancestors' 
occupation of thia djntrict ^rUl be 
fotind in Sp. Hardy, Mun, of Btt^h,, 
chap. vi,j and elsewhere. Spfvakitig 
generaUj, the Quuniry of Kivpila- 
VAstu m the tract of Wid lyiDg b^- 



some ten desert^ cities in this country, wholly desolate 
and ruined The capital is overthrown and in mins. Its 
circuit cannotbe accurately measured, Tlie royal precincts^ 
within the city measure some 14 or 15 li round. They 
%vere all built of brick. The foundation walls are still 
strong and high. It lio.^ been long deserted. The peopled 
villages 3^ are few and waste. 

There is no supreme ruler; each of the towns appoints 
its own ruler. The ground is rich and fertile, and is 
cultivated according to the regular season. The cliniiite 
is uniform, the manners of the people soft and oblig- 
ing. There are 1000 or more ruined mn^hdrdmm re- 
maining; by the side of the royal precincts there is 
still a miigdkrdnia with about 3000 {read 30) followers 
in it, who study the Little Vehicle of the Baihinatiya 

There are a couple of Deva temples, in which various 
sectaries worship {live). Within the royal precincts are 
some ruined foundation walls; these are the remains of 
the propL*r *^ palace of S n d d h 6 d a n a - rd j a ; above is built 
a vihdra in which is a statue of the king. Not far from 
this is a ruined fouudatiou, which represents the sleeping 

iw€eu the GbAgrfi river and the 
Oand&kA, fmio JatzAb^ to the Cf>n- 
fluxniqu of %hem rivai^ T]i« direct 
nitifi«urt:meitt giveB & circuit oi 550 
mtle«j vrhicli would represetit tip- 
wards of 6qo milea hy rojid. Hiuen 
Tii&ng ^fllimatai thx^ circuit aX 4000 
li The capital of the conn try* called 
bjthesamu iiAnie,ha^ been identified 
by Mr. Gtirllejle, with a siite called 
Ehiiila. in th^ north 'Weatern part of 
the BiLstl dLs.trlett jvbciut 25 miles 
north eo-^t from Fat^^YhM. It is 
plain that if thiii i^ b<% thii dJ^taBC'e 
from SrdvuMti given by Hiuen TsitMig 
k mudi tti eXDeHtf oi ihn actual diii- 
tutice. See AicK &urici/ of JndUtf 
voL xii. p. 83. 

* Tha expti-^sdions used In th'* 
l^xt are very miLrked ; the pilgrim 
04^4 "desert cities ten iu |jnmb«r 

Are waste and desolate tc> the highest 

^ Here we ha v^ again theexpr^a* 
sion I'un^ »hin^ to denote the forti- 
fled part of the town^ within which 
was the palace and itii MUTiHLijilhjgH. 
Thi« k in agreement with Mr. Carl- 
leyle*a remark in ArchtffAfjff. *Sur^ 
tif i^diu^ vul. xiU p. [44, 

^^ Oti the inhabited suburbs or 

** It may ba either " the proper," 
f e», private, or **the principal *^ palace 
( ch in^). From Mr, CarU ey i e '^ remarks 
we mxf perhaps oooclude that this 
palace was situated in the southern 
|mrtion of the encl<^sed precinct. The 
vihdra had evidently be^n built after 
the palace woB in rains. The statue 
nf the king EseetnA to have been there 
in Hint li Tsiang*s time. 


palace of Mabamayli,^ the queen. Above tliia tlit^ 
have erected a rihdra in which h a figure of the queen. 

By the side of this ia a viMra;^ this is where Bftdhisattva 
deacetided spiritually into the womb of his mother, There 
is a representation of this scene *^ drawn in the wMra. 
The Mahftsthavira school say that B&dhisattva was con- 
ceived on the 30th night of tlie month U4a-lo-an-^ia-cha 
(UttarS^shadba). This is the 15th day of the Sth rnonih 
{milk us). The other schools fix the event on tlie 23d day 
of the same month. This would be the Sth day of tlie 
5ih month {with us). 

To the north-east of the palace of the spiritual concep- 
tion is a stUpa ;'this is the place where Aaita tlie Rtshi 
prognosticated the fortune (took ike horoscopf^ ormjnsof) 
the royal prince.^ On the day when the Bodhisattva was 
born there was a gathering {a mccesdon) of lucky indica- 
tioos. Then §ucldh6dana-r4ja summoned all the sootli- 
sayer.s ^iid addressing them i*aid, " Witli respect to tliis 
child, what are the fortunate and what the evil {signs) i 
it is right, so do you clearly answer me." In ivply 
they said, *' Accord! n^^ to the fecord of the former saints 
the signs are especially fortunate. If he remains in 

Bcular life be will be a Chakravartin monarch ; if he leaves 

m home he will become a Buddlia,"*^ 

which he tbitike> repr^jicntii tbii "^^Ix::;!!* 
chmmlxr/* If we may judige from 
the n'itv of the builtliuff (71 f**et 
ftt|i}ar«^it would reiprf?fteT)t the palaoe 
tjf the king and the cbninlver of the 
i|U«4^n. The fact oC itiit beiiif{ btiHb 
of " verj large andent brickj* " cer- 
ifttnlj lavouTft the identification of 
the pUcL' with tbe innpr tritj de* 
pcribtid by Hiuen Tj$ian|T. 

^ Mr* Gjirlleyle plact^M %hln fifidrQ 
jfclKjutSO feet W.N.W. fr*^ni the bed- 
cdnmb^r rtnti»t the ti^juj of Afiitu 
Irtiing fiituttted to tbc north '«ii«t of 

*^ Tbi* repfr-pciitative scene la one 
of the beKt known Df thi? EnddhJr^t 
TCiiJpturci, ike Trtt mid Serpent 

liut^ pL xxvuj. ; LiiiUa luiarm Fou* 
cauji)f pi V, 

^ The boroi*cc*pe caat by Atita tbti 
MiX>thaaycr 19 another well -known 
mcident in tbe Buddhist legend 
fa-^f}-hiny-taan-tifi^ji tv> jo ff. For 
An iKittfreating repre»entifctJ*in *tf ft 
flee Mrs. Speirs" Life inAndciii ffuliti, 
p. 248, ul«o liurgertKj Care Tempirtt 
{A}t,r\\A),p. 30S, Tbe#(y/«iof Aiiti* 
U supposed by Mr. Carlleylc te bu 
tbe Bolid l>iick structure bo foutid 
ubout 4rio feet N.N.K, ^N. frfiiii 
the bed -chamber of MAyA* Thi* 
may be iio * but tbe here^c^ipu 
vcaji actufttJy cast within tbe p*- 

^ Arriveat uodipkie, et|Ual, perftct. 



At this time the Rtdn A sit a, coming from afar, stood 
befure the door,^ ami requested to see the king. The 
king, overjoyed, went forth to meet and reverence him, 
and requested hira to he seated on a precioMS chair; then 
addressing him he said, *'It is not without an object that 
the Great Rlshi has condescended to visit me this day." 
The Rlshi said, " I was quietly restin^r (pr, observing tlie 
summer rest) in the palace of tiie DSvas, when I sud- 
denly saw the multitude of the Devas dancing together 
for joy.^ I forthwith asked why they rejoiced in this 
extravagant way, on which they said, 'Great Rlshi^ yon 
should know that to-day is born in Jarahiidvlpa, of M^yS, 
the first queen of 6uddh6dana-rS,ja of the Mkya line, a 
royal son, who shall attain the complete enlightenment 
of mmhSdhi, and heeouie all-wise/ *^ Hearing this. I 
have come accordingly to behold the child ; alas I tliat my 
age should prevent me awaiting the holy fruit*' *^ 

At tlie soutli gate of the city is a shlpa. This is 
where the royal prince, when contending with the 6akya 
princes, cast the elephant away."*^ The royal prince 
having contended in the public competition (of arts and 
afJddie €3:irci$4*s)j was left entirely alone (wiiJimit c&mp€€r) 
among them all, (or, in every exercise). And now the 

\vt»doTn. ** To leave hia hotnA '* 
raeftna, if he becomes n hermit or 
aacfttte. ThtJ iigis« on the child's 
body ate alluded t^* in ver. 45 of the 
Buddha ffui HUi { Fv - iho - kifuj ~ tian* 
kintj\ and the €xik;t words of tho 
preiiictiou in tiifae foUowin^ ven«, 

*■ From tbi» it in pli^iu that the 
site fin wbich the H^pa wu kfter- 
WAFfk buUt wmA originmlly Ji ptirt of 
tliv pulaoe, 

^ Bh^^ mo tilth £9, moving their 
llAndb And f^^^t. Buch a scene 
among^ tlie D^v^ wiU be found in 
Trt€ and Sffpent Wortkip. pL Ixxiit 

^ Julien i^mftiks in a note tbA-t 
th]» phrfMne ^^ fmt thi (giunhud- 
dh^ksii) corresponds to the najne 
gi\au to the priooe, vu,f Sftrv^ 

rthiiaiddhft^ bub this signifieji *'po«- 
He»ied of every exeeUency ** (yt'A Ual 
yau i)* 

^^ That h, ettbep aeeSng- him 
arrived At the holy fniit of m 
Ijuddhba, or mj^olf arriving at 
the holy fruit of &n Ajrhut by hii 
teach mg, 

*2 The Bfwjt should be just iiuiidA 
the Boutherti gate of the cityi not 
uecesumly the royal city or the 
palaod precinctfi, hut the entir« 
city. The uttny as it is generally 
ri!<teivod is that the elephant when 
it fell block eil the gate eia trance, 
aud that Naiida pulled it oflf the 
road and left It on one «ide. The 
jirince then flun^ the elephant acrtisi 
the moftt. It must, therefore, h*ve 
been within the moat* 

' Book ti.] 



Jfaliarfija Suddhodana, after receiving congratulationa 
(&r, congmtulating him), was about to go back to the 

At this time the coachman was leading out the elephant 
and jnst about to leave the city, DSvadatta, confident as 
ever in his bnite strength, was just entering the gate from 
without ; forthwith he asked the coachman, " Who ia going 
to ride on this gaily caparisoned elephant?** He said, 
*'The royal prince is just about to return, therefore I am 
going to meet him." D^vadatta, in an excited manner, 
pulled the elephant down, and struck liis forehead and 
kicked his heily, and left him lying senseless, blocking 
the ^ay so that no one could pass. As they could not 
move him out of the way, the passers-hy were stopped 
on their route, Nanda coming afterwards, asked, "Who 
hag killL'd the elephant?'* They said, "It was D§va- 
datta." Furthwitli he {Nanda^ drew it on one side of the 
[>ai The prince-royal then coming, again asked, " Who 
lad done the foul deed of killing the elephant?" They 
replied, "Dovadatta killed it and blocked up the gate 
with it, and Nanda drew it on one side to clear ilie road/* 
The royal prince then lifted the elephant on high and 
threw it across the city moatj the elephant falling on 
the gi^ound caused a deep and wide ditch ; the people 
since then have commoidy called it '* the fall en- elephant 

By tlie aide of this is a riJidra in which is a figure of 
the royal prince. By the side of this again is a viltdra; 
this was tlm sleeping apartment of the queen and the 

"ice; in it is a likeness of Ya^odharft and (the chik!) 

" Jtjlien makes thia return refer 
to the prinoe* B'lt then* U no 
mention mjidfi of btm, biit of the 

*^TJmt ti, th0 *^HfcBtl||Artft.^' 
Thore jA fk dreiiUr tftnk abaijt 340 
feel U* the Bouth of the ditch of Bhtiiliv 
which U fttil] callcKl the "Hiihi 
Kimd'*<*r **HAthi (jatlbe/' General 
CunninghAm i» pt^rfeGl]^ couvlnoed 
VOL 11. 

that this Ib the spot indicaterl m the 
text {Ardi. Sun^, vol, xU Introd.) 
Butj of conrwe^ the whole matter ii* 
legendary. The tihdnu by the mde 
of thirt ditch, and »^id to W bull I on 
the fiite of tht^ pal&ee of the prmoe 
iitid hi» iiiviftiT would indicate tl^at hlft 
pulaee wm outiiidc the walU ; how, 
th^^n. are we t^i explain thf) «tory of 
hh Hight from th^ pAhbaa ^ 


E&liula, By the side of the queen's dmmljer is a vihdr 
with a figure of a pupil receiving his lessons ; this i 
cates the old {Qundation of tlie school-bouse of the royal 

At the Kouth-east angle of the city is a "tn^idra in which 
is the figure of the royal prince riding a white and higli- 
praucing horse;** this was the place where Ite left the city. 
Outride each of the four gates of the city there is a 
vikdt'd in which there are respectively figures of an oKl 
man, a diseased man, a dead man, and a !§ranian/* It was 
iu these placi^s the royal prince, on going liis rounds, 
beheld the various indications, on which he received an 
increase of {rdigiQus) feeling, and deeper disgust at the 
world and its pleasures; and, filled with this conviction, 
he ordered hia coachman to return and go home again. 

To the south of the city going 50 li or so, we come 
to an old town where tliere is a stUpa. Tliis is tlie place 
where Krakuchchhanda Buddha was born, during the 
Bhailra-kalpa when men lived to 6c,ooo years.*^ 

To the south of the city, not far, there is a si'Apa; 
this is the place wliere, having arrived at complete en- 
Hghtenmeut, he met his father. 

To t!ie south-east of the city is a atilpa where are that 
Tath&^^ata's relics (of Im bequeathed hody) ; before it is 
erected a stone pillar about 30 feet high, on the top of 
which is curved a lion.** By its side {or, on its side) is a 

« Julien givpi* "» wliiU' uk-pbant." 
** Thftt i«, tUe ughX* w})ieh met 
tb*:' I«inee'i g»»e wlwii he left th« 
dty oil hi» HXCOfiion, Tbemi pre- 
dittive nigiM are wdl known. They 
nr« founa alio i» th« Hidtory of 
Ikrlaaiu Jtiid Jowtapb (nodhi!ll^t^ to 
wblcb 1 called at U tit ion iu th"' ^t^ar 
1S69. Biiifdhki Pihfrinti, p. SiO, n. 
Mr CarUeyltf iK-tkeR four inouiida 
outsido the ciUdel of BhuiU corns- 
fipnding ^Itb the sites of theao 

rihdra4. 1 i: * 

*T KrakucbchbanJa, wils the tir&t 

of the eve BiTddhiw of ibe Bbftdm^ 

kfilpa. The fabkd birthpliM;« of 

this Buddba miuii be sought about a 
ydjitna iS mUe4») to the south -west of 
KapilaviLgtu^ iind i^nt, aa Mr. Car- 
Ueyle indicatttH, at K^gra, 7^ RiHea 
to the north -Wist of th&t pliM^e. 
FfL-hian visited thia pUoe after 
leaving SrAvastT, then weikt north 
about 8 niUea, thi?n east S ml lea to 
KAplUv»fltiL hid. AnLt voL xL 
jj, 293. 

^ Mr, CarUeyl©! when at Nagrn, 
thought he had disco vi^red the 
pf^dt^Mtjikl oti which this pillar stin>d | 
the pillar was gone, and the UiiUvea 
denied sXl knowi«;dge of it or ita 
hi*tc»ry. Their igiiurance is out to 



record relatinir tlie circumstaaces of bis Nln^dna, It was 
erected bj Aioka-rftja, 

To tlie north-east of tlie town of KrakuchclilmTida 
Emidba, going about 30 li, we come to an old capital 
{o}\ great city) in \v]jicli there is a sHipa. This is to 
comraeniorate the spot where, in the Bhadra*knlpa when 
men lived to the age of 40,000 years^ Kanakamuni 
Buddha was born,*^ 

To the north-east of the dty, not far, is a stdpn; 
it was here, having arrived at complete enlightenment, 
he met his father. 

Farther nortli there is a sM^^a containing the relics of 
his heqiieuthed body ; in front ot it is a stone pillar with 
a lion on the tof>, and about 20 feet high; on this is 
inscribed a record of the events connected with his Nir- 
vdm ; this was built by A^fika-raja. 

To the north-ea^t of the city about 40 li is a sMpa, 
This is the apot where the prince sat in the shade of a 
tree to watch the ploughing festivah Here he engaged 
in profonnd mediiation and rtiached the condition of 
''absence of desire/' ^ The king seeing the prince in the 
shade of tlie tree and engrossed in quiet contemplation » 
ad observing that whilst the suu*s rays shed tht^ir bright 
light around him, yet the shadow of the tree did not move, 

be irondored ftt, OoiiBidi?ri«|r thtry 
Itved 16 Of iS jmlts fi-om Ihe aite 
immt'd by Hltif n Taiaiig. 

* K 14X1 ilk Aiii unit a mjtholagical 
person, tb« Hecond of the fiv*i 
Budtihus of the IShndra-kalpa. HU 
birthplace la identified by Mr, 
Carllryle with a village called 
Kjiriakpur, »bout a ^Cjaim to the 
wvmt of Kapil»vjwtu. An thin dlii' 
Umae iwd be&mg ftgr^e with Fa- 
hiau A ttcc^ttitil, and n&&rly eo with 
thai of Hiueti TtUtigt it may be 

** Thia incident is recorded iu 
aU the lives of BnddhA. fsee Fo- 
ik/^-king'tgan-l-iTt^, vv. 330 E The 

figure (if the prince lost in jheh]!- 
tation under tho Jambu tree wilt 
be found in Tree find Sirt^pcjit Wor- 
ship, pL XX V. fig. I f where thr^ 
leavea or flowers of the tret) Mts 
bent down to cover the ynunj^ 
prfnce, from the top of wh"Be hea^l 
the light of profouud meditation 
proceed^j, whilst the fi^rc*. ^oareh- 
ing throughout the garden, and 
looking in at the thtt^e jialaoea pf 
the piince^ denote the perplexity 
of hia attendants and father, ob to 
his whereabouts. Seo the particu- 
Utb in the Eomaniic Ltgend of 


his heart, recogtiisinj the spiritual chamctei- of the priace, 
^^■aa deeply revereiitp 

To ihe north-west of tlie capital there ane several 
huiidretJa aud thousands of siilpas, indicating the spot 
where the members of the ^ikya tribe were slaughtereJ. 
VirCldhaka-r4ja having subdued the ^ikyas, and cap* 
tured the members of their tiibe to the number of 9990 
myriads of people, then ordered them to he slaughtered,** 
They piled their bodies like straw, and their blood wa,* 
collected in lakes. The Dfivas moved the hearts of men to 
collect tlieir bones and bury them. 

To the south-west of the place of massacre are four 
little §Mpas, This is the place where ihe four S^kyas 
withstood an army. When first Pras^najita became 
king, be aouj^lit an alliance by marriage witli tlie iSakya 
race. Tlie ^kyas despised him as not of their family^ 
and so deceived him by j^nving him m a wife a child 
of a servant, whom they largely endowed, Prasenajita* 
rfija established her as bis prineipal queen, aud she' 
brought forth in due time a son, who was called Viril4- 
Jiaka-T^ja. And now Virfi(;lhaka was desirous to go to 
the family of his maternal uncles to pursue his studies 
under their direction. Having corae to the south part of 
the city, he there saw a new preaching-hall, and there 
he stopped his chariot The Sakyas hearing of it* 
furthwith drove him away, saying, " How dare yoti, base- 
bom fellow! occupy this abode, au abode built by tho 
SSkyas^ in appearance {or, intended for) au abode of 

After Virfl4haka had succeeded to the throne he longer! 
to revenge his former insult ; he therefore raised an army , 

*i The etiaift}^ of Virfldhaka (Pi- 
lu^Ue-km) w$» owing to Uie iiitmlt 
the Silky jwi hail pnid hia fnthfr in 
wtd{Uii|^ him to a «lAVe, and Milan to 
the epithet **bam born ** they ap- 

ijlimJ tn him (sec anU^ vol. i, p, J 2h). 
I in Fi^thtir, FrutftiniijitA, wiui not a 
kiiuMXiaii of the iSiikvivif] its. Mr. 

CarU^yle statea, p, 173)^ but ™ 
alieti. The |K»sitinii thu tiAkyi 
held Its ** a hrily fiitiuly '* in a p^H^a- 
linrity imt yt;t lluprn^iglily under- 
Htood. The sjtt^ of the ajuughtt^r haa 
bfeii iiliTitiiicd witli i% ptnct' called 
Bbflt^ or BofihiV nbvut K mika to 
the mjith-wts-t uf yhuilifc 



anil occupied tliis plnce %vith liis troo| 9, who took posses- 
sion of tiie fields. Four men of the ^kkym who were 
eiigage*! in ploughing between tlie watercourses*^ im- 
mediately opposed tbt^ progress of the soldiers, auj having 
scattered them, entei'ed the town. Their clansmen, coti- 
sideriag that their tribe was one in which there bad been 
a long succession of universal nionarchs, and that the 
honourable children of sucli rightt^ous kings ^ had dared 
to act cruelly and impetuously, and without patience to 

^kill and slay, and ao had brought dissgrace on their 
family, drove tjiem away from their home. 

The four men, having been banished, went to the north 
among the Snowy 3iIountaius ; ona became king of the 
country of Earn y an, one of TJdyana, one of Hi mat al a, 
one of Sambi (Kau^imbi?). Thoy have transmitted their 
kingly authority from generation to generation without 
any interruption.** 

To tlie south of the city 3 or 4 li ia a grove of Nyagrddha 
trees in which is a Mpa built by A^6ka-raja, This is 
the place where Sakya Tathai^aia, having returned to his 
3untry after his enlightenment, met his father and 

''preached the law.*"^ Suddh&dana - rija, knowing that 
Tathigata had defeated Mara and was engaged in travelling 
about, leading people to the truth and converting them, 
was ino%'ed hy a strong desire to see him, and considered 
how he could pay him the reverence due to him. He 
llierefore sent a messenger to inviti* Tathilgata, saying, 
' Formerly you promised, wheu you had completed your 

Ipurpose to become a Buddha, to return to your native 
place. These are your words still unperformed ; now then 

^^ Biin fifkin^ the rilb dividing 

" Thia is a difEcult poe^g^, acid 

the tmnolatioii doubtful^ but it is 

■ft obftcure thn.n that m the FreDch. 

I'SIm Idea id that ^ukya children^ de- 

* woeiDd&d ftom bolj kmgSt ought not to 

li*v« resiisted e?en aa mvadtfr. 

** !nii« Atonf of the bAnkhment 

of the b^yft youths i§ met with in 
th^ Southern feoords {Mafi4iathJa\, 
See Mftx MiiUer, Hut. Ane. Sanjik. 
Li*.. |>. 2S5. The story of the king 
of UdyiLnxi and the Nitga girl oc<3ui-« 
above. Book iii^ vol. i. p, J 29. 
^ Jor this part of Buddha** 


is ihe time for you to condescend to visit ine." The 
messenger liaving come to the place where Buddha was, 
expressed to him the king's desire (mind). Tath&gata in 
reply said, " After seven days I will return to my native 
place." The messenger returning, acquainted the king 
with the news, on which J5uddh6dana-raja ordered liis 
subjects to prepare the way by watering and sweeping it^ 
and to adorn tlie road with incense and flowers ; and then, 
accompanied by his officers of state, he proceeded 40 li 
beyond the city, and there drew up his chariot to await 
his arrival. Then Tatliugata with a great multitude 
advanced; the eight Vajrapanis surrounded him as an 
escurt, the four heavenly kings went before him ; divine 
^akra, with a multitude of Devas belonging to the world 
of desires (Kinia-loka), took their place on the left hand ; 
Brahm&-rSja with Devas of Eflpa-loka accompanied him ou 
the right. The Bhikshu priests walked in order behind, 
Buddha by himself, as the full moon among the stars, 
stood in the midst ; his supreme spiritual presence shook 
the tliree worlds, the brightness of his person exceeded 
that of the seven lights ; ^ and thus traversing the air he 
approached his native country .^^ The king and ministers 
having reverenced him, again returned to the kingdom, 
and they Jocated themselves in this Nyagrodha grove. 

By the side of the sanf/hdrdma, and not far from it, is a 
Mpa; this is the spot wliere Taiha<,'ata sat beneath a great 
tree witli his face to the east and received from liis aunt a 
golden-tissued hashdya garment.^ A little farther on is 
another st'Apa ; this is the place where Tathiigata converted 
eight king's sons and 500 Sakyas. 

Wjthin the eastern gate of the city, on the left of the 
road, is a shtpa; this is where the Prince Siddartha prac- 
tised (athletic sports and competitive) arts. 

* Sun, moon, and five planets. be kept by the great Kiisyapa in the 

^ The exaggeration found in the Cock's-foot Mountain for MaitrSyo. 

visit of Buddha to hia native country Buddha's aunt was Mahftprajftpati, 

is comnion to all the records. who was at the head of the female 

^ This is the garment supposed to disciples. 

BOOK vl] the ARRO W^ well . 23 

Outside the gate k the temple of t^vara-dfiva. In the 
temple is a figure of the Dgva made of stone, which has 
the appearance of rising in a bent position,^ This is 
the temple which the royal prince when an infant (in 
mmddling tUthe&) entered. King E^uddhSdana wa^ re- 
turning from the Lumbinl (La v an I— La-fa -ni) gatxlen,®* 
after having gone to meet the prince. Passing by tbia 
temple the king said, "This temple is noted for iU many 
spiritual exhibitions {miracles). The 6ikya children ** who 
here seek divine protection always obtain what they ask* 
we mu3t take the royal prince to this place and offer up 
our worship." At tins time the nurse (fo»ter^iolher), carry- 
ing the chikl in her arma^ entered the temple ; theu the 
stone image raised itself and saluted the prince. When 
the prince left, the imago again seated itself 

Outside the south gate of the city, on the left of the 
road, is a ddpa ; it was here the royal prince contended 
with the ^flkyas in athletic sports {arts) and pierced with 
his arrows the iron targets.** 

From this 30 li south-east is a small d'&pii^ Here 
there is a fnuntain, the waters of which are as clear as a 
mirror. Here it was, during the athletic contest, tliat the 

" This h, Aa It seeros, the meaning 
of the paAsctge^ KterfUly, ^'the appear- 
ance oE mmgf bendkgly," i.e.^ rialnj^ 
and betiding-. Thim rendtHng, -which 
differs ao widely fmtn Jiiliea'^; Is 
cou^nit^ by the i^cetiti: found in Trtt 
nnd JScrpcni Worship^ pi. 1x1%, (Mpper 
di*c). where the liirge figure " mi tig 
Vn-'JHiitigly ■* itt that of iHvnrn^ atid 
th^ rloth with the feet niArktd 011 it 
Tepr€f*ent« the infant Buddhjfi. Sud- 
d hud ana and IkfAjA (of PnjApatl) 
arr a]»n rt^presentetl, 

•" Thia garden wa« Bnddha*H 
blrthphu^e. Thu nunie LumbinL in 
fiiud to have been derived in-nn ihat 
0f the wi/e uf Suprabuddha ; hia 
daughter woa M&yiL, the mother of 
BuddhAk The ChiueBe equivalent 
in the text, La-^fa-ni, tnay }KiftALb}y 
be omnectcd with the ijanakrit id- 
ramtt isaliae : but r^ivoiril u a femi- 
nine pef^onal UAUiv. 

** In the plate referred to above, 
there are mme but women preeeni 
(except Suddhodannljasif they were 
praying for their children. 

^*'rhe account of the contest with 
the Sakya priiicea will be found in the 
Ji'omffntic Lffjtud of BaddJm. 8ee 
ftls'i Fft-hijwj, p, 86, n* 3* The j*pot 
ia identified by Mr. Carllej le ; Rt^ 
jtmi^ p. 1 S7. 

^ Fa- b inn places this sMpa at the 
Mune distance and in the "uime dir^O* 
tion. It ha.^! been identified with * 
H|Mit called Snr-kuii, a corruption 
of ^ara-kfipa (amiw weU), alxjut 4^ 
miles dnt jnouth of the former ftilpa 
{Arck, Surrey J voL xii. p> ibS). The 
bearing doei) not^ however^ corre- 
eporid with that given by th@ Chtneae 
pU^rimiL The utory of the arrow 
i^ given in the LuiUa Viitarai p. 


arrow of tlie pnnce, after penetrating tlie targets, fell and 
buried itself up to the feather in the ground, causing a 
clear spring of water to flow forth. Coinmou traditiou 
has called this the arrow foutUam {SaraJcupa) ; p&rsoiis 
^vho are sick by drinking the water of this spring are 
mostly restored to health ; and so people coming from a 
distance taking back wiUi them some ol the mud (.moist 
earth) of this place, and applying it to the part where they 
Buffer pain, mostly recover from tlieir ailmenta. 

To the north-east of the arrow i&ell about 80 or 90 li, 
vre come to the Lumbini (Lavani) garden. Here is the 
bathing tank of the Sukyas, the water of which is bright 
nnd clear as a mirror, and the surface covered with a 
mixture of flowers. 

To the north of tliis 24 or 25 paces there is an Aidka* 
Jioiver tree,^ which is now decayed ; tliis is the place 
where BMliisattva was born on the eighth day of the second 
lialf of the montli called Vai^tikha/ wliich corresopnds with 
us to the eighth day of the third montli. The school of 
the Sthlviras (Shang-tso-pu) say it was on the fifteenth 
day of the second half of the same niontli, correspondingg 
to the fifteenth day of the third month with us. East froc 
this is a stdpa built by A^ka-mja, on the Bpot where tlie 
two dragons bathed the body of the prince.*^ When 
Bfidhisattva was born, he walked without assistance in Lhe 
direction of the fo^ir quarters, seven paces in each direc- 
tion, and said, '* 1 am the only lord in heiiven and earth ; 
from this tinu* forth my births are finished," Where his 
feet had trod there sprang np great lottis flowers. Mor 
over, two dragons sprang fortli, and, fixed in the air, poured 
down the one a cold and the other a warm water streaml 
from his mouth, to wash the princa 

To the east of thi^ stdpa are iwo fountains of puraj 

it fihould be ■» frequenllv stAitsd 
tbat the ehQd wm» b^^m tinil^c a mtl 
true iCfcfUfryle, oji. «t, p. 30£X luid 

^ Fitr &U lh«^ «vent« th« 
nary lives i>f BuddbA nt^y be 
ml ted. I baire been unable tn fck 
Mr, GarUevte in hiA varion!i tdenti- 
Iktttiiitife i4 IJte s^ptild iLftiiitft! in the 

»0OK VL] 



water, by the side of which liave beeu built two slilpas. 
This 13 the place where two dragons appeared from the 
eartli. When BSdhisattva was born, the attendituts and 
household relations hiisteried in every direction to find 
water for the use of the child. At this time two *^prings 
gurgled forth from the earth just before the queeu, the 
one cold, the other warm, using which they bathud him. 

To the south of this is a siitjjo. This is the spot where 
^kra, the lord of Bfivas, received B6dhisattva in his arms* 
When Bfldhisattva was born, then Sakra, the king of 
Bevas, took him and wrapped Iiim in an exquisite and 
divine robe. 

Close to this there are four slAfas to denote the place 
where the four heavenly kings received Bi>dhisattva in 
their arms. When BikihiaatLva was born from the right 
side ot his mother^ the four kings wrapped him in a golden- 
coloured cotton vestment, and placing him on a golden 
slab {btnek) and bringing iiim to his motlier, they said^ 
*The queen may rejoice indeed at having given birth to 
such a fartutiato child!" If the Dfivas rejoiced at the 
event, how much more should men 1 

By the side of tiiese sl^pas and not far from them is a 
great stone pillar, on the top of \*'hich is the figure of a 
horse, which wjls built by Aioka-mja, Afterwards^ by the 
contrivance of a wicked dragon, it was broken otF in the 
middle and fell to the ground. By the side of it is a little 
river which flows to the south-east The people of the 
place call it tlie rivc7' of oil^ This is tlie stream which 
the Dfevas caused to appear as a pure and glistening pool 
for the queen, when she had brought forth her child, to 
wash ajid purify hers el i' in. Now it is changed and be- 
conje a river, the stream of which is still unctuous. 

From this going east 300 li or so, across a wild and 
deserted junglei we arrive at the kingdom of Lan-mo 

" It ia plam from ibb that "the where the child was bom, And fltjwed 
river cif oU^* wafi close to the Hpt»t tbmugh the g^arden. 



Lan-mo [RamagrAma], 

The kingdom of Lan-mo ^ has been waste and desolate 
for many years. There is no account of its extent The 
towns aie decayed and the inhabitants few. 

To the south-east of the old capital (tmt?n) there is a 
brick atdim^ in height less than lOO feet. Formerly^ 
after the Nirt:dim of Tathagata, a previous king of this 
country having got a share of the ^ariras of his body, 
returned home with them, and to lionour these relics 
he built (this sidpa). Miraculous signs are liere dis* 
played, and a divine light from time to time shines 

By the side of the sidpa is a clear lake {tank)* A 
dragon at certain periods*^ comes forth and walks here, 
and changing hia form and snake-like exterior, marclies 
round the stUpa, turning to the right xo pay it liononr. 
The wild ele|)hant3 come in herds, gatlier flowers^ and 
scatter them here* Impelled by a mysterious power, 
they have continued to offer this service from the iirst 
till now. In former days, when A^6ka-ra,ja, dividing the 
relics, built st4pas, Jiavi ug opened the st'dptts built by the 
kings of the seven countries, he proceeded to travel to this 
country, nnd put his hand to the work (viz., of openuiff 
thu st^pa) ;^ tlie dragon, npprehcnding the desecration of 
the place, clianged himself into the form of a Erahmarij 
and going in front, he bowed down before the elephant^ 

^ The ChtneBe equivalentB give 
ui eimply RAuin, but that ift the 
name of the country. BiUfi^Lgrilma 
would be the old CApital There 
cikn be no doubt as to the reatora- 
tjon ; the MaMwanh infers to ths 
reilD tower of KilmAgAmo (Tur* 
ntmr'E MahiUe.f pp. 184, iS^)^ which 
13 disBcribed bj Hiueii Ti^iang and 
P&-htan, The site biui rmt beeji 
itatitfftctorilj determined. See Cun- 
nin^hAm, Ane. Oetf^., pp 42a L 
' f translated 

i may I 

tirely Irom JuHen^i ; the stufy, 
hrivv^ever, of A^6ka*fi dividing the 
reUca which the ieven king^ had 
aeqtiired after the cn^umticiu U %vetl 
known. (See Fo-xhohiri^-ttftn-kinfft 
vera. 2397, ^^9^V 

^^ It is podi^ible that nan^ (ele- 
phant) in thi» passage is a misprint 
for tliow (heady : it wotdd then be, 
** knocking his head (Jr'Aoici f'Aow) 
before the king, he said/' &c. ; 
but oa there is allui^ion to a C(kmagte 

every or comeyance in the neitt sentenoe. 

Thi^ tranidiitiun differs en- 

tbe redding may be corrtfcL 

Hook vi.] 



and said, "Maharaja! your feelings are well affected to tlie 
law of Buddha, and you have largely planted (jood sted) 
in the field of religious merit I venture to ask you to 
detain your carriage awhile aiid condescend to visit my 
dwelling." The king replied, " And where is your dwell- 
ing ? is it near at band ? " The Br&hman said, ** 1 ana 
the N4ga king of this lake. As I have heard that the 
great king desires to hniid a superior field of nit:rit,^^ 
I have ventured to ask you to visit mj al>ode/' The 
king, receiving this invitation, immediately entered the 
drri*;on precinct, and sitting there for Fome time, the 
KUga advanced towards him and said, '* Because of my 
evil kai-ma I have received this Naga body; by religious 
service to these iaf-tras of Buddha 1 desire to atone for 
and eflace my guilt. Oh, that the king wonld himself 
go and inspect (the sl4pa, or, the rdit's) with a view to 
worship. A^&ka-iaja having seen {the character of the 
place), was filled with fear, and said, ** All these apphancea 
for worship are unlike anything seen amongst men." 
The Ndga said, "If it be so, would that the king would 
not aitempt to destroy the at^paV The king, seeing that 
he couhl not measure his power with that of the N&ga, 
did not attempt to open the dtipa {to take out tki relics)* 
At the spot where the dragon caiuo out of the lake is an 
inscription to tlje above effect J^ 

Not far from the neighbourhood of this stilpa is a 
mii^jfkdrdma, with a very few priests attached to it. 
Their conduct is respectful and scrupulously correct; 
and one ^rama^era manages the whole business of the 
pciety. When any priests come from distant regions, 
iiey entertain them witli the greatest courtesy and 
liberality ; during three days they keep them in their 
[>ciety; and ofifer them the four necessary things,™ 
The old tradition is tlds: Formerly there were some 
lihikshus who agreed^* to come together from a distance, 

^^ /,r,tt& obtftin a iapenor Ttierit ^^ Fuud, dnak, dothmg, medi- 

by buiMiiig il^Iptff. cine, 

73 |,>|- .^ gimUar itfcount, Btu Fa- ^^ Br* I trunitlAte tttnff chi, *' wt- re 

hian, cbapv xxiii. of tbi^ ejitne mmd.'^ Julkii rtfQti^ra 



und to travel to worship this Mpa, They saw when 
they had arrived a lierd of elephants, coming and de- 
parting together. Some of them brought on their tusks 
shrubs (kav€.s and hranclim), otbei-s with their trunks 
isprinkled water, some of them brought diffei'ent flowers, 
and all offered worship {as ihty siood) to the siilpa. 
When the Bhiksbus saw this, tbey were moved with joy 
and deeply affected. Then one of them giving up his 
full orders ^^ {ardmatmi)^ vowed to remain here and offer 
his services continually (to the si4pu)t and expressiiig his 
thoughts to the others, lie said, ** I indeed, considering 
these remarkable signs of abounding merit, couut as 
nothing my own excessive labours during many years 
amongst the priests,^® Tliis sivpa having some relics of 
Buddha, by the mysterioua power of its sacred character 
dtawa togetlier tlie herd of elephants, who water the 
earth around the bequeathed body (of the saint). It 
would be pleasant to finish the rest of my years in this 
place, and to obtain with the elepliants tlio end (at tchkh 
ihty am)/' They all replied, "ThiB is an excelleui 
design; as for ourselves, we are stained by our heavy 
{sins) \ our wisdom is not equal to the formation of such 
a design; but according to your opportunity look well to 
your own welfare, and cease not your eflorts in this ex- 
cellent purpose/* 

Having departed from the rest, he again repeated hia 
earnest vow, and with joy devoted himself to a solitary 
life during the rest of his days. 


it» *' their brHhren,*' as tha 
equivitlfDt of '"tbuse of the fianie 
mind/' acid he makeii thesQ invite 
{i^ng I'lmiau) t\\e other. It may bo 
la, but thti^ro ^"ere evidently no 
brethren at the wt&pa, as the: Iulf- 
r»tivo flhow& ThU old trAdition 
is ttX^ti related by Ka-hsan ^ch^p. 

^^ Thifi ia undoubtedly the mean- 
in^ of th^ passogtf. He "WWa a 
Bhiktthu, «.£», fully ord&ined ; but 
now h<j givw up tbe privil«*ge of 

that position, and undortakefi the 
dutieis 4jf IV SrAtniuiuro, id wnter and 
ft weep the courts of tho s^itpti, 

^ This tippeMS to me to be the 
meaning of th^ pttSiafe ; The Bhik* 
iibu was led by witnessing tbf de* 
votlnn of the elephants to count his 
iiwn conduct ^ iriHing compared 
with theiri. He therefot^ casts in 
bui lot with them. M. Jtilien t»k€S 
a different 'view of the 
the ori^nol. 

memung i 




On this he constnicted for liimself a le^fy j^n^^^uAtd,^ 
led the rivulets bq as to fonu a pool, and at their proper 
eeasons gatliered flowers, and watered and swept and 
garnished the ii4pa. Thus during a successiou of years 
he persevered without change of purpose or plan* 

The kings of the neighbouring countries, hearing the 
history, greatly honoured him ; gave up their wealth and 
treasure, and t^^gether founded the mnf^hdrdma. Then 
they requested {the ^rdmanira) to take charge of the 
afifairs of the congregation; and from that time till now 
theie has been no interruption in the original appoinLuient, 
and a Srainaiiera has ever held the chief office in the con- 

Eastward from this convent, in the midst of a great 
forest, after going abont lOO li, we come to a great si4pa 
built by A ^ok a* raj a* This is the place where the prince- 
royal, after having passed from the city, put off Jiis precious 
robes, loosed his necklace, and ordered his coachuian^* to 
return home, Tiie prince-royal in tlie middle of the night 
traversirig the city, at early dawu arrived at this place,"^ 
and then, heart and body bent on accomplish Lng his destiny, 
he said, " Here have I come out of the prison stocks. Here 
have I shaken off my chains," This is the place where 
he left for the last time his harnessed horse,^ and taking 
the mmii gem^^ from his crown, he commanded his coach- 
man, saying, *' Take this gtm, and, returning, say to my 
father the king, now 1 am going away, not in inconsiderate 
disobedience, but to banish lust, and to destroy the power 
of im permanence, and to stop all the leaks of existence." 

^ Pantaiit is a Smlialcfle word for 
"leiify hut/* ^.fo II real deuce ni«dt; 
out of boti;;hB ijf tre*.^. 

'^ Hi* c^mchiiMin, iir ef^tierry^ wa» 

caUccI CImndffika. For un accounl 

of hjj* dUiiii«5iji,l 4iit? Fo'^ho-hiftf/'tsan- 

7, vargn 6. 

^ The jilnoe fipptara to be* "Mati- 

'#yA,** About 34 mUv» E,S*E» erf 

^ It U true that ktd m^nxm * * a 

cfaiiriot ;" but it also mtians ^'a hon§e 
Middled for Aervice; " iLtiiJ »» all th^ 
uvjdejat*, Uith of the books and 
ftculptureA, IK in favoiit of t\w pvlnce 
sending back hh '^hot-Ket*- £ hikve 
used this tmn»lfltion, Uut it may 
alfro be translated " chariot,*' aa the 
aiis<twer of Charidaka ife«JxiA to XV' 

^^ Mo-ni^ generaUy culkd tht? 



Then Cliatjclaka (Chen-to-kia) replied, **What heart 
can I have to go b:ick thus, with a horse without a nder ? ** 
The prince having persuaded him with gentle words, his 
tuind was opened auct he returned. 

To the east of the &t4pa where Chandaka returned is a 
Jambu tree with leaves atid branches fallen off but the 
trunk still upright. By the side of this is a little dAptu 
This is the place where the |>rince exchanged hia pnecions® 
robe for one made of deerskin. The prince had cut off 
his hair and exchanged his lower garments, and altiiough 
he had got rid of his collar of precious stones, yet there 
was one divine garment (dill on kis person). " This robe,** 
he said, '' is greatly in excess (of my imnfs) j how shall I 
change it away ? '' At this time a Suddh&vSsa-dfiva^ 
transformed himself into a hunter with robes of deerskin, 
and holding his bow and carrying his quiver. The prince^ 
raising ids garment, addressed him thus: " I am desirous 
to exchange garments with you. Oh, that you would 
assent" The hunter said "Good!" The prince^ loosing 
his upper garment, gave it to the hunter. The hunter 
having received it, resumed his Deva body, and holding 
the garment he had obtained, rose into the air and de- 

By the side of the slApa commemorating this event, and 
not far from it, is a si'd^pa bvdlt by A^oka-raja. This is 
tlie spot wliere the prince Imd his head shaved, Tlte 
prince taking a knife (suvrd) from the bands of Chaijdaka, 
himself cut off his locks. Sukra, king of DSvas, took the 
lioir to his hea\'enly palace to oU'er it worship. At thig 
time a Suddh^va^sa-dfiva, transforming himself into a bar- 
ber, and holding his razor in his banch advanced towards 
the piiuce. The latter hereupon addressed him, *'Can you 
shave olT the hair ? Will you favour nie by so doing to 

■^ Hia robe omnmented with 
variouft gema. I find nothing Jib<iut 
'*tt hunter" in th© text, a1thrm|;h it 
waA v^ith a> Imnter the 0x change waa 

^* A Devji of the " pure abodes ; *' 
a Dtva of the five higbeit Ktkpa- 
hrahniik heavenB. See Childers* Pali 
I>icf, nub voc. SaUalCim^ 




Ttie?" Tlie transformed D6va being so directed, accor J - 
ingly sbaved hia Lead. 

The time when tlie prince left the city and became a 
recluse is not quite fixed. Some say that Bodhisattva was 
then nineteen years of age; others say he was twentj-nine, 
and that it was on the eighth day of the second half of 
the month Vruiakha, which corresponds to our fifteenth 
day of the tliird month. 

To the south-east of the head- shaving shlpa^ in the 
middle of a desert, going i8o or 190 li, we come to a 
NyagrSdha grove in which there ia a shlpa about ^o feet 
high. Formerly, wlien Tathagata had died and his remains 
had been divided, the Brihmans who had obtained none, 
► came to the place of cremation, and taking the remnant 
of coals and cinders to their native country, built this 
sidpa over them,®* and offered their religious services 
to it. Since then wonilerful signs have occurred in this 
place- sick persons who pray and worship here are mostly 

By the side of the ashes 44pa is an old miigMrdma^ 
where there are traces of the four former Buddhas, who 
walked and sat there. 

On the right hand and left of this convent there are 
several hundred dilj>as, among which is one large one 
built by A^ka-rAja ; although it is mostly in ruins, yet 
its height is still about 100 feet. 

From this going north-east through a great forest, alon:^ 

a dangerous and difficult road, w*here wild oxen and herds 

of elephants and robbers and hunters cause incessant 

trouble to travellers, after leaving the forest we come to 

I the kingdom of Kiu-shi-na-kVie-lo (Kuilmagara), 


The capital ^^ of this country is in ruins, and its towns 

** Thit w th6 "Afthea Di^bo,'* 

tiiLriL, Ibe HLt^au of Buddha* a d^iMii 


and villages ^aste and desolate. The brick foimdation 
walls** of tbe old capital are about lo li in circuit There 
are few inhabitants, rmd the avenues of the toiini are 
deserted and waste. At the north-east angle of the city 
gate®^ is a sl-djm which was built by A^oka-rAja, This is 
the old house of Chunda (Chun-t'o) ;^ in the raiddle of it 
is a well which was dug at the time when he was about 
to makt* his offering (to Buddhd), Although it has o¥er^ 
flown for years and months^ the water ia still pure and 

To the north-west of the city 3 or 4 li, crossing the 
Ajitavatt ('0-shi-to-fa-ti}^ river, on the western bank, 
not far, we come to a grove of ^aia trees. The Mlm tree 
is like the Huh tree, with a greenish white bark and leaves 
very glistening and smooth. In this wood are four trees 
of an unusual lieight, which indicate the place where 
Tathagata died.*' 

There is {hert) a great brick vihdra, in vTliich is a figure 
of the Mrvdna of TathAgata, He is lying with his bead 
to the north as if asleep. By the side of this vihdra is a 
stApa built by A^6ka-iiljn ; althougli in a ruinous state^ 
yet it is some 200 feet in height. Before it is a stone 

And buriaj, )ub been identified by 
WiUoH and Cuuninghaia with tha 
prtiMtjnt vfJUge of £mi», 35 mile* t*^ 
tbe eant oF G6r(ikhp&r, It stood 
close to th*? Him^yAVfttl rh'tr (Fq- 
Mkoktn;/-t$fin-kin^^ V. 220» i this 
must b« the Bftme &■ the Little 
Ga idaki: rii'trt »r one of its feeders. 
The chaunel oF thb rtvcr, however, 
h^a undertf^me freuueiit chiingesi. 
See J. IL Ax. S, vol. v. pp. 123 f . ; 
Bnmmif, fntrofL (3d ed,),pTx 75^ ^7 ; 
La,iseri, hvi. A!L (2d eiL)» voL L 
pp, 17], 662* LaiitA ViMtan^, pp, 
416 f., 419 ff. 

^ CunmngbAm flpeakH of the 
bt*ici't oi vfhich the Hupcit were 
bmlt {AirL Sapv^, vol L p. 


^ ANV!igh6iiha speaks of the Lun^- 
gmng gikti:'^ ^vhich muat have led to- 

w&rdit the Hv«r (^a-i^o-Ain^-CMH- 
kvnff^ V. 2200). 

^ Chunda ^ub a boitfieholder wbo 
invited Buddhft to him hoiyfle uul 
there gmve hi in hi* l&st pep4«t f^- 
$hj&-kin^t-tmnlit\J!^ y. 1 947), For AH 
ftccoQUt df ChundA's offeHng; a^t- 
cording to the I^ter school ofBad'^ 
dbiRnit aee as above, Note HL, pp^ 

*• In Chinase Wu-sbiTig, "invin- 
cible." Thi» k the fiaaie as the Shi- 
lAinnfa-t! oi- Hiranyavatl river, in 
Chinese Yeu-kin-bo, ** tlie river tbftt 
bft* i^old.^^ 

** The record gent' rally spoftk« 
of Um A^la tret*B {Simnsa f'o&tMioi) 
{FQ'»ktiMn*)-UaHl'inff, v, 1^50^ M*d 
thej Are repr«?iient(?d in the «cn]ptut« 
of the A'lridna in Cave %%yu k| 
Ajanfi (Burgem, Curf JVm|»f r#| pL L)« 


)K VI,] 




pillar to record the Nirvdna of Tath9.i^ata ; although there 
is an inscription on it, yet there is no date aa to year or 

According; to the genera! tradition, Tathftgata was eighty 
years old when, on the isth day of the second half of the 
month Vailaklia^ he entered Mrvdna, This corresponds 
to the 15th day of the 3d month with ns. But the Sar- 
vilgtivadins say that he died on the Sth day of the second 
half of the month K&rtika, which is the same aa the Sth 
day of the 9th month witli us. The different schools 
calculate variously from the death of Buddha. Some say 
it 13 1200 years and more since then. Others say, 1300 
and more. Othem say, 1500 and more* Others say that 
900 years have passed, but not 1000 since the Nirvdna}^ 

By the side of the vihdra, and not far from it, is a 
utttpcL This denotes the place where Efldhisattva, when 
practising a religious life^ was born as the king of a flock 
of pheasants (cki — S. kapihjala), and caused a fire to be 
put out. Formerly thjere was in this place a great and 
shady forest, where beasts and birds congregated and built 
their nests or dwelt in caves. Suddenly a fierce wind 
burst from every quarter, and a violent conflagration 
spread on every side; At tins time there was a pheasant 
who, moved by pity and tenderness, hastened to plunge 
itself in a stream of pure water, and then flying up in the 
sir, shook the drops from its feathers {on tlie Jiamea)^ 
Whereupon Sakra, king of D^vas, coming down, said (ta 
ike Urdjf " Wiiy are you so foolish m to tire yourself, thus 
fluttering your wings ? A great fir© is raging, it is burniDg 
down the forest trees and the desert grass ; what can such 
a tiny ci^eature as you do to put it out?'' The bird said, 
'* And who are you I " He replied, " 1 am Sakra, king of 

w Tbq vaiiotia cktea here recorded 
would corrospotid with 55a B^tr., 6\2 
&<i, S53 B*at aud a date between 
252 B.CL juid 552 ac. By thiii ]mt 
Hiuen T«Iaii||^ probably meansi to 
plftoe *Jtie NirffdnOf m liiuidred ^e«uii 

VQU n. 

before Jidka, i^ sbont 325 KG.t 
which is the dntt^ he em ploy I elme* 
where. The Southern date ia 543 
S.O., but the niti^t recent resejirchei 
place it betweiKn 477 and 48a ao. 
Thie k g^enereiHy m:cept«d^ 



DSvas,*' The bird answered, *' Now Sakm, king of Mvas, 
Ima great power of religious merit, and every wish he haa 
he can gratify ; to deliver from this calamity and avert the 
evil would be a.^ easy as opening and shutting his haud* 
There can l>e no propriety in permitting this calamity to 
laat*^ But the iire iB burning fiercely on every side, there 
is no time for ^vords/' And so saying he flew away again, 
and ascending up^ sprinkled the water from his wings. 
Then the king of the Divas took the water in the hollaw 
of Ins hand *^ and poured it out on the forest and extin- 
guished the fire; the smoke was cleared away and the living 
creatures saved* Therefore this si-dpa is stili called "the 
extinguishing-fire diuipa" 

By the side of this, not far off, is a si'Apa, On this spot 
B6dhisattva, when practising a religious life, being at that 
time a deer, saved {or, rescued)** living creatures. In 
very remote times this was a great forest- a fire burst out 
in the wOd grass that grew in it. The birds ^* and beasts 
were sorely distressed, Befoi^e them was the barrier of a 
swiftly flowing river. Belund them the calamity of the 
raging fire which barred their escape* There was no help 
for it but to plunge into the water, and there drowned^ 
they perished. This deer, moved by pity, placed bis body 
across the stream, wliich lashed his sides and broke his 
bones, whilst he strove with all his strength to rescue the 
drowning creatures, A worn-out hare coming to the bank, 
the deer with patience bearing his pain and fatigue, got 
him safely across^ but his strength beijjg now worn outp 
he was engulfed in the water and died. The DSvas col- 
lecting his bones raised this dUpn. 

* TluB itiny be otherwise tranp- 
tafeed: "if my request in without 
affect, with whom Wes the fault ? '^ 
■* Talcitig a handful of water, 
•* There k &n error in the text, 
i&a f killed ft>r kcw (deliver^il). 
Julien tnuitilntcx the paasoge ^^took 
the form of a deer^ and aacriBo^d hin 
life," ':Che formHf part, "took the 
form of a dvtit^** cftmiot be correct, 

the original m tod ink, being & deer ; 
with regard to tlie a^joond pmit, 
" Bacrihcbd hja life,'* the original in 
dha »3tnf/^ which in literally ** to IdU 
living animala for food.'* I hmv6 
preferred to cnnaider #M a miflt&k« 
for Jtnp^ to deliver* 

*^ It IB difficult Ui understand 
why the btrdt thmild be afraid uf 
the nver. 




To the west of this pkce^ not far off, is a si4pa. Thia 
is T^bere Subbadra^ (Sben-hien) died (entered Mr- 
ttlrm), Siibhadra wm originally n Brabman teacben He 
was 1 20 years of age; being so old, he bad acquired in 
eoRsequence much wisdom. Hearing that Buddlia was 
about to die, be came to tbe two*^ (sdla) trees, and 
asked Ananda, saying, ** Tbe Lord is about to die ; ptay 
flet me ask him respecting some doubts I have, which 
gtill hamper me," Ananda replied, " The Lord is about 
to die; pray do not trouble him." He said, ''I hear 
that Euddlia is difficult to meet in the world, and tliat 
the true law is difficult to iiean I have some grave 
doubts \ there is no ground for fear/* On being invited, 
Subbadra at once entered, and first asked Buddha, '* There 
are many different persons who call themselves masters, 
each having a different system of doctrine, and pretend- 
ing therewith to guide the people. Is Gautama (Kiu- 
ta-mo) ^ able to fathom their doctrine ? " Buddlia said, 
" I know their doctrine thoroughly ; " and then for Sub- 
hadra's sake he preached the law, 

Subhadm having heard (the sermon), his miud, pure 
and faithful, found deliverance, and iie asked tu be 
received into the church aa a fully ordained disciple. 
Then Tathfigata addressed him saying, *' Are you able to 
do so ? Unbelievers and other sectaries who preparti 
themselves for a pure mode of life ®® ought to pass a four 
years' novitiate, to exl libit their conduct and test their 
disposition; if iheir characters and words be unexcep- 

•* For the drcuTOstancefl attend- 
ing the conrernioj:) of Subliudra 
|Su*po-t*o-lu)|j lue Fo-sko^htTiry-Uan* 
JN»^, vjLrgK 26^ pL 290^ In CtiiDeBu? 
titA nxDie u Sben-hif^P, **thtf wry 

^ Here the two trees toe re^ 
iefred %sk The four which exbted 
I Id Hinen T^^iang'H time were pro- 
[ biblj ol A later date, Mid h^d been 
[ g#"t*^ two &t the head fttid two al 
htbo ittet wbere Buddh* dj«d. 

" The eiEpTOsaifio " GnuUina " in 
OBed b^ Subh&dm becikutie he w«ji 
a Br4buiiii[i un belie re r. 

^ This does Dot* m it appevw, 
refer to the life of n i^m»na, but 
to the prepar&tioti of a Bnthma- 
chira ; the previous disci pi Ine of 
the BrAhiuaii {Fan-hinff . . » ). The 
'*uiibo]ievtirH/* in Chine^^u Wal-Uto, 
tniTisUted TirthikuS) iu tbe Mahd* 




tionuLle, then such persons may enter my profession ; 
but in your case, win 1st living amongst men, you Imve 
observed tlieir discipline. There should be no difficulty, 
then, to prevent your full ordination 1" 

Subhadra said, " The Lord is very pitiful and very 
gracious, without any partiality, la he then willing to 
forego in my case the four years of the threefold prepara* 
tory discipline ? " ^^ 

Buddha said, *' As I before stated, this has been done 
whilst living among men/' 

Then Siibhadra, leaving: his hoiue iramediately, took 
full orders as a priest Then applying himself with all 
diligence, he vigorously disciplined both body and mind, 
and so being freed fiom all doubt, in the middle of tlie 
night (of Buddluis Nirvdna), not long after {the vitervicw), 
lie olitained the fruit, and became an Arhat without any 
imperfection. Being thus perfected in purity, he could 
not bear to await Buddha's death (greai Mrvdna), but in 
tlie midst of the congregation, entering the $mnddhi of 
**fire-limit" [Agni-dhdiu), and after displaying his spiritual 
capabilities, he first entered Nirvd^^, He was thus the 
very last convert of Tatb&gala, and the first to enter 
Nirvdna, This is the same as the hnre who was last 
saved in the story that has just been told. 

Beside {the sUtpa of) Subhadra's Mn-dna isasidjm; 
this is the place where the Vajrap^ni (ChMdn-kang)^*** 

'•* The V(h<A*i of thb piLa&iige in 
okwcur^ 1^ thu reference Esetsnia to km 
tiO a four ypttrs* prepftrfttorv cotirae 
of diBcipliiio prnt*t)*ed by the S'i- 
kMh*iitmii^a ^ pupil) ; for th*f thre*;- 
fijld clmriwrtt^f of thtir dhdpline, 
Ht^e Fokinif-ki^ p. 182, Tliis pre* 
vio\i^ course of discipline Buddba 
\n willing to remit in tfa« i^oBe of 
Hubhadrj^ bf'cauid he hud alrendj 
practiHod it *' in the wor]d,^^ thut i». 
In his ovnt re)i^'ow<i tmining. 

'"* ThU incident in also referred 
to bj Fa-hiflu (Bcal, HaddhUt Fil- 
grimt^ p. 95). TisuPu xa Kome tiiHi- 
imUy in the matter, because the 
M«]l^ who w«re prv^ent at the 

Nirvdna^ are oaUed lih MCf ftnd 
they did '* elnk prostmt« ou tbo 
earth" {F^-^-kinff-itan-kifu^^ ver. 
2 1 95 ). But the t^x% aeeuis to refer 
to fiome superb unmn l>eLn^, for the 
Vajrapflni is callec] ** holding- 
diamond ' mace - spiritual - secret * 
tcatipe ' mighty - lord ; " thi« phfai« 
is explained by Kitet { Handbook^ 
Ruh voc. Vadjvapihii) to refer to 
Indra» iv Port of demun kin^» with 
^00 Ynkwhtt folio were. In the gre^t 
picturii %>i the Nii'vdtui brought 
frr^tn Japan by Mr. BurluM^, and 
eatkihitcd for a time at Ik-tlmjtl 
Green, tbero is sueb ii tij^ure Jv iiig 
cm thf i^oimd. 




fell fainting on the earth. The great merciful Lord of 
the World, having, according to the condition of the per- 
sons concerned, finished his work of converting the 
world, entered on the joy of the Mrvdna between the 
two Mia trees ; with his head to the north, he there lay 
asleep. The Mallas, with their diamond maces and 
Ldivine though secret charucterlstLcs,^'^ seeing Buddha 
about to die, were deeply affected with pity, and cried, 
"Tathilgata is leaving us and entering the great Nirvdna ; 
-thus are we without any refuge or protection to defend 
'us ; the poisonous arrow has deeply penetrated our vitals, 
and the fire of sorrow burns us up without remedy 1 " 
Tlien letting go their diamond clubs, they fell prostrate 
on the earth, and so remained for a long time. Then 
rising again, and deeply affected with compassion and 
love* they thus spake together, "Who shall now provide 
lis a boat to cross over the great sea of birth and death ? 
Who shall light a lamp to guide U3 through the long night 
of ignorance ? " 

By the side where the diamond {mmc-koldttB) fell to 
the earth is a si4pa. This is the place where for seven 
days after Buddha had died they offered religious offer- 
ings. When Tathdgata was about to die, a brilliant 
light shone everywhere ; men and DSvas were assembled, 
and together showed their sorrow aa they spake thus 
one to the other, **Now the great Buddha, Lord of the 
World, is about to die, the happiness of men is gone, the? 
.world has no reliance/* Then Tatb^gata, reposing on 
^iiia right side upon the lion-bed, addressed the great 
congregation thus, " Say not Tathlgata has gone for ever 
{ptrishtf^, because he dies ; the body of the law ^^ 
[endures for ever ! unchangeable is this 1 Put away all 

I have retimed this tranda* 

' iioDf &ut withstand. tig Dr. Eitels 

expUn&tioD., ofl it ifl literaUy isor- 

fcelf Bhud la agTet;mL*Dt with Aivii- 

hCttbft. Moreover, from Iho sub* 

qiient excUiUAtiuiiSi it b plaia worda^ 

l^tb&t the pt?rttfiiia who s|)oki} yfvtv 

roorti^K ^nd dtsciplea of Biiddh&, 
&tid the J offered their aervicii^a after 
hia death for Hev^en daja. 

i«* The Bhamiakdija, the Hpm* 
tDid pneaeocQ of Buddha m hu 


idleness, and without delay seek for emancipation (from 
the world)."* 

Then the Bhikshns sobbing and sighing with piteous 
grief, Aniruddha^** bade the Bhikslius cease. "Grieve 
not thus," he said, • lest the D^vas should deride." 
Then all the ^lallas (Mo-la) having offered their offerings^ 
desired to raise the golden coffin, and bring it to the 
j)lace of cremation. Then Aniruddha addressed them all, 
and bade them stop, for tlie Divas desired to offer their 
worship during seven days. 

Tlien the Devas (t?u heavenly host), holding exquisite 
divine flowers, discoursed through space the praises of 
\\U Hdcred qualities, each in full sincerity of heart offering 
hiM HdfTifice of worship. 

|Jy tlic side of the place where the coffin was detained 
|« II nidpa; this is where the queen Mah&mayd^** wept 
fur Muddha. 

Till hftgata liaving departed, and liis body being laid in 
llu» (M»(lin, then Aniruddha, ascending to the heavenly 
luuuMions, addressed the queen Mdy^ and said, " The 
iiUHioiuoly holy Lord of Eeligion has now died !" 

MAyA having heard of it, suppressed her sobs, and 

with tho body of Dfivas came to the two sdla trees. 

Hiiiiig tlu» saiighdtt robe, and the^^d/ra, and the religious 

iiUlt', ttho embraced tliem as she recognised each, and 

Uuui ^vouHtid uwliile to act,^^ till once again with loud 

»nit.i\ulia nho (jried, "The happiness of men and gods is 

\\u\\^\ \ Tim world's eyes put out! All tilings are desert, 

vVllln'Ul. w y\ildul" 

"* V^UuttvUti^ (•()nl-Hu-t*o\ a + niru(f</Aa not-stopped, in agree- 

ilt « I.. .. .u»«i »UUtt'uU,V In knowing ment with the Tibetan ma hgagt^ 

..l^ ii« » VuUu»l»llitt ((Muwln of pa, cehii qui n'a pas 6t6 arr^td 

\\\K I.U* I i.' iu^ H w'U «»f Auirttd- (Lotut, p. 293) ; At. Ret. vol. xx. 

I » VuvtiUtMlm U r«'ft»rrt»d p. 440)- Conf. Eitcl, 7/an<f&o«i-, sub 

I . iu i>i ^\'S\ , \\k Mit» f»n« owe, voc 

i\\ I /...<,<,, n- i\i|) Mntr« that *^ In the picture alluded to 

\ ni,t x\'»' Vhv |w'i-«'n»l *t- alK>vo (n. 97) there is a represen- 

I ). Ii..( ti i^( i•U«^ hI Uu> iliiii^ of tation of Anuruddha or Aniruddha 

I.I I .11^ . L«(is ,*\\ \\k\^ \M\tif hand, conductint; Mah&mliy& from heav«a 

\ ^. k ^ ». » V Vw ^V^ >v« *l J.O J*' to the scene of the Nirvdna. 

.IV. . Ilo *» \u*' \vi M^U \m^\\\ from ** That is, she fainted. 

BOO^ VJ.] 


Then by the holy power of Tathagata the golden coffin 
of itself opened ; spreading abroad a glorioaa light, with 
hands conjoined, and mtting upright, he saluted his loving 
mother (and mid), "You have come down from far; you 
who live so reUgiously need not be sad ! " 

Ananda, suppressing hia grief, inquired and said, " What 
shall I say hereafter when they question me?'* In answer 
he rejoined, "(Say this), when Buddha had already died, 
hia loving mother M4y4, from the heavenly courts de- 
scending, came to the twin Mia trees. Then Buddha, 
bent on teaching the irreverent among ^''^ nien» from out 
his golden coffin, %vith hands conjoined, for her sake, 
preached the law/' 

To the north of the city, after crossing the river,^"* and 
going 300 paces or so, there is a stiipa. This is the place 
where they burnt the body of Tath^gata. The earth is 
now of a blackish yellow, from a mixture of earth and 
charcoal Wlioever witti true faith seeks here, and prays, 
is sure to find some relics of Tathfigata. 

When Tath3.gatar died, men and D^vas, moved with 
love, prepared a coffin made of the seven precious sub- 
stances, and in a thousand napkins swathed hh body ; 
tbey spread both flowers and scents, they pUced both 
canopies and coverings over it; then the host of Mall as 
raised tlie bier and forward marched, with others follow- 
ing and leading on. Passing the golden river (Kin-ho) to 
the north, they filled the coffin up with scented oil, and 
piled high up the odorous wood and kindled it Tlien, 
after all was burnt, there were two napkins left-^ne tliat 
lay next the body, the other from the outside covering, 
Then they divided the iartras for the world's sake, the 
hair and nails alone remained untouched by fire. By the 
Bide of the place of cremation is a stdpa ; here TathAgata, 

^^ That i^ tboee who have no custoiDs tsi his country, where the 

reverence fur parenta. ThiE ind- highest revcreoct* of parenti la In* 

tUmX, which ii* a Ute inventioni culcated. 

wanJtl refumuiedd itfttrlf to Hmen *^ The Ajitavatl or Hira^yavatl. 
Taiatig VA in agteemciit with U]e 


ft>r Kftlyapa'3 sake, revealed liis feet Wheti TatlilgaU 
was in his golden coffin, and tlie oil poured on it and ttie 
wood pikd up, the fire would not enkiudla When all 
tlie beholders were lUled with fear and doubt, Animddha 
apoke^ *' We must await Kaiyapa," 

At this lima Kii^vapa, with 500 followers from out the 
foT^st, came to Ku^inagara, and asked Anauda saying:, 
"Can 1 behold TatbagaU'a body 1 " Ananda said, '^Swatlied 
in a thousand napkins, enclosed within a heavy coffin^ 
with scented wood piled up, we are about to bum iC* 

At this titne Buddha caused his feet to come from out 
the coffin. Above {or, on; tlie wheel sign ^^ lo ! there were 
different coloured marks. Addressing Ananda then, he 
said, "And what are these V* Answering h© said, " When 
first l>e died the tears of men and *;od3, moved by pity, 
falling upon his feet, left these marks."** 

Then KH^yapa worslijpped and walked round the coffin 
littering his praises. Tiien the scented wood CEiught fire 
of its own accord, and burnt the whole with a great con- 

When Tathdgata died he appeared three times from his 
coffin: first, when he put out his arm and asked Ananada, 
"(Have you) prepared the way?'*^** secondly, when he 
sat up and preached the law for his m other ^s sake ; and 
thirdly, witen he showed hia feet to tlie great Kasyapa. 

By the side of the place where he showed his feet is a 
$t4pa built by A^ka-rfija. This is the place where the 
ciglit kiugs shared the relics. In front is built a stone 
pillar on which is written an account of this event 

Wlion Buddha died, and after his cremation, the kings 
M the eight countries with their truops (/our kimh of 

^» umm ritMfM h k tuted thnt 

l^iit mlpi wm syHk 1^ the tears 
^ % ^mwMH who w«pi At biH fe«t. 
^ #l i »M ^ ftwr l^ufX4, pp. 

1" Th^i is the Mteml transition ; 
but it probably r«feri tu KAiy&p«« 
Ai J u lien ejc plains (n, i, p. 346) ; rjr 
the word ehr. may be equiij to **tliO 
chif?f/' alludiiij^ to Kl4yapa ; tbo 
senti^ncf^ wi.uld tlii^n be, 'VhA« tb« 

Boot VI.] 



trof^) sent a ri^^^lit- minded BrShman (Drona) *^* to address 
the Mallas of Kuiiiiaj^ara, sayinjj, '* The guide of men 
and gods has died in this country ; we have come from 
far to request a share of hi3 relics." The Mallas said, 
"Tath^gata has condescended to come to this land ; the 
fniide of the world Is dead! the loving father of all that 
lives has gone ! We ought to adore the relics of Buddha ; 
your journey here has been in vain, you will not gain your 
end." Then the great kings having sought humbly for 
them and failed, sent a second message saying', " As you 
will not accede to our request, our troops are near " Then 
the Brdhmaii addressing them said, ** Eeflect how the Lord, 
the great merciful, prepared religious merit by pnictising 
patience; through successive ages his renown will last 
Your desire now to try force is not riglit. Divide then 
the relics into eight portions, so that all may worship 
them. Why j'esort to arms?""^ The Mallas, obedient 
to these words, divided the relics into eiglit parts. 

Then ^akra the king of gods said, " The Dfivas also 
should have a share; dispiitB not their right" • 

Anavatapta"* the Mga also, and Muchilinda 
(Wen-lin), and fil^patra (1-lo-po-ta-lo) also, deliberated 
and said, " We ought not to be left without a bequest; if 
we seek it by force it will not he well for you ! *' The 
Brahman said, " Dispute not so * '' Then he divided the 
relics into three portionsi one for the Dfivas, one for the 
N%a3, and one remnant for the evihi kingdoms among 
men. This addition of D6vas and N&gas in sharing 
the relics was a source of great sorrow to the kings of 

^^' Thifl nftme is gfyen in the F0- 
»ko-hin^'Uttn-kin^t Y. 22J1. The 

xntndedf^' or " impartial ; " it Enuy 
possiblj be a proper dame (mju- 
bhlrv;i)p 04 Julk^n guppoaeji^ 

^^ The Arguiiient of the Brihrntn 
i« giveti 10 full by A^T*gh^h»j Fo- 
ahtt'hiwj'itan-kinfft pp. 33^^ 329. 

^* la TibeUti MA-dros-p»t tbe 

kiAg of the Nd^Ae (qnakee) of tho 
lake of the same name. See A^i^L 
Re$,t vol x)£. p. 448. 

^^ Julien^H tmnalation can haitUj 
be correct \ "the eight kinga having 
obtainml a double portion, the gods^ 
the Nigaa, and the kings of men 
grieved much on that account." Tho 
thight kingd did not, in fact, obtain 
» double portion. Tha trviiilfttioB. 



To tlie sou til- west of the relic-dividing MApm^ g*^itig 
200 li or so, we come to a great village; here lived a 
BiTthmao of eminent wealth and celebrity, deeply learned 
in all pure literature, versed in the five Vid^ds,^^^ ac- 
quaiiited with the tliree treasures (pifaJcas). By the aide 
of his home lie had built a priest's houses and had used all 
hh wealth to adorn it with magnificence. If by chance 
any priests in their travels stopped on their way, he asked 
them to halt, and uaed all his means to entertain them. 
They might stop one night, or e%^en throughoiit seven days. 

After this, f5aMiika-raja having destroyed the religion 
of Buddha, the members of the priesthood were dispersed, 
and for many years driven away. The Brihraan never- 
theless retained for them, through all, an undying regard. 
As he was Wiilking he chanced to see a ^ramana, with 
thick eyebrows and shaven head» holding his staff, coming 
along. The Brdhman Isurried up to him, and meeting 
him aslved/' Whence come you?" and besought him to 
enter the priest's abode and receive his charity* In the 
morning h» gave him some rice-milk (ric^i halls wiik milk). 
The Srama^a having taken a mouthfuh thereupon returned 
it (ut., tfie rest) to his alms-bowl with a great sigh. The 
Br&hman who supplied the food prostrating himself said, 
"Eminent sir! (hhadanta), is there any reason why you 
should not remain with me one night ? is not the food 
ogreeable ? " The ^rarnnna graciously answering said, " I 
pity the feeble merit possessed by the world, but let me 
finish my meal and I will speak to you furtlier/' After 
finishing his food he gathered up his robes as if to go. 
The IMhman said, "Your reverence agreed to speak with 
nie, why then are you silent ? " The Sramana said, " I have 
not forgotten ; but to talk with you is irksome ; and the cir- 
cumstance is likely to create doubt, but yet I will tell you in 

ii «vid©iitlj fA«»3 /m, •* tho Addi- gnuTe4-" '^^i l»»the pdk?i were 

itooAt dlvtukiQ,'^ tin /uit^, "«Lmimg ciLirtrd »WAy in>io th« wory, tmd 

Divftft ftzul NlgBK," Jin t^f Hrf ffiu jtuh l!iri CAU«ed the sorrow. 

jh| **lh« lungrg or Kim wci% much *^^ 3«e mUt^ vd. 1 p^ 7S. 


brief. When I sighed, it was not on account of your offering 
of rice ; for during many hundreds of years I have not 
tasted such food. When Tathag&ta was living in the 
world I was a follower of his when he dwelt in the Vfinu- 
vana-vihftra, near E&jagriha (Ho-lo-she-ki-li-hi) ; "^ 
there it was, stooping down, I washed his pdtra in the 
pure stream of the river — there I filled his pitcher — there 
I gave him water for cleansing his mouth ; but alas ! the 
milk you now offer is not like the sweet water of old ! It 
is because the religious merit of DSvas and men has 
diminished that this is the case!" The Brahman then 
said, "Is it possible that you yourself have ever seen 
Buddha ? " The iSramana replied, " Have you never heard 
of Edhula, Buddha*8 own son? I am he! Because 
I desire to protect the true law I have not yet entered 

Having spoken thus he suddenly disappeared. Then 
the Brahman swept and watered the chamber he had 
used, and placed there a figure of him, which he reverenced 
as though he were present. 

Going 500 li through the great forest we come to the 
kingdom of P'o-lo-ni-sse (Banaras). 

1^ In Chinese, Wsng-she-ch'uig. 


( 44 ) 


Includes the following countries, (i) J^o^o-nisse ; (2) Chen-chu: 
(3) Fei'She-li; (4) Fo-li-shi ; (5) Ni-pa^o. 

Fo-LO-Ni-ssB (VArAnasI^ or BAnAras). 

This country is about 4000 li in circuit. The capital 
borders (on its western side) the Ganges river. It is 
about 18 or 19 li in length and 5 or 6 li in breadth; its 
inner gates are like a small-toothed comb ; * it is densely 
populated. The families are very rich, and in the dwell- 
ings are objects of rare value. The disposition of the 
people is soft and humane, and they are earnestly given 
to study. They are mostly unbelievers, a few reverence 
the law of Buddha. The climate is soft, the crops abun- 
dant, the trees {fruit trees) flourishing, and the underwood 
tliick in every place. There are about thirty sanghdrdmas 
and 3000 priests. They study the Little Vehicle according 
to the Saminatlya school (Ching-liang-pu). There are a 
hundred or so Deva temples with about io,cxx) sectaries. 
They honour principally Mahe^vara (Ta-tseu-tsai). Some 
cut their hair off, others tie their hair in a knot, and go 

^ This U the restoratiuii of the ' Julian gives here, **the villages 
Chinese equivalents. A note in the are very close together;" but, as 
original gives the sound of m as noticed before (p. 73, n. 13), the 
= n(tu) + (A«)df, i.e.f nd; the restora- Chinese symbols leu yen mean "the 
tion, therefore, is VHrdnast, the inner gates '* of a city, and the ex- 
Sanskrit form of the name of Bftn- pression isch j)i means '* like a tooth 
Aras. It was so called because it comb." I conclude it means that 
lies between the two streams VaranA the inner gates of the city consisted 
and Asi or Ast, affluents of the of closely joined, and perhaps sharp. 
Ganges. See Sherring, Sacred City ened, iron or other bars. 
cf the JJindui, 

BOOK vn.] 



naked, without clotbea (Nirgratithas) ; they cover their 
bodies with ashes (PaSupataa), and by the practice of all 
sorts of austerities they seek to escape from With * and 

In the capital there are twenty DSva temples, the towei-s 
and balk of which are of sculptured stone and carved 
wood. The foliage of trees combine to shade {the sites), 
whilst pure streams of water encircle them. The statue 
of the Dfiva MahS^vara, made of itou-sWi {native c^per), 
is somewhat less than lOO feet high. Its appearance ia 
grave a^d tiiajestic, and appears as though roally living. 

To the iionh-east of the capital, on the western side of 
the river Varanl^ is a s^-fipa* built by A^6ka-rAja (Wu-yau), 
Ifc is about loo feet high; in front of it is a stone pillar; 
it is briglit and shining as a mirror; its surface is glisten- 
ing and smooth as ic<?, and on it can be constantly seen 
the figure of Buddha as a shadows 

To the north-east of tlie river Varanii about lo li or so, 
we come to the ^aiigMrdma of Lu-ye {stag (k&e.rt),^ Its 
precincts are divided into eight port ions (stctiom)^ con- 
nected by a surrounding walk The storeyed towers w*ith 
projecting eaves and the balconies are of very superior 
work- There are fifteen hundred priests in this convent 
who study the Little Vehicle according to the Saihinatlya 
scbook In tlie great enclosure is a i^dra about 200 fet^t 
high ; above the roof is a golden-co%'ered figure of the Amra 
('An-fTio-la — mango) fruit. Tlie foundations of the building 
are of stone, and the stairs also^ but the towers and niches 

* Not *• life and dt^Ath," but** birth 
and death ;" i.e,^ to ncrive at a coo- 
ditittn «f unmtermpted Ufa 

* JiiUeii here gives P4-lo-ni-Mt by 
lolirtJike, it Hhotud be P6-h-ni (rt-ad 

f}i referrttig to tUo Varans ut Ba- 
{mx pr, Fibtedward HaU'a 
TV)ilATkB in the Id trod action to 
^herring' fe» Sacrt^ C*tt/ of iht II in- 
Hu9 : alirti Cuaningh^nit .im: Otvfj., 

* The «&me oa Mflgadlvaj geu*^- 

roUj caUed Lu-^fttf ^* the d&sft 
giifden." ^fhis h the spot where 
Buddhft preached hi^ fiVHt seniiou 
to tbti five uieiitlicanbtt, ITor un 
account ol bia m^Lrcli to BJii&riki^ 
a.nd the Bermon h^^ preached nee 
Fo»ko hirtfj-Uankinfh vargft 15, p. 

* Probably m«atung that the en- 
closure wail un octaguu, 04 the great 
tower of Dhivuiek wa^i {Atxfu Sttr* 
tff, voL i p. Ill), 


m of brick. The niches are arranged on the four sidea 
iu a hundred successive lines, and in each niclie is a golden 
fijjiim of Buddha- In the middle of the mhdra is a tigure 
af Buddha made of teou-shiJi (naiwe copper). It is the 
tt2e of life» and ho is represented as turning the wheel of 
fche law (preachif^)} 

To the south-west of the vikdra u a stone $iil-pa built 
by A^5ka-r4ja, Although the foundations have given 
way, there are still lOO feet or more of the wall reraaining. 
lo front of the building ia a stone pillar about 70 feet 
higli. The stone is altogether as bright as jade. It is 
glistening, and sparkles like light; and all those who 
pray fervently before it see from time to time, accord- 
ing to their petitions, fij^ures with good or bad signs. 
It was here that Tath^gata (ju-lai), having arrived at 
enlightenment, began to turn the wheel of the law (to 

Bjr the side of this building and not far from it is a 
9t4pa. This is the spot where Ajniia Kann^inya 
('0-JQ-kio-ch'in-ju) and the rest, seeing Bfldhisattva giving 
up hirt austeritiea. no longer kept his companyj but coining 
to i\m place, gave themselves up to meditation.^ 

By the side of this is a &t4pa where five hundred Pratyfika 
Huildhaa entered at the same time into Hirvdna. There 
ttni» nioryuver, three si'dpas where there are traces of the 
ilttfng and walking of the three former Buddhas, 

liy lliQ Hide of this last place is a st^dpa. This ia the 
^jujt. whurti Maiti^ya Bodbi^attva received assurance of 
hi« limjoininii a Buddha, In old days, when Tath^gata 
wan living in E^agilha (Wang-she), on the Gf^dhrakfita 

^Y\m i*li*«*il U the iiyuibi*! of 

nUMig/' or uf dfiarmn. The 

nf TUnliHrn"* le^^hing near 

:.trict caUfcd Sftr^ 

' tinif til {Winning- 

i of Haniiigaiiutlui, 

tliuUlliA liirimuU was 

\ *k\}^ i*i liuiir/' jLtid thill 

II iliu I a In III iif th0 niune. 

made on tbi^ KK»t anQ Arch. Bunxjf^ 
vi>I. L p. 107 rf. 

> The fire Moetics who had aeconi- 
pMikd tbe B5dhiiuittva to Ur&vilvA, 
and fftsted with him fur bix jear^, 
when they miw him receive the rio«t 
milk of Nand^ supposing he bftd 
given up the object of hid reUgimui 
Iif Of left 1dm, and c»i»e to the deer 



Boomvu,] MAITREYA, 47 

motiTitain,' he spoke tliua to the Bhiksbus: ''In future 
years, when this GOimtry of Jambudvtpa shall be at peace 
and rest, and the age of men shall amount to 80,000 
years, there shall be a Brahmari called Maitrfiya {S&e-che}. 
His body shall be of the colour of pure gold, briglit and 
glistening and pure. leaving his home, he will become a 
perfect Buddha, and preach the tlireefold *^ law for the 
beneiit of all creatyrea Those who shall be saved are 
those who live, in whom the roots of merit have been 
planted through my bequeathed law," These all con- 
ceiving in their minds it profouTHl respect for thu three 
precious objects of worship, whether they be already pro- 
fessed disciples or not, whether they be obedient to tlie 
precepts or not, will all be led by the converting power 
(of his preaching) to acquire the fruit (0/ B6dhi) and final 
deliveraoce. Whilst declating the threefold law for the 
conversion of those who have been influenced by my 
bequeathed law, by this means also hereafter others will 
be converted/' ^^ 

At this time Maiti-Sya Bftdhisaltva (Mei-ta-li-ye-pu-sa) 
hearing this declaration of Buddha, rose from his seat and 
addressed Buddha thus ; '* May I indeed become that lord 
called MaiLr^ya/' Then Tath4gata spoke thus: '' Be it so* 
you shall obtain this fruit {wndUim), and as I have juat 

•The ''Peak of the Vulture," 

^ JuMen translates tfais by ''three 
grefti Aisomblic^^^' It la true hwu^ 
meun '*ftii fts&erably/' but in thijt 
poBBage *ftn hwuy refen to th« 
Uw '' thdoe repe«it«(L" Hence it is 
•»[d to be ** a triple twdve-purt 
trustworthy knowledge of the Unit 
truibB " (Oldenbtrg. B^iddfta^ p. 129 
AUd note. Compare ahto the phrase 
iikuliko chul^avLo in tbe Bharhiiit 
«ciilptiire<>» |tL xxfuL^ the nieaniiig 
of which hM eacaped General Cun^ 
uinghttJii. Mr. B, Nanjio^ altio, in hia 
Caiiilo^pie of the BtiddkUi Trtpitalra, 
ppv 9, lOy has not noticed that tbb 
Cbineae njmhol hwui eorre^pimdei 
iwiib the Sanskrit it Ufa, and ho lim 
tr&hniAted the phrftae ms thouj^b it 

reffjrred to **Ati aaaemblj/* 

^^ That is^ thi>s€ w)in shall be s&vi^ 
by the preuchiijg of MaitKija are 
thodc in whMe hi^artH my bequeathed 
law fthall have worked the ut:c€ssary 

^ The same loflutsnoe, ue,, of 
Maitrtiy^'i teachifi^, wQl act as a 
^' good friend '' for their sab(>a[[iieQt 
converttion. The cxpreimion * * then 
i/au/' ** iJlustrioufl friend >" refers to 
the guidance of B6dh\ i>r wisdom. 
There is some diffictilty in nmler- 
staudmg how Ihift aaimhince con Id 
have been given to Maitreja whilst 
Buddhiv waJi on tb^ Gfldhraki^^u 
inotiutuin, and yet that the sp^^t 
tbould be at Bdn&ru, nnl^fl, indeed, 
it woa i-ep^tfid th«rtt. 

explained, such shall be the power {injlu€7vc€) of your 

To the west of tins place there is a st4pa. This Is the 
gpot where Sihya Eddhisattva (Shih-kia-pu-sa) i-eeeived 
an assurance (of becoming a £uddha). In the midst of the 
l^liadra-kalpa when tnen's years amounted to 20,000, 
Kaiyapa Buddha (Kia-she-po-fo) appeared in the world and 
moved the wheel of the excellent law {%.€., preachtd the law)^ 
opened out and changed the unclosed mind {of men), and 
declared this prediction to B6dbisattva (Hu- 
ming-pu-sa).^ "This BSdhisattva in future ages, when 
tlie years of men shall have dwindled to 100 yeai^s, shall 
(jhtain the condition of a Buddha and be called SAkv& 

Not far to the south of this spot are traces where the 
four Euddhas of a bvirone age walked for exercise. The 
length {of the jpromenade) is about fifty paces and th- 
height of the steps (dcpjmig spots) about seven feet It is 
composed of blue stones piled together. Above it is a 
^gum of Tathagata in the attitude of walking. It is of a 
singular dignity and beauty. From the flesh -knot on the 
top of the head there flows wonderfully a braid of hair. 
Spiritual signs are plainly manifested and divine prodigies 
wrought with power (JiTieness, McU). 

Within the precincts of the enclosure {of the mngh^ 
rdma) " there are many sacred vestiges, with mJidras and 
siujjos several hundred in number. We have ouly named 
two or three of these, as it would be diflScult to enter g 
into details, ^1 

To the west of the miu/hdrdma enclosure is a clear lak©™^ 
of water about 200 paces in circuit; here Tathagata occa- 
pionally Imihed himselL To the west of this is a c™at 

^* Juliefi trmnslatefl *'nn<i received 
from Prubhilpaift lifidhisattva tho 
jirodictitin fQUowHig.*' But thia 
WOdd destftty th<i connects nn of the 
inatcQce; iiUKMjspa Buddha who 
litobreA io FrabhfiLplUa that he (F^m- 

bhfipAIfl) eh alt beeomo a Buddh&. 
See iVofig pah {J. It. A ». S., vol X£. 

'* Or of the "deer park/' 
modern S^mMh. 

KOK til] 








tank about i So paces round ; here TatliSgata used to wash 
his boggin^^-iHsh. 

To the north of this is a lake about 1 50 pncea round. 
Here Tath^gata used to wasli his robes, In each of these 
pools is a dragon who dwells wnthia it. The water is 
dt*€p and its taste sweet; it is pure and resplendent iti 
appearance, and neither increases nor decreases. When 
men of a bad cliaracter bathe here, the crocodiles (/jm-pt- 
lo, — IcttnthMras) come forth and kill many of them; but 
In case of the reverential who wasli here, tbey need fear 

By the side of t!ie pool where Tath4gata washed his 
garments is a great square stone, on which are yet to he 
seen the trace-marks of his kas/idf/a (Ida-^ia) robe. The 
bright lines of the tissue are of a minute and distinct 
character, as if carved on the stone. The faithful and 
pure frequently come to make their ofiTtiriugs here; but 
when the heretics and men of evil mind speak lightly of 
or insult the stone, the dragon-king inhabiting the pool 
causes the winds to rise aud rain to fall 

By the side of the lake, and not far off, is a st4pa. This 
is where Bodhisattva, during his preparatory life, was horn 
as a king of elephants, provided wath six tusks (chJia- 
danta)J^ A hunter, desirous to obtain the tusks, put on 
a robe in colour like that of a religious ascetic, aiid tak- 
ing his bow, awaited the arrival of his prey. The elephant 
king, from respect to the kashdj/a robe, immediately broke 
ofi' his tusks and gave them to the hunter. 

By the side of this spot, and not far from it, 13 a stUpa. 
It was here Bodhisattva, in his preparatory career, grieved 
to see t)iat there was little politeness (f^cvercjice) amongst 
men, took the form of a bird, and joining himself to the 

^^ ChhaAlantA, whleh eeeuiiS to Hurdj, Eastern MonachisfAf p. 17S 

menTi EiX'tuskedi according to Si^ 

iTie^e legend. Is the HAme of an ele- 
phant living in a gnlden palace on 
the fihurea of the Mimnlayao ]a,l£e 
Qhatthan^ attctiried by eighty thou- 
Mind ordinary c] «jph ants.— Ala bti^itfr, 
Whf'i't ctj tht J.atr, p. 305; conf. Sp. 

vol- If. 

Mamtal of Budhism^ p. ty; Afaka* 
^Dtinso (Turnfjur'i^ trnnm. ], pp. 22^ [34; 
Upham, Sac. and Ilisi. BooKn^vul iif, 
p. 269 J Buri^'*9:i, liepQris'ArcIt. Sitr, 
yV. Ind,t vol iv. pp 45, 46; CuniiiBg- 
hftoi, Bfmrhut JScdf^t, pp. 62, 6j J 
B&d, Rvai. Lttj. Bud., p. J ^7. 



conipany of a monkey and a wLiiii elephant, lie asked 
them in this place, "Which of you saw tii'bt Ujis Nya- 
grfidha (N't-Im-lm) tree ? ** Each having answered accord- 
ing to circumstances, lie placed them according to their 
age.^® The good effects of this conduct spread itself little 
by little on every side ; men were able to distinguUh the 
high from t!ie low, and the religious and lay i>eople fol- 
lowed their example. 

Not far from this, in a great forest, is a si4pa. It was 
here tLut Dfivadatta and Bodhisattva, in years gone b}% 
were kings of deer and settled a certain matter. Formerly 
in tbia place, in the midst of a great forest, there wem 
two herds of deer, each 500 in number. At thi=j time the 
kin^;^ of the country wandered abont hunting through the 
plains and morasses. Bodliisattva, king of deer, approach- 
ing him, said, " Maharaja ! you set fire to the spaces en- 
closed as your huntiDg-ground, and ahoot your arrows and 
kill all my followers. Before the sun rises they lie about 
corrupting and unfit for food Pmy let us each day offer _ 
you one deer for food, which the king will then have fi'esh ■ 
and good, and we shall prolong our life a little day by 
day," The king was pleased at the proposition, and 
turned his chariot and went back home. So on each day 
a deer from the respective Hocks was killed. m 

Now among the herd of Devadatta there was a doe bij^fl 
with young, and when her turn came to die she said to 
her lord, " Although I am ready to die, yet it is not my 
child's turn." 

The king of the deer (ie., D§vadatta) was angry, andfl 
said, ** Who i^ there but values Hfe ? *' 

The deer answered with a sijih, ** But, king, it is not 
humane to Idll that which is unborn/* '^'^ 

She then told her extremity to Bodldsattva, the king of 
duer. He replied, " Sad indeed ; the heart of the loving 


^ Hrrta I foUow Julieu^a trftUB' 
Imtitm, but tberii ii probublj^ an error 
In IliM tcJiL 

I' ThU Ui^f he tnuuUted other* 

wt«« : " Our king m n«t huniAiie m 
putti iig to deiilh witbout reprieve | '* 
in\ ** Our kmg im not humane ; I die 
Vp jthciut pepriere.*' 




motlier grieves (vs mmr*l) for tlmt which is not yet alive 
{has 7w hod^). I to~(lay will take your place and die." 

Going to the royal gate (ie., the palace), tlie people who 
travelled along the road passed the news along aiid said 
in a loud voice, *'That great king of the deer is going now 
towards the town*" The people of the capital, the magi- 
strates, and others, linstened to see* 

The king hearing of it, was unwilling to believe tlie 
news; but when the gate-keeper assured him of the 
truth, then the king believed it. Then, addressing the 
deer-king he said, '* Why have you come here ?'* 

The d^v-{Mng) replied, ''There is a female in the he^-i 
big with young, whose turn it was to die; but my heart 
conld not bear to tliink tliat the young, not yet born, should 
perish so* I have therefore come in her place." 

The king, liearing it, sighed and Saiid^ "I have indeed 
the body of a man, but am as a deer. You have the body 
of a deer, but are a-'i a man/' Then for pity*s sake he re- 
leased the deer, and no longer required a daily sacrifice^ 
Then he gave up that forest for the use of the deer, and 
so it was called "the forest given to the deer/*** and 
hence its name, the '* deer- plain '* (or, wild). 

Leaving this i>lace, and going 2 or 3 li to the south- 
west of the miighdrdma, there is a stupa about 300 feet 
high. The foundations are broad and the building high, 
and adorned with all sons of carved work and with pre- 
cious substances. There are no successive stages {to this 
hiild iiiif) y^ith niclies; and although there is a standing 
pole erected above the cupola (fau poh^^, yet it has no 
eneiroling bells.®'* V>y the side of it is a little st^ifn. This 

* Oomniotiljr ealled th* Mrtg- 
dAv^ This b the site refi^rred to 
before^ — the prt'dent SArniith or Bk- 

w JfiM 

JuMen Itiiiittlate^ thU ** n Jiort 
of vMe belonging %o a rclij^Lotui per- 
soil, inverted ; ^* but I lainti faupoh 
to mean the cupola of n stdpa. In 
ni^ement with the ocooutit giv^n 
ove, p. 47 ftnd u. 1 63. 

^ Lnn-iQf circular bell3» iir encir- 
cling bella» referring to the oiroidttr 
platen with bella g«aerji!Iy attached 
to the sannnnntiug ptth n( a itilptt. 
Julien tramlfttes, ** It In not crown ciL 
with a cupala In form like u bell/' 
This ftcem^ tf) ha luiposaible, n-* it is 
btifore stated that the stilpa wan 
HUrmounted by a piile. 


the sikjI vhere Ajuaia Kaundiiiya and the other men, 
five in number, declined to rise to salute Buddha.** When 
first Sarvarthasiddha (Sa-p'o-ho-la-t'a-si-to **) left the 
city to sojourn in the mountains and to hide in the valleys, 
forgetful of self and mindful of religion, then ^uddhd- 
d an a-raj a (Tsing-fan^ commanded three persons of his own 
tribe and houseliold, and two of his maternal uncles, say- 
ing, " My son Sarvarthasiddha has left his home to practise 
wi&dom ; alone he wanders through mountains and plains 
and lives apart in the forests. I order you, therefore, to 
follow him and find out where he dwells. You within 
Ohr family), liis uncles, and you without {the family)^ mini- 
hters and people, exert yourselves diligently to find out 
where he has gone to live." The five men, after receiving 
the order, went together, casting along the outposts of 
the country. And now, during their earnest search, the 
thought of leaving their homes occurred to them also,*^ and 
HO they thus spake one to the other: " Is it by painful dis- 
cipline or by joyful means we attain to supreme wisdom?" 
Two of them said, " By rest and by pleasant discipline 
wisdom is obtained." Three of them said, "It is by pain- 
ful (li«cipliiie." "Whilst they yet contended without 
n;^i(ieing, two to three, the prince had already entered on 
tli(j painful discipline of the unbelievers, considering this 
t«) \n\ the true way to overcome sorrow; and so, like them, 
hi! took only a few grains of rice and millet to support his 

Tlui two men seeing him thus, said, " This discipline 
of \\\i\ priucij is opposed to the true way {of escape)] intel- 

•* Kor fill lu'cciiuit of Ihia incident into " Yih-taai-i-shing," which j 

will Mm I'll »ho him/tfUU'k'int/, p. 172, to nignify "one* who is perfected in 

vv, IJJJ, \22\. Vor the orijjin of nil waya," or "the completely per- 

AjfuUii Kaui.njIiijjiH ("O-jo-kiao- feet." 

I |j III )in iiuiiif MO <»/>. cit, V. 1208. ^ Such appears to be the f(»rce of 

'-''' Tiiin wiirt tiio iiniiio given to the passage, as though the five men 

niilliihuKui by hin pun nU. It id by their long search for the prince 

t s|iliiiiii (I Id iiicaii "one by whom hud become accustomed to a solitary 

all tilijiitrt iiro (iVii-ttii" iMonier life, and so were unwilling to return 

N\ illiautM, 'SiiiJt. Jhti., »tub voc. home. 
^s^^|,^t\. 111 Chiiunu it iH trannlatod 





ligencB is obtained by agreeable methods, but now be is 
practfaing severe discipline, be cannot be our companion " 
80 tbey departed far off and lived in seclusion nnder the 
idea til at they would (in their otmi waf) attain the fruit 
. {of enlttjhtenment). The prince having practised austerities 
for six yenrs^* without obtaining Bodhi, desired to give up 
his rigorous discipline, as being contrary to the truth ; he 
then prepared himself to receive the rice-milk {ojcred hy 
the gitl% with a view, by this method^ to obtain cnli<;bten' 
laent.^ Then the threR men {who advocaitd penance) hear- 
ing thereof, sighed and said, *' His merit was just ripen - 
ing, and now it is all dissipated I For six years enduring 
penance, and now in a day to loso all his nierit!" On 
this tbey went together to seek for and consult with tlie 
two men. Having met them, tbey sat down and entered 
on an excited conversation. Then they spake together 
ihus: "In old days we saw the Priuce SarvS-rthasiddha 
leave the royal palace for the desert valleys : he pat off 
his jewels and robe^, and assumed the skin doublet {of the 
kunUr), and then, witli all bis might and determined will, 
ga^e himself to austerities to seek after the deep mys- 
terious law and its perfect fruit. And now, having given 
all up, he has received tlic rice-milk of the young sbep- 
herd-girl, and ruined his purpose. We know now be can 
do nothing" 

The two men replied, " IIow is it, my masters, ye have 
seen this so late, that this man acts as a madman? 
When lie lived in his palace lie was reverenced and 

** The period of mortilieatioTi h 
leaiglheDed to »evt^n j'l^rR in the 
SoutJltini accittinU, or rathcsr thiAt 
3CAim pnr&iicd the B6dhis4ttva for 
e^ren y^a^tt iip to thi3 last vain at- 
tftek he twide upon him. See Olden- 
bm^, Budifha^ p. 420» Eng. tranit. 
It in probi^ble tbal the seiveii yeum* 
tarturti fiaid to li»ve been undergone 
hy Si. Georgei antJ the legend gene- 
imlh% U Ijorrowed from the story uf 

'^ Julien hstst translated thla pas^ 
fUtge &a if it were Hpokeu by " tbe 
two mGn " who were opposed Iti 
aerere mort ill cation ai a method of 
religious discipline. But thb uece«- 
»tt«teit the prediction that he would 
receive enlightenment after receiv- 
ing the rice-milk, ^'Mais quand il 
nura re9U nne bouillic d<i r\i an lait, 
il obtiendra riattillii^noe " \p. 365). 
Thii^ 16 highly improbabk', and I 
Lave th<3rt:fut^ tranalnted it aa in 
the text 



powerful; but lie was not able to rest in qiuet, and so 
went wandering far off through mountains and woodii, 
giving up tlie estate of a Chakravartiii nionarcb to lead 
the life of an abject and outcast. What need we think 
about birn more; the mention of liis name but ndds sor- 
row to sorrow^*' 

And now Boilhisattva, iiaving bathed in the NairanjanH 
river, seated himself under the B6dki tree and perfected 
lumself in supreme wisdom, and was named ** The lord of 
<I6vas and men/* Then reflecting in silence, he thought 
who was worthy [Jii) to be instructed in the wjiy of deli- 
verance — "The son of Kdma, Udra by name (Yo-t'eu- 
lan). he is fit to receive the excellent law, as he has reached 
i[\(^ Samdilhi, winch admits of no active thought.'*^ 

Tlien the Dfivas in space raised their vt>ice9 and said, 
'* U d r a- K i\ m a p u t r a has been dead for seven days/' The a 
Tatltdgata sighing {said) with regret, *' Why did we not 
meeit i^eady as Le was to hear the excellent law and 
thereby to obtain quick conversion l" 

Again he gave himself to cousideration, and cast about 
through the world to seek (/or ^mm one to whom fw ut it/hi 
firsi preach). Tliere is {he tkouf/ht) Arada KfiUuia (^O-hn- 
IHa-luii), who has reached the ecstatic point *' of having 
nothing to obtain f '^ he is fit to receive the highest reasoTh 
Then a^ain the Devas said^ '* lie has been dead fur five** 

Again Tathflgata sigbed, in knowledge of hia incom- 
pleted merit. Once more considering wlio was worthy to 
receive bis instruction, be remembered that in the " deer 
park" there were the five men,^ who might fii^t receive 
the converting' doctrine. Then Tath^gata, rising from the 
Bd*Un tree, went forward witli measured step^ and digni- 


* ynimjmvjfi^ mmdtlhi (Jut*) 
The theory <^f UdrA-RAmftputr* 
{Tvu-i&tt^fitn'Uiftt) with rcs^pect to 
Etml delivtsmitce ih tiaiplnin^d in the 
twelfth var|n of the Fo-Mfiohintj- 
Uatt-kinff, H!» eryFtcEi appear* tn 
hivr been % i«fitirtiitnt uti thsit of 

^ A lifi di ftr*iiii/atnmt — { »Tn Hen)* 

** In tht: LaiitQ. VUiarft the nuBi- 
ber of dav« is thrtr. In t!i<? Bvddko- 
chariln there ib tin pi^rJnd niLiiLi^d. 

^ That IB, the Mfi^iidavA (fidr- 
nf^th), At Bininu. 

** '* St<^p by utep, lilee the Idng^ nf 
lH?a«t« (the lioa), did he advance 



fied mien to the " deer-park garden " shiiHDg with glory; 
liis (drcJe qf) hair^^ reflecting it3 brilliant colours, and his 
body like gold. Gracefully he advanced to teach those 
five men. They, on their parts, seeing him afar off, said 
one to another,^ "Here comes that Sarvarthasiddhaj for 
jeafs and months he has sought for the sacred fruit, and 
has not obtained it, and now hh mind is relaxed, and so 
he comes to seek ug as disciples (or, to seek our com- 
pany) ; let us remain silent, and not rise to meet him or 
pay him respect/' 

TathSlgata gradually approaching, hia sacred appearance 
affecting all creatures, the five men, forgetting their vow, 
rose and sainted bim, and then attached thcraselves to 
him with respect. Tathdgata gradually instructed them 
ia the excellent principles (of his Tehgifm), and when the 
double'® season of rest was finished, they had obtained the 
bmt {nf B6dhi). 

To the east of the ** deer forest** 2 or 3 li, we come to a 
si€ipa by the side of which is a dry pool about So paces in 
ciTciiit, one name of which is " saving life,"^ anotlier name 
i^ "ardent master/* The old traditions explain it thus: 
Many hundred years ago there vcm a solitary sage {a sor- 
Towfifl or ohsmre master) who built by tlie side of this pool 
a hut to live in, away from the world. He practised the 
arts of magic, and by the extremest exercise of hia spiritual 
power he could cliange broken fragments of bricks into 

wfttcltfully tbnm^h tlie gtave ot vfU- 
lioni.** — FkhshG * king - t9an • hin^^ v. 

*i Tb»t i«, the circle of hair be- 
twi«eti hi* eyes ^the urna^. 

^ AccLtrding to the Buddha- cha- 
riia, vv. 1120, 1211 ^ the fire men 
were njiTMpdl Kanndinyik, Dii^bMat- 

rika. The I^ita Viftnra ^nve« Mn* 
hinfttuil iutfteftd of Diviabila. For 
•libe iTieidt:ni tmined in the text eee 
BudtihtdiOfiia, loc. cit. 

** That m, the season of ruin, dm r- 
ing whick the di-^iples retired into 

fixed homei. But thia ordinance 
wait not yet introduced into the 
BuddJiitit Kjfltem ■ it eieemu to h&ve 
been a custom, however^ among reli- 
gious communities before Buddhn'?* 
time, for in the Vinui/a oomplniut 
XH itibdi; to Bnddhik that his dincipled 
oonttti;ted to wander through the 
c?rtuntry when the eeedsf were ^nit 
Rowing, ^ntrary to the oriliniry 

** There it no exprenalou for 
'■potiV* ** J^ th^ French tranKla. 



precfoii3 stones^ and conlJ also metamorphose both men 
and animals into other shape!?, but he was not jet able to 
lide upon the winds and the clouds, ami to follow the 
Rlshia in mounting upwards. By inspecting figures and 
names that had come down from of old, he furtlier soughti 
into the secret arts of the RIshis, From these he leaiiieAj 
the following: *' The spirit- Kishis are they who possess the 
art of lengthening life,^ If you wish to acquire this 
knowledge, first of all you must fix your mind on this — 
viz., to build up an altar enclosure lo feet round ; then 
coinniand an 'ardent master^ (a hero), faithful and brave, 
luid with clear in ten t^ to hold in his hand a long sword J 
and tak^ his seat at the corner of the altar, to cover his 
breath; and remain silent from evening till dawn.^ He 
who seeks to be a Rishi luust sit iu the middle of the altar^J 
and, grasping a long knife, must repeat the magic forrnulift ^ 
and keep watch (seeing and hearing). At morning light, 
attaining the condition of a Rlshi, the sharp knife he holds 
wiU change into a sword of diamond {a gan-aivonl), ^nd 
he will mount into the air and march through space, and 
rule over the band of Rtsliis, Waving the sword he holds^ 
everj^thing lie wishes will be accomplished, and he will 
know neither decay nor old age, nor disease nor death/' *^j 
The man having thus obtained the method (of becom in^ a 
ii^hi), went in searcli of sucli an "ardent master/' Dili- 
gently he searched for many years, but as yet he found 
not the object of his desires. At length, in a ceitain town 

■* The magic art of len^heniog 
nfe, or of SL loDg Ufe, Th*; "elixiir 
(if Jife " and tbe art of transmuting 
met&ls had been iKsught aftcjr in the 
East U>tig before the Arabs intro- 
duced the ^ndy nf ulcheiny into 
Europe, The pli!lo«iopher'it stotie is 
the t4in *ha of thf? Ghineni?', %.t,, th^ 
TKil lijaulpburet of mercury, or f^in- 
iiiLb&r. tit;*? au article cm Tauiifm in 
tbe Trana. of the Vhinfi Branch nf 
tht R,A.B., part v. 1855, by Dr. 
KiikiuB, p. S6. 

^ Wti tttav compare witb thU the 

CKremonios observed ancrentlj uil . 
coEif erring tbe dignity of kuight^ 
hf>f^d^ especially the ?igil before the 
attar. (Ingulpbus^ '^unted by Mr* 
Thomn in hiJ* Bmkofthc CotiH, p, 1 5S. ) 
^^ Tbe &&cuunt of thifttQUgic gem^ 
8 word may be cM>mpared with tbe 
** gr vat brand, Exciilibiir," of King 

** Buforfl hodiT»r ilm surf nee, rosammmt 
Clothed 111 white tali] it o, tujrsLiCip Wdu^ 

And cuiti^ht: him hy the hilt, mt\d brua- 

dliiiied hlni 






encoimtered a man piteously wailing as hii went i 
the waj% The solitarj master seeing liis marks (ihc marks 
on his psrson),^ was rejoiced at henrt, and forthwith ap- 
proadimi^ him, he inquired, "Why do you go tlius lament- 
ing, and why are you so distressed ? " He said, " I was a 
poor and needy man, and had to labour bard to support 
myself, A certain master seeing this, and knowing me to 
be entirely trusi worthy, used nie {etyjatjed me for his tnork) 
during live yeai^, promising to pay me well for ray pains. 
On this I patiently wrought iu spite of wearlneBs and 
difficulties. Just as the five years were done, one morn- 
ing for some bttie fault I was cruelly whipped and driven 
away without a furthing. For this cause I am sad at 
heart and afBicted. Ob, who will pity me ? " 

The solitary master ordered him to accompany 1dm, and 
coming to his cabin {imod hid), by bis magic power be 
caused to appear some choice food, and ordered him to 
enter the pool and wash. Then be clothed him in new 
garments, and giving bim 500 gold pieces, he dismissed 
him, sayingj * "When tliia is done, come and a^k for more 
without fear/**'' After this he frequently bestowed on 
him more gifts, and in secret diil I dm other good, so 
that his heart was filled with gratitude. Then tlte*'ardent 
master" was ready to lay down It is life in return for all 
the kindness he had received. Knowing this, the other 
said to bim, *' I am in need of an entlmsiastiG person.*'* 
During a succession of years I sought for one, till I was 
fortunate enough to meet with you, possessed of rare 
beauty and a becoming presence, different from others.^* 
Ko^r, therefore, I pray you, during one night (to watch) 
witliont speaking a word." 

The champion said, *' I am ready to die for yon, much 

^ Ma^, the marks indicatmg hU 
noble dhAmcter, 

" tfu'ieuf may nUo tne-ati *' stt?ek 
it tiot eUewhcr^,*' Julien tranRlatt^ 
it ** iJi* not despjie me/' 

** '*A brave chiimpjon " — JuUen. 

^ So 1 tmnslftte the p&iieage, but 

it may be **yorar beauty (or figure) 
correvpnnda to tbo ideal portrait I 
had fomaeil of it" 3o Julian trans- 
lates ; b^tt jS yt^n Ca wuuld mora 
uaturany be reudered ** unlike that 
of any other/' 


inoro to ait with my breath covered/'*- Whereupon lie 
constructed an altar and undertook the rules for becondng 
a Rishi, according to the prescribed form. Sitting down, 
he awaited tlie uighL At the approach of nijjht each 
attended to his particular duties. The "solitary iiuister" 
recited his magic prayers ; the champion held his sharp 
sword in Ijis hand. About dawn suddenly he uttered a 
short cry, and at the same time fire descended from 
heaven, and flames and smoke arose on every side like 
clouds. The "solitary master" at onee drew the champion 
into tlie lake/* and having saved him from bis danger, he 
said, *'I bound you to silence; why then did you cry 

The champion said, ** After receiving your orders, to- 
wards the middle of the night, darkly, as in a dream, the 
scene changed, and I saw rise before oie all my past his- 
tory, My master** in his own person came to ma, and 
in consolatory words addressed me ; overcome %vith grati- 
tude, I yet restrained myself and spoke not Then that 
other man came before me ; towering with rage, lie slew 
me, and I received my ghostly body** (I wandered m a 
sUmde or %kadowy hod^]. I beheld myself dead, and I 
sighed with pain, but yet I vowed through endless ages 
not to speak, in gratitude to you. N'ext I saw myself 
destined to be born in a gi^ut Brahman's bouse iu 
Bonthern India, and I felt my time come to be conceived 
and to be brought fortk Though all along enduring 
anguish, yet from gratitude to you no sound escaped me. 

^ From th!» \i Boetna that the 
fHirtioii relatitig ti^ ** holditi^ the 
Lnath " w oiijitt4id iti tht! jjiLnioua 

^ That is, to escape the fire, 
** That js, " ttxy lurtl or master* 
v\ honi I now nerve **■ — the Ji4>Iit&r}^ 
Uiuter or IjlYshi, It cannot he toy 
tild nuKter, the one who treated him 
iM> eroelly (aa JuJitn constructs i%\ 
for he eom^ on the nceDe in the 
neict iectonoc. The ftymliolB Aih t*c 

ure not to be taken with r^u^ ^t 
though It were ** my old master ; ** 
but ^ith lin^ as 1 have translated 
it, ^* thore arose before m^ the for* 
mer events of my Ufe." 

*^ This* ghostly body or ahade 
irhtttiff j/iu sfmji) cf*rre.5pondfl ^ith 
the fi£<ifAiM' of the Greeks — 








After a while I entered on my studies, took the cap {of 
^mnhood), and I married; my parents dead, I had a 
cliild. Each day I thought of all your kindness, and en- 
dured in silence, tittering no word. My household con- 
nections and clan relatives all seeing this, were filled with 
ehame. For more than sixty years and five I lived. At 
length my wife addressed me, * You must speak; if not, 
I slay your son I ' And then I thought, ' I can beget no 
other child, for I am old and feeble ; this is my only ten- 
der son/ It wag to stop my wife from killing him I 
raised the cry/' 

The " solitary master " said, ** All waa my fault \ *twas 
the fascination of the devil" **^ The champion, moved 
with gratitude, and sad because the tiling had failed, fretted 
himself and died. Because he escaped the calamity of 
fife, the lake is called " Saving the Life," and because h*j 
ilied overpowered by gratitude, it baa its other name, "The 
Champion's Lake**' 

To the west of this lake there \BB.si4pa of *'thu three ani- 
mals/' In this place, when Bddhi^attvawas practising his 
preparatory life, he burnt his own body. At the beginning 
of the kalpa in tins forest wild, there lived a fox, a hare, 
and a monkey, three creatures of different kinds hut 
mutnally aflectionate. At this time Snkra, king of IJ^vas, 
wiahing to examine into the case of those practising the 
life of a BMhisattva, descended spiritually in shape as 
an old man. He addressed the three animals thus: ** My 
children, two or tliree,*^ are you at ease and without 
fear I*' They said, *' We lie upon {trrail on) Uie rich her- 
bage, wander through the bosky brakes, and though of 
different kinds we are agreed together, nnd are at rest and 
joyful " The old man said, " Hearing that yon, my chiU 

*-' Tbtfft appears tn be ttn trroi' 
\%\ t\m text, an thinigh tua**^ (tbrev) 
htkii betiii fopeat^d^ but the initidle 
istrnke of the first i?ymbl^l erasktid« 
But Ti9 the snine ^yiuboU are usmljiI iti 
till' next eentenee, the lueaningf lu^j 
br ^iinplj, '* My chUiJreu." 

** Of MATS : It U pUiti that th w 
wrird ttory, taken m f'*>titi*4ction 
with the dreatn^ the Inability tn 
tDOVc dr Apeak, and the actual refe- 
re-nc*? ^'f it rU tf* Milrtt, i^i but an 
ikeciHint uf ** the enthuiriafltic heroes * 
fc-fififenng from " iiiijbtnmre." 


dren, two or three, were peaceful at heart and living in 
sweet accord, though I am old, yet have I come from far 
alone, forgetting my infirmities, to visit you; but now I 
am pressed with hunger, what have you to ofifer me to eat ?** 
They said, " Wait here awhile, and we will go ourselves in 
search of food.'* On this, with one mind and with single 
purpose, they searched through tlie different ways for food. 
The fox having skirted a river, drew out from thence a 
fresh carp fish. The monkey in the forest gathered fruits 
and flowers of different kinds. Then they came together to 
the appointed place and approached the old man. Only the 
liare came empty, after running to and fro both right and 
left. The old man spake to him and said, "As it seems 
to me, you are not of one mind with the fox and monkey; 
each of those can minister to me heartily, but the hare 
alone comes empty, and gives me nought to eat; the 
truth of what I say can easily be known." The hare, 
hearing these words and moved by their power, addressed 
the fox and monkey thus, " Heap up a great pile of wood 
for burning, then I will give {do) something." The fox 
and monkey did accordingly; running here and there, they 
gathered grass and wood ; they piled it up, and when it 
was thoroughly alight the hare spake thus: "Good sir! I 
am a small and feeble thing; it is difficult for me to obtain 
you food, but my poor body may perhaps provide a meal." 
On this he cast himself upon the fire, and forthwith died. 
Then the old man reassunied his body as King Sakra, col- 
lected all the bones, and after dolorous sighs addressed the 
fox and monkey thus : " He only could have done it {or, 
unprecedented event). I am deeply touched ; and lest his 
memory should perish, I will place him in the moon's disc 
to dwell." Therefore through after ages all have said, 
*' The haro is in the moon." After this event men built a 
stUpa on the spot.*® 

^ The preceding story is known found also in the Chinese J&taka- 
os The Hare Jdtaka. It is given book ; see aUo FausboU, Five Jdia- 
in Rhys Davida' Buddhism ; it is kas, p. 58. 




Leaving this country and going down the Ganges east- 
ward 300 U or so, we come to the country of Clien-chu* 

TflE Kingdom op Chik-chd*** [GnAziPim]. 

t Tills kingdom is about 2000 li in circuit; iU capital^ 
which borders on tlie Ganges river, is about 10 li in cir- 
cuit. The people are wealthy and prosperous ; the towns 
and villages are close together. Tlie eoU is rich and fer- 
ule, and the land is regularly cultivated. The climate is 
^mh and temperate, and the manners of the people are 
pare and honest. The disposition of the men is naturally 
fierce and excitable ; they are believers both in heretical 

• and true doctrine. There are some ten aaiighdrdiims with 
less than looo followers, who all study the doctrines of 
the Little Velucle. There are twenty DGva temples, occu- 
pied by sectaries of different persuasions. 

In a sanf^kdrdma to the north-we^t of the capital is a 
stiXpa built by Aioka-rSja. The Indian tradition^ says 
this sMpa contains a pc:ck of the relics of Tathagata. For- 
merly, when the Lcjrd of the World dwelt in this ydace,*^ 
during seven days he preached the excellent law for the 
gake of an assembly of the DSvas. 

Beside this place are traces where the three Buddhas of 
the past age wall>ed aud where they sat 

Close by is an image of Maitr6)'a BSdhiaattva : althongli 
of small dimensions, its spiritual presence Is great, and its 
divine power is exliibited from time to lime in a niystC' 
riotis manner. 

Going east from the chief city about 200 li, we come to 
a mnghdrdma called '0-pi*t*o*kie-la-na ('*Ears not 

<• Cben-chu, roeanmg "lord of 
conflict or b&ttli^'' ts the tir&ns!fi- 
tioii of G&rjATiapatit and fa as iMwn 
iijcnlified by Cuuningfaum with Gbfl,- 
Eiptir, a t.awn on the Ganges juiit 50 
nule* e»fttof Bau&raB. TbeunginAl 
Hindu nanie of the place wmn Gur- 

*" Or the wotk caUed In-i^^ki^ C^, 
the Hecorda of Iniiitk. 

*' Julien tranijlateei '* ui thl» eon- 
Tent," but the origiti&l nAUftem mXy 
** the placed' It would \m n^tarttl 
to «uppo«e that A46kii built the 
jttj!2pfif und the $aji<jhdrdim% wm 
^rvcted substN^ucntly. 


pierced" — ^Aviddhakarna***). The circuit {tncirdht^ tcaU) 
ia not great, but the oruamental work of the building is 
very artistic. The lakes reflect the surrounding flowers^ and 
the eaves of tlie towers and pavilions {or, the tower-pavi- 
lions) touch one anotlier in a contiuuous line. The priests 
are grave and decorous, and all their duties are properly 
attended to. The tradition states : Formerly there were 
two or three Sramanas, passionately fond of learning, why 
lived in the country of Tu-ho-lo^ (Takham), to the 
north of the Snowy Mountains, and were of one mind 
Each day during tlie intervals of worship and reciting the 
scriptures, they talked together in this way: '* The excel- 
lent principles of religion are dark and mysterious, not to 
be fathomed in careless talk. The sacred relics (truceB) 
shine with their own peculiar splendour ; let ns go toge- 
ther from place to place, and tell our faithful (helkrmy^) 
fiiends what sacred relics we ourselves have seen." 

On this the two or three associates, taking their ^li- 
t;ious sta\es,^^ went forth to travel together. Arrived in 
India, at whatever convent gates they calledj thej were 
treated with disdain as belonging to a frontier countij% 
and no one would take them in. They were exposed In 


^ Tbe diBtaniK and bearing from 
GbAxipur given in the text wotild 
indic&te BalijBi as the Bite of thid 
oonvQut, There i^ a viUiige called 
Bikapuc, ubnut ime mile eiist nf B»- 
livA, which Cunningham thinks may 
be a corruption of ATiddhAkKr^A' 
pura. It may be the e&me mhdra 
tii that cftUod ** Desert '* by I'a-bian 
(cap. xxxiv, ) But we can hardly 
accept Cunninghani^a nentoratinn of 
JTuKiui? Iff (which simply mean* ** wil- 
derness" or "desert 1 to Vrihftil- 
Aran y a or B|ihad4rany^ which he 
thiukii luikyhavebeeti corrupted into 

** Slv vi*L i. p. 37, For further 
remarks oa the country Tu-bti-lci and 
the Tokhad people see a pamphlet 
by G. de YaacfmcelloB^Abreu ou the 
probable origin of the Toukharl {Pe 

Lou vaint 1 SS^. Tbia wd ber combat« 
tbe opinion of Baron Hichtofen ^nd 
others that the YuG-chi and the* 
QDokhari are identicah This la in 
agreement uith vol L p. 57, n. 121, 
of the presstnt work. 

** "Oar non-heretical frietidi or 
relatives/' or it may he simply *' our 
attached fHendd.** 

** There are two such fofeigTi pil- 
grims with their staves neulptiiTtMi 
at Amardvatl, Tree and Serpent Wvr- 
ihip, pi. IxxxlL %. K Mr. Fer^uascm 
3t]|jfge&tii they may be Scythians ; 
probably they ftre these Tokhari 
people* If this h'd j«r>, their pnsitioli 
beneath the palm -tree indicates the 
misery they endured^ as deseribod 
In the text ; a^d thi^ grouping may 
be compared with the **Jtida 





the winds and the rains without^ and witViin tliey suffered 
from iiunger; their withered bodies and pallid faces 
showed their misery. At this time the king of the crjuiitry 
in his ^vaiidering through the suhurbsj of tlie ciiy saw 
these strange priests. Surprised^ he iisked them, ** What 
region, mendicaut masters, come you from 1 and why are 
you here with your unpierced ears^ and your soiled gar- 
ments?'* The Sranianas replied, "We are men of the 
Tu~ho*lo conn try. Having received with respect the 
bequeathed doc tr in e,^^ with high resolve we have spurned 
the common pursuits of life, and following the same plan, 
we have come to see and adore the saered relics. But 
alas! for our little merit, all alike have cast us out; the 
^ramaiis of India deign not to give us shelter, and Me 
would returu to our own land^ hut we have not yet com- 
pleted the round of our pilgrimage* Therefore, Mith mucli 
fatigue and troubled in heart, we follow on our way till 
we have finished our aim." 

The king hearing these words, was much affected with 
pity, and forthwith erected on this fortunate (€xcellent) sittj 
a saiifjhdrdma^ and wrote on a linen scroll the following 
decree: ** It is by the divine favour of the three precious 
ones (Buddha, Dhaiiria, Samjhit) that I am sole ruler of 
the world and the niust honoured among men. Having 
acquired sovereignty over men, this charge has been laid 
on me by Buddha, to protect and cherisii all who wear the 
garments of religion (soiled or dyed garmtnts). 1 have 
built this mi^hdrdma for the special entertainment of 
strangers. Let no priest with pierced ears ever dwell iti 
this convent of mine," Because of this circumstance the 
place received its name. 

Going south-east from the convent of '0-pi-t'o-kie- 

la-na about 100 li, and passing to the south of the Ganges, 

we come to the town Mo-ho-sa-lo (Mahisfl.ra),^ the in- 

^ H.eii<0e the imme, A vidd hit l^arn^ ^ Tbe town of MfthSiiLn, hnfi 

^ That K the bequ^fit or t«fita- b^eti ideutifiiHi by M. V. de EL 

KieiitiLry diHitrine of Eaddh**i reli- Mnrtia with MaMiVr^ a vHliigt «ij£ 

gii/D. tnil«» tq the WL^bt of Ar& (AtTftb/^ 


lialiitants of wliicli are all Brfihmans, aud do not respect 
the law of Uuddhu. Seeing the Smmari, they first in- 
quired as to his studies, and asceitaining his pt-ufound 
knowledge, they then treated liim with respect 

On the north aide of the Ganges^ there is a temple of 
(Ka-lo-yen) NAr&yana-deva,"** Its balconies and storied 
toweiB are wonderfully sculpturesi and ornamented. The 
images of the Dfivas are wrought of stone with the highesi*^ 
art of man. Miraculous signs, difiicult to explain, andfl 
manifested here* 

Going east from this temple 30 11 or so, there Is a stdpa 
built by A^oka-raja, The greater part {a grmi half) is 
buried in the earth. Before it is a stone pillar about 20 
feet high, on the top of which is the figure of a lioiL There 
13 aa inscription cut in it (t>,, ihs pillar) respecting the 
defeat of the evil spirits, Furmerly in this place there 
\ra8 some desert ^"^ demons, who, relying on their great 
strength and {spiritual) capabilities, fed on the flesh and 
blood of men* They made havoc of men and did the 
utmost mischief. Tath&gata, in pity lo living creatures, 
who were deprived of their natural term of days, by h|fl 
spiritual power coiiverted the demons, and led them, from 
revert'Dce tu him ijcwai i^^J, to accept the command against 
murder. The demons, receiving his instruction respect- 
fully, saluted him (6y the praddkMna), Jloreover, they 
brought a stone, requesting litiddha to sit down, desiring 
to bear the excellent law {/roni ht& mmUh), that they 
might learn how to conquer their thoughts and hold them- 
selves in cheek. From that time t\m disciples of th© 
nnbelievei'S have all endeavoured to remove the stonfl 
which the tie nions placed for a seat; but though lo.od^ 

*• Accor^Iiiif; to OutminghArti, tbe 
pUgTJtn rnu^t hnive cro^'^eil ttie Gtkti- 
geA ibbove Revelgwiiji whkh b nearly 
due niiTtti ol Maakr t^xactlj i6m\h*. 
TUis puint, n<^ar the coTifluence of the 
Ganges and GhigrE^ ia deemed espe- 
cmUy lioly, 

•^ TLat 18, of Yhhnu. 

« The exprtajwicm nwd for 'Me- 

neit " [ hmnr^ y^) la the eame a^ that 
fiimid in Fa4iiziti, referivd tn above, 
n. 49. 

*^ The Chinese phm»e kicai i ctyr- 
responds with the Sanskrit ntnx^a^ 
" Ui tftke refugu in." Hence (ietiersLi 
Ctmningb&m tracer the tiamt? of thid 
dhtrict BAran to the incideat : 
cufduJ m tb(} teit. 

HOOK V]].] 


of them stro^'e to do so, thej would be unable to turn it* 
Leafy woods and clear lakes surround the foundation on 
the riglit and left, and men who approach tlie neighbour- 
hood are unable to restrain a feeliug of awe. 

Not far from the spot where the demons were subdued 
there are many mn^hdrdmas, mostly in ruins, but there 
are still some priesta^ wlio all reverence the doctrine of the 
Great Vehicle* 

Gomg south-east from this lOO li or so, we come to a 
ruined sldpa, but still several tens of feet liigK Formerly, 
after the Nirvdna of Tatljagata, the great kings of the 
€iglit couniries^ divided his relics* The Brahman who 
meted out their several portions^ smearing the inside 
of his pitcher with honey,^ after allotting them tlieir 
ehares, took the pitcher and returned to his country. He 
then scraped the remaining relics from the vessel, and 
raised over them a stdpa, aud in honour to the vessel 
{pUchcr) he placed it also within the siilpa, and hence the 
name {o/I>rSna stApa) was given it.®* Afterwards A^6ka* 
lAja, opening {ilte siiipa), took the relics and the pitcher, 
and in place of the old<^ one built a great d4pa. To this 

■* See above, pp, 40, 41* 

*^ Tbis traiaBlation u BomewliAt 
forced. LitemUy the p^Lssage rum» 
thus — ** boney - suiearing - pitcher - 

» The Dr^» **%! (called tbe 
Kmnbbin tt^pa by Tumour, J. A. 
& A, YuL vii p» JOI3) iH said to have 
been buitt by Ajrita<atru {Afdkdt^a- 
ddnOjtrvLtvihited by Bnrnouf, ftitrtxL, 
p, 372). It may have ^tfiod uear a 
vinage called D^^gwilra. It i« named 
the *^ golden pitcher ifiZ/xi" by AA* 
¥aghO$ba, Fo ihQ^ \. 2253 (oompare 
f^pttic*? Hardvt Manual of Bud- 
iiism^ p. 351). The Brflhmati hiinetelf 
ifl iutDettuies called DrO a, or DrOha, 
or Batiim. Dropa correBpouiU with 
the Chinese p*ingt & pitcher or va^e. 
JuUen* in a note (p. 385, n. I )j seems 
to imply that Drunn la niiuply a 
measure of cap^ity, and bo be re^ 

stoTtiA p^in^ to }:atka^ But it also 
jDeana a vesRel or vase ; pfobabl,y in 
thi» case the Br4huiat/ji pitcher 
Compare Fo-^fw^ v. 1408 ; eee alao 
Cunnitigbam, An^ Gtog^ af India^ 

^^ Jullen translatcui, 'Hhen be re- 
constructed the monuments and en- 
larged it ; " but in tbe original &r in 
all c&m» when speaking of Anuka'i 
buildings it ia implied th&t ho de- 
stroyed the old erection^ aud in iU 
place he built "a great tt4p<L" It 
would be jp'atifying if we could aa- 
certatu the character of the pre- 
AA6ka monuments. They are said by 
Cunningham to have been ** mere 
m<iunds of earth/' the fiepulcbral 
moutUDeobf of the early kings of the 
country even before the rise of Bud- 
dhism, ^^nti. GtGg. of India, p. 4491 



day, oa festival occasions (fad-itatf^fjt it emits a great 

Going north-east from this, and cmssiDg the Ganges. 
after trammelling 140 or 150 li, we eome to the country of 


Fei-she-u (VaiUlI). 

This kingdom*^ is about 5000 li ia circuit.^ The soil is 
rich and fertile ; flowers and fruits are produced in abun- 
dance. The dmra frnit (^man§Q) and Uie mocha {banaitu) 
are very plentiful and much prized. The climate ia agree- 
able and temperate* The manners of the people are pare 
and honest. They love religion and lii^^hly esteem leaFn- 
ing. Both heretics and believers are found living together. 
There are several hundred so^kghdrdrnm^ which are mostly 
dilapidated. The three or live ®* which still remain havu 
but few priests in them* There are several tens of D^va 
temples, occupied by sectaries of different kinds. The 
followers of the Nirp-anthaa are very numerous, 

The capital city of Vai^all {or, called Vai^lt) is to a 
great extent in ruins* Its old foundations are from 60 to 
70 li in circuit. The royal precincts are about 4 or 5 li 
ruund: there area few people Hviug in it. North-west 

^^ The pilgfrfm ciuBt h»TO croaaed 
ike Ga^^MC ri?er» not the Gntigtsfl, 
Tbis river fli^wii witldn 12 miiee o( 
Degwdnit the prub^lile aito of the 
Ikrdna itdpo. Viunall, therofar^. ja 
to thtf «ft8l of tht^ Qjiridak. Acd is 
placed bj Cunakightim on the aite 
of the |irQ«ent villa^o of Bes^b, 
where tbens U nit nld rumed fort 
ttlU c&Ileil RiVjii BiHal-kiL-garh,. or 
the iort oi thv lUja VUala, It is 
ctXACtlv 23 tiiik'sfl north -north -east 
jrotn DDgwArA. Viii-'iAlI Wfl-s pm- 
Wbly the chief to^vn^ or the tirit m 
inipyrtancL'j of the (leuple caJletl 
V|i[jjk or Vftjjiw These ^Hfoptti were 
ft tiurtbtirn twac who bikd loJceo po»- 
feeEiaLou of Ihii p^rt of India (vli,^ 
Iroin the foot of %hv uJOtnnULma to 

the Gnnf^ea on th« •outb, ftnd fmni 
the Gandak on tb« we^t to the Mmr 
b&iiadt on the at«t) fr*>tn an enxly 

Criod ; bow early wo cannot «*f , 
t an earl J Ofl the rediM:tiori of tbe 
BuddhUt byoki at leauL 

* TbU ia innch ia exoeen of the 
ftctual meaiuremenl^ even if tb« 
country of V|1]ji be incluiied. But 
for the» calcuktkms of area or cir- 
cuit thi; pilgrim had no data exc«pt 
the ordinnry itatementt of tbtf 
people, whioh would be oertftinlj 

^ Julieti propose* to iub«tittlie 
fmtr for fivt. I have kept to the 
origiriatt which k ia Accordksce with 
OrieDtfti idiom. 




of the royal city (precincts) 5 or 6 li is a saii^hdrdma with 
a few disciples* They study the teaching of the Little 
Vehicle, according to the Saihmatlya school 

By the side of it is a sl4pa. It was here Tathfigata de- 
livered the VimalakirUi SAtra {Pi-mo-lQ-kit-king), and 
the sou of a homeholder, Eatnikara,^*' and others offered 
precious parasols {to Bmldhu)J^ To the east of this is a 
s^4j)a. It was here ^driputra and others obtained perfect 
exemption (heeatiie Arkats). 

To the south-east of this last spot is a stitpa ; this was 
built hy a king of Vai^^ll After the AHrvdna of Buddha, 
a former king of this country obtained a portion of the 
relics of hist body, and to honour them as highly as pos- 
sible raised (this hidldwg)?^ 

The records of India state : In this there was 
at first a quantity of relics equal to a ** Mh'' {ten pecks). 
A^5ka-j3ja opening it, took away nine- tenths of the whole, 
leaving only oue-tenth behind. Afterwards there was a 
king of the country who wished again to open the &tilpa, 
but at the naoment when he began to do so, the earth 
trembled, and he dared not proceed to open {the st'dpa)* 

To the north-west is a st'^pa built by A^oka-rllja ; by 
tlie aide of it is a stone pillar about 50 or 60 feet high, 
with the figure of a lion^^ on the top. To the south of 

^ So Julien reatoresp'tTo-tn, tfett,- 
iure ht-ap. It is j^ometim^^ restored 

p. 10 »,); but, aa befora stated, the 
Ch!n««e sjmbol foir Irdfa is hmuiy nol 
£fw KAtnJlk^ra ia perhaps tli^ »»me 

^ YttAstfJa IB gencraUy repre««iited 
with a par^oL over bia h(;aa. Much 
of the Utt^r BuddUkt legt?iid &ppeifcr» 
td b&ve been borrowed or adopted 
frDtu the htfltory of Yo^nda. PL 
bEiii. fig. 3, ?Vff mid ^^erpcnt Wor~ 
ikip^ probckUv relatea to him. 

^* The Liebhiivia of Vaimi ob- 
tained t^ share ftt tho relics of Bud- 
dhA, And fjiitted over them a, dUpa. 
(Se«? Vftj*gA 2S of the Fo * jAo- 
kiit^*tMAn^ng\* The »oenu foand 

«.t SABcht (pL Jix^'iiL B^. i* Tree 
atid Bcrpefii Worskip) probabJj re- 
fers to this Miii-pa and its <Mmi^cra' 
titin. The appearoncti of the men 
shows they were n Northern race ; 
their hair and ^o^^ing hair-band.-^ 
ttud rmisit^l instrtimeiitfi agree with 
the HCcount given of the pectple of 
Kuchc (vol. L p. 19, anie). It U 
fit&ted both in the Pdli and Northern 
Buddhir^t hooka that the Lji.4ihavlf( 
were dktjnguiabed for their bright 
coloured and vAriegat^^d dre»tie» and 
eqnipoiges. Alt tbe evidence aeenia 
to point to the«e people being a 
branch of the Yne-chi. 

^ The Licbbiivia were called 
*'lion!i.'* See Fo-sko, v, 1906. It 
would saem th^t the fonr animals 



the stone pillar is a tank. This was dug by a band of 
monkeys (Markatahrada) for Buddha's use. When he 
was in the world of old, Tathdgata once and again dwelt 
here, Not far to the south of this tank is a sMpa ; it 
was here the moukt^ys, taking the aims-bowl of Taiha- 
gata, climbed a tree and gathered him some honey. 

Not far to the south is a sMpa; this is the place where 
the monkeys offered the honey ^* to Buddha. At the north- 
west angle of the lake there is still a figure of a monkey. 

To the north-east of the mn^hdrdma 3 or 4 li is a d^jja; 
this is the old site of the house of Vimalakirttl (Pi-mo-lo- 
ki) ; ^* various spiritual signs (mani/cMaiums) are exhibited 

Not far from this is a spirit-dwelling^ (a dmpcU\ its 
ehape like a pile of bricks. Tradition sajs " this stone- 
pile is where the householder Vimalaklrtt! preached the 
law wlien he was sick. 

Not far from tiiis is a bHjmi; this is the site of the old 
residence of Ratuakara (P'ao tsi)J* 

Not far from this is a sH^a ; this is the old house of 
the lady Arara^ It was here the aunt of Buddha and 
other Ehikahunis obtained Nirvdna, 

n&med m toU 1. pp, if, 12, Are 
typical uf the four re^ou^ respec- 
tively ; the ** Hon *' would therefore 
tjpify Northera nAticms. 

*^ Thb scene U uleti found at 
Ranchi (pi. xxvL fig. 2, Trve ami 
Serpent Worahip)^ It is on the ^ainu 
pillar tiM ih^ conMeeration scene 
olluddd to ftbove. The pillar wasi 
evidently the work <jr gift of the 
VaiB&U people. 

^^ Vim&l&ktrtti is explained by 
tht) Chinese equivalent* t£^ kau 
rhhifj, T>.| nndeRled t^utation. He 
\<t9A a householder (chntTig chi5) of 
Vftlidilt and a convert to Buddhism. 
There is little Bai<i aWut him in 
the bookii ; but he is euppoaed to 
liave visited Chinih (Eitel^ IIand.bml\ 
Bub voc.) 

"" This was pmUably one of the 
Vftjjian sbrinei^ Chetiyini or Yak- 

khA'ChetiyJLni, o£ which we read in 
the Btjoh of the Great Ikctoic^ and 
elsewhere. (Compare Sac Bk$. «/ 
iJi^ Eiutt, voL xj, p, 4.) 

'7 Julien translates— *' Ttrndftkoi 
ha^ preserved fur it th^ tiMne of 
* pi led-n p et4LUie * ( Attin nktlfA t >. ' * Bti t 
there is no symbol for ** namt^ ; ■* it 
is flimply ** tradition laiys,** Julian 
has oniitted the title i>f " houses- 
holder^* {rJianf/'eht}. 

^ There is4 itome difBcitlty in fe- 
Ktoring P'ao ttL Julian, in ti3«jp«a- 
i«v^e before u«^ restores it to R&i- 
Tinkam^ but in note i (same page) 
he re^ntnres thc^ same i^y mbttli tO 

^ For an account i>f the ladj 
Amra^ ek^ Fo-thQ-hinrf-tmn-kin^^ 
\skTgA 22. Julien re^tnres the ex- 
pre.s;iion to " daoghter of the Ainra ** 
(Aniradilriki). It taay be so ; bat 

.BOOH ?It,] 



To tbe nortli of the miighdrdma 3 or 4 li is a ^'^pa; 
this indicates the place where Tathfl,gata atojiped when 
aliout to ad%*arice to Kiiiinagam to die, whilst men and 
Kinnaras followed him,^ From this not fat to the north- 
west is a di^pa; here Buddha for the very last time 
gazed upon tlje city of Yai^alL^ Not far to the south of 
this is a vihdra, before wjiich is built a stivpa; this is 
the site of the garden of the Anira-girl,®^ which she gave 
in charity to Buddha, 

By the side of thi^ garden is a sHpa ; this is the place 
where Tathdgata announced his death*^ When Buddha 
formerly dwell in this place, he told Anaiida as follows: — 
"Tliose w]io obtain ilie four spiritual faculties are able to 
extend their lives to a kalpcL Wiiat is the term of years 
of Tathagata tlien?" Thrice be asked this quesUon, and 
Ananda answered not, through tlie fascination of Mflra, 
The!i Ananda rising from his seat, gave himself up to 
silent thought in a wood. At this time M4ra coming to 
Buddha,®* asked hini, saying, "Tathttgata has for a long 
time dwelt in the world teaching and converting* Those 
whom be has saved from the circling streams {of transmit 


"the lady Aiura " appears more 
natural She ia cjiUed the " Mango 
girl '* m tLe Smithem records {8^. 
Boott of the Eastt vol. %L pv 33^, And 
the Qhmme would be&r thin tr^na- 
lAtion. She wiu a courteoan, And 
iitherwiue called AiubupilL For an 
tbcoount oF her birth &nd. buitnrj, st^ 
Manuid 0/ lliidhmii, p, 327 99. 

** The Kiuua^raa «ro Sftid to be the 
hi^rse- raced muddftiu of KuvtVni 
(Eitel, $uh rcK*. ) ; but the Obineite nj^- 
bol^ desmlK^ theni a» ''f^methiugdif* 
f enii t from in en. ' Th ey tna.y be fieen 
tigiirt^d Id the seulpturo at Satichi, 
pL ^wl, fig, 1, where they are com,- 
tug to the place where Buddha stop- 
ped (figured by the oblong atone i ; 
thw h another aculptnre of the Vuii- 
Ml pillar, f^tid Wlnnlrttiem the notiue 
in the text. 

** The incident connected with 
Budilha^B last look at VaiMlt is nar- 

0/ Oic Ewft, vol. li, pi 64, and vol. 
xix. p. 2liT^ 

" Or, the lady AmrA ; for an ac- 
ccmnt of the j^tft of thts gardcni liee 
F0-*ho as abiv©. 

^^ For jin account of this incident 
compare Fa-kianp cap. x)lv. ; SaCi. 
B(mks 0/ tht EoMt, vol. xL p- 41, and 
vol. xix. p, 267, ' 

•** This interview of M&ra (called 
Pi^nna, the wicked Ofieg In the 
Chiueae verwion, S. B. £., vol. 3cix, 
p. 367) in mgain found among th« 
8ihlchi seulptureit on the Vaii&lt 
pillar^ pL XX vL fig, i, lowtir seene. 
Mftra is known by the escort of 
women, his daughters ; h« is here 
Htanding in front of the tree which 
sy m bol i ftCH Buddh ft*9 preseotiG. H i« 
ttpptfAiTHnce and encort here are tlie 
name aa in pi xxx. hg. j; upper part ; 
he is therL* represent tid ahove tho 
scene of rejniLnni^ auiung the D^>aji 
of the TivyaatrinuiaB heaven aruvtttd 



p-atiQu) are as numerous as the dust or the sands. This 
surel}* is the time to partake of the joj of Nirvdt}a.^' 
Tathiigata taking some grains of dust on his nail, asked 
M&ra, saying, " Are the grains of dust on mj nail equal 
to tlie dust of the whole earth or aot ? " He aBSwered, 
" The dust of the earth is much greater." Buddha said, 
*' Those who ore saved are as the grains of earth on my 
nail ; those not saved like the grains of the whole earth ; 
but after three months I shall die,** Jlira hearing it, was 
rejoiced and departed* 

Meantime Atianda in the wood suddenly had a strange^^ 
dream, and coming to Buddha he told it to him, sayin^^H 
" I was in the wood, when 1 beheld in my dream a large 
tree, whose branches and leaves in their luxuriance cast a 
grateful shade beneath, when suddenly a mighty wind 
arose which destroyed and scattered the tree and its 
branches without leaving a mark behind. Oli, forbid it 
that tlie lord is going to die ! My heart is sad and worn, 
therefore I have come to ask you if it be so or not ? " 

Buddha answered Ananda, " I asked you before, ani 

the heod^utban of Buddha after the 
gfeat renupciatiott ; he ia fitly plac<?d 
jibov<; that ht^^ven an bt'ing the " lord 
of the world of doaire," und therefore 
nlwAiji deaeribtid aa occapjiitg the 
upper BoatHfton of thia tier itf hi^avena. 
Hift distress aod rage are indic^ative 
uf his conditioti of miDd in know* 
ledge of Bi'wlhtsattva'H renunciatiDa. 
If the four identifi cations on thin 
pillar are oorrtict, we maj coudude 
that the people of YaiMU were a 
NoTthem p^ple allied to the Yue- 
cbi, which illustnktea th» observa- 
tion of Csoma K6ro«i» "that Tibe- 
tan writera derive their first king 
iibout 250 B.O. frtim the Litsobyk 
or Lichhai?h " [Manwd of Badhitm^ 
pL 236, note). The ^kya family of 
Buddha is also said to be Ion if to this 
tribe. M^molre by V. de St. Martin, 
!•■ 3^7i not**. The synibola nsed by 
the Chinese for the Yue-chi and 
for the Vrijjis are the same. Unleas 
we an to Biippone a muob earlier 

tneursioti of these people into InSm 
than ia generally allowed, the da 
of the South en J booka of Butldb-'i 
i*m {the boek of the Grtut Decm^ 
mid othera)t which contain accotuitft| 
ras^jH^cting the character, habila, i 
dres^s of the Lichhavis (which i 
apond with the Northern aoooimtiJtl 
must be brought down cflnaidermbly 
later than the assumed d«te of the re- 
daction of the PdU canon. But, on 
the other hand, if it be tnie tbnt tbs 
IncareioQ of thene people took placo 
when Pil^iputra was strengthene 
aa a fortified outpost to repel their ^ 
advance^ i^., about the time a( Bud- 
dha, then we nm^t allow an early 
advance on their part into IndiAp. 
We know they were regarded a^l 
in trade rii, for AjAtaMatru, king o# 
Magadba, wa^i deftiroue to attack 
and root out " the^e Vajjiansi," lod 
it was he also who strengthened the 
city of PAfalipiitra, The que^tloia 
deserve! oonaideratloti. 






Mira so fascinated you that you did not then ask me to 
remain in the world. Milra-ra,ja has urged tue to die 
soon, and I have covenanted to do so, and fixed the time. 
This is the meaning of your dream."®* 

Kot far from tliis spot is a stitpa. This is the spot 
where the thousand sons beheld ttieir father and their 
mother,* Formerly there was a Rlslii who lived a secret 
life amid the crags and valleys. In the second monlli of 
spring he had been bathing himself in a pure stream of 
water, A roe-deer which came to drink there just after^ 
conceived and brought forth a female child, very beautiful 
beyond human measure, but she had the feet of a deer. 
The Bl^hi having seen it, adopted and cherished it (its his 
chad). As time went on, on one occasion he ordered lier 
10 go and seek some fire. In so doing she came to the 
hut of another Rishi; but wherever her feet trod there 
she left the impression of a lotus-flower on the ground, 
The other KIshi having seen this, was very much sur- 
priBe^h and bade her walk round his hut and he would 
give her some fire. Having done so and got the fire^ she 
returned. At th is time F a n-y u-wa n g (Brahmadatta-riij a *^) 
going out ou a short excursion, saw the lotus-fiower traces, 
and followed them to seek (the cause). Admiring her 
strange and M^onderful appearance, he took her back in 
his carriage. The soothsayers casting her fortune said, 
" She will bear a thousand sons." Hearing this, the other 
women did nothing but scheme against her. Her time 
having been accomplished^ she brought forth a lotus -flower 
of a thousand leaves, and on eacli leaf was seated a boy. 
The other women slandered her on its account, and say- 
ing it was '' an unlucky omen/' threw (the loins) into the 
Ganges, and it was carried away by the current. 

** For ft full Jiccount of tUU hid- 
demtt *ee, 2u before, Tlie ^^acred 
BookM of the £a^^ voli, xL and xix, 

* Compare Fn-Man, p. 97 (Beal*a 
edUliiu). Julieo ba« no uotiq^ of 
'* ttiti iaAhnt" of the chUdren : per^ 

bapa tt 18 an error in my text 

^ If jfu be taken in the senae of 
" given/' Br&htn&dAttft may be the 
right re:atmmtion. JuHeu pn^pooei 
BrahmHuuditA duUbtfnUy* 



The king of Ujiyana (IT-shi-yen), down the stream 
gmng out for aa excursion, observed a yellow-cloud-covered 
box floating on the water and coming towards hinu He 
took it and opened it, and there saw a tliousrijid boys; 
being well nourished, when they came to perfect stature, 
they were of great strengtk Eelying ou these, he ex* 
tended his kingdom in every direction, and encouraged 
by the victories of his troops, he was on the point of 
extending his conq[uests to tliis country (m., Vai&Ii). 
Brahmadatta-raja hearing of it, was much alarmed ; fear- 
ing his army was not able to contend successfully with 
the invaders, h€ was at a loss what to do. At this time 
the deer- footed girl, knowing in her heart that these were 
her sons, addressed tlia king thus: "Now that these 
youthful warriors are approaching the frontier, from the 
highest to the lowest there is an absence of couimga 
(kmrt). Your feeble wife by her thought is able to con- 
quer those redoubtable champions." The king nr-t yet 
believing her, remained overwhelmed witli fear. Then 
the duer-girl, mounting the city wall, waited the arrival 
of tho warriors. The thousand youths having surrounded 
the city with their soldiers, the deer-girl said to them, 
" Do not be rebellions ! I am your mother ; you are my 
sons;" The thousand youths replied, " What extravagant 
words are these T' The deer-j^irl then pressing both her 
breaflts, a thousand jets of milk flowed out therefrom, and 
by divine direction fell into their mouths. Then they 
laid aside their armour, broke their ranks, and returned 
to their tribe and family. The two countries mutnaUy 
rejoiced, and the people rested in peace* 

Not far from this spot is a si^p(L This is where Tathft* 
gata walked for exercise, and left the traces there o£ In 
teaching (or, pointing to the traces) he addressed the con- 
gregation tlms : " In ancient days, in this place, I returned 
to my family® on seeing my mother. If yon would 


^ Fa-hiuti ealli %hh place Ihe npot where Buddhft ** laJd Mide bta bow 
uid hi« dubi" 

pSoOK VI t.] 


know then, those tbousand youtlis are the same aa the 
thousand Buddhas of this Bhadra-kalpa/' 

■ To the east of the spot where Buddha explained this 
birth (Jdialca) is a ruined foiindatiou above which is built 
a Atilp(L A bright light is horn time to tinie reflocted 
here. Those who ask {pray) iu worship obtain their re- 
quests. The ruins of tlie turretted preaching-hall, where 
Buddha uttered the Samantamukka^ dhdrani and other 

B sAtras, are still visible. 

' By the side of the preachiiig-hall, and not far from it, 
is a si&pa which contains the relics of the half body of 

No far from this are several st'dpas — the exact number 
lias not yet been determined. Here a thousand Pratjfika 
Buddhas (To-kio) attained Mrvdna. Both within and 
without the city of VaiiftU, ^"d all round it, the sacred ves- 
tiges are so numerous that it would be difficult to recount 
them all At every step commanding sites and old foun- 
dations are seen, which the succession of seasons and lapse 
of years have entirely destroyed. The forests are uprooted; 
the shallow lakes are dried up and stinking; nought but 

^ offensive remnants of decay can be recorded. 

f Going north-west of the chief city 50 or 60 li, we come 
to a great siHpa. Tliis is where tlie Lichiiavas (Li-chV 

^ p'o) took leave of Buddha.*^ Tathigata. having left tlie 

Bcity of Vaii^lt on his way to Ku^inagfira, all the Lichh- 
avas, hearing that Buddha was about 10 die, accompanied 
him wailing and lamenting. The Lord of the World having 
observed their fond affectionp and as words were useless to 
calm tbem, immediately by his spiritual power caused to 
appear a great river with steep sides and deep, the waves 
of which flowed on impetuously* Then the Lichhavas 
were abruptly stopped on their way, moved with grief 

lii««etioft of tbe Saddharma pim4arika 
S^tra, but we c&nnot flUppoie thai 
»n J portloD of ttiu work b as old on 
the time of Buddba. 

^ For &n aocriunt nf the dlviaion 
of AnAndftV body consult Fa-Hian, 
cftp, XX vL 

^^ Wot ihkev^^t ^eel'a-hian, <mp. 


ag tliey were. Tlien Tatlifi-gata left them his pdlra as a 
token of remembrance. 

Two hundred li to the north-west of the 'city of VaifiiW, or 
a little less, is ati old and long-deserted city, with but few 
inhabitants. In it is a siilpcu Tliis is the place where Btid* 
dha dwelt when, in old days, for the eake of an assembly 
of B6dhisattvas, men, and Dgvas, he recited an explanatory 
jdtalca of himself when as a B6dhisattva he was a Chakm- 
mrtin monarch of this city and called Mahadfeva (Ta-tien), 
He was possessed of the seven treasures,*^ and his rule 
extended over the world {the four empires). Observing 
the marks of decay in himself,^ and couclading in his 
inind about the impermanency of his body, he took a high 
resolve (Icing secretly affected hij Ms rejieiiions), left hia 
throne, gave up his country, and, becoming a herini^ 
assumed tlie dark robes and gave himself to study. 

Going south-east from the city 14 or 15 li, we come to a 
gre&t stUpa, It was here the convocation of the seven hun- 
dred sages and saints was held.** One hundred and ten 
years after the Nirvdna of Buddlia there were in Yailfil! 
some Bhikshua who broke the lawa of Buddha and perverted 
the rules of discipline. At this time Yai§ada (Ye-she-t'o) 
Ayushmat ^ was stopping in the^ country of KSsala (Klao- 
solo) J Sambogha (Sau-pti-kia) Ayushmat was dwelling in 
the country of Mathnr4; Eevata (Li-po-to) Ayushmat was 
stopping in the country of Han-jo (Kanyikubja ?*^) ; Sala**^ 
(Sha-lo) Ayushmat was stopping in the country of Vailjllt ; 
Pujasumira (Fu-she-su-mi-lo = Kuj jasobh ita ?) Ayushmat 

*" That ifTi till* Bevtjn treaaures of «k 
liolj-^'hcel king, or ChAkraviirtiii. 
For &n account of these tre^uren 
eee Stuart, Za Letjmdti dn Suddha, 
pp, 20 ft. 

" Tho»e rnark^ of ileoiy were the 
first white hiiira that a]>pe9Lrt:d on 
hit bead On et^eitig these he re- 
Higned the throne to his son and 
)«fCflme an iwcetia He I* called 
MakMdi^wa bjSpenoe Hud J, Mttn- 
wU of BudMim^ |)pw 129, 13^ 

•* This ii geuemlly OftUed •*the 

Recond Baddhi^ convncatioii."* For 
an account of it eet Oldenberg* rtan- 
yapi(ukamf vol. t. * Abstract of Ftmr 
LfHurea^ p. 83, «* &C; 

**^ So the CJjInete (^n^-h WMj 
be rendered, 

•" Jnliea restores thit dnubtfufly 

^ Jiilien has omitted &1I mt^ntioii 

of S^H. 




was stopping in the countrj of Sha-Io-li-fo (Salailbliu t) : 
all these %vere great Arliats, possessed of independent 
power, faitliful to the tliree pitakds, possessed of the three 
enlightennienta (vidi/ds), of great renown, knowing all that 
should be known, all of them disciples of Aoanda* 

At this time Yafiada sent a niessa':?e to summon the 
sages and saints to a convocation at tlie city uf VallS,!! 
There was only wanting one to make up the 700, when 
Fu-she-sii-mi-lo by the use of his divine sight saw the 
saints and sages assembled and deliberating absent reli- 
gious matters. By his miraculous power he appeared in 
the assembly. Then Sauibogha in the midst of the assem- 
bly, baring bis right breast and prostrating himself, {anm) 
and exclaimed with a loud voice, " Let the congregation 
be silent^ respectfully thoughtful i In former days the 
great and holy King of the La w^ after an illustrious career, 
entered Nirvdiui, Although years and months have elapsed 
Eince then, his words and teaching still survive. But now 
the Bhikshus of Val^U have become negligent and per- 
vert the commaadmeuts. There are ten points in which 
tliey disobey the words of tiie Buddha {the ten-poivcT-da4- 
Now tlien, learned sirs, you know well tiie points 
; you are well acquainted with the teaching of the 
liighly virtuous (bhadanta) Ananda : in deep affection to 
Buddha let us again declare his holy will" 

Then the whole congregation were deeply affected ; they 
summoned to the assembly the Bhikshus, and, according 
lo the Vinaya, they charged them with transgression, 
bound afresh the rules that had been broken, and vindi* 
cated the holy law. 

Going south 80 or 90 li from this place, we come to the 
[ mtnghdrdma called Sv^tapura {Shi~fci-to-pu-lo); its mas- 
sive towers, with their rounded shapes and double storeys, 
Tise in the air. The priests are calm and respectful, and 
aU study Uie Great Vehicle. By the side of this building 
^e tra^^es where tlie four past Buddha^ sat and walked^ 

By the &ide of these is a $tilpa built by A ^oka-raja. It 


was here, when Buddha was alive, that, on going soutli- 
wards to the Magfidim couatrv, he turned northwards to 
look nt Vailill, and kft there, on the road where he stoppetl 
to hreathe, traces of his visit 

Going south-east from the Svgtapura saihghdrdma 50 li 
or so, on either (south and north) side of th« Ganges river 
there is a sHpa; this is the spot where the venerable 
An ami a divided his body between the two kingdoms, 
Ananda waa on his father's side cousin of TatliSgata, He 
was a disciple {ialksha^) well acquainted viiih the doc- 
trine (colledanea), tljorougldy instructed in ordinary mat- 
ters (vim and ihimja)^ and of masculine understanding. 
After Buddha^s departure from tlie world he succeeded 
the great Ka^ya])a in the guardiansldp of the true law%aud 
became the guide and teacher of men devoted to religion 
{min not ytt Arhats). He was dwelling in the Magadha 
country iu a wood; as he was w^alking to and fro he saw 
a Srdmangra (novice) repeating in a bungling way a sMra 
ui BiuUIha, perverting and mistaking the sentences and 
words, AuanJa having heard him, his feelinj^s w^ere 
moved towards him, and, full of pity, he appmached the 
place where he was ; he desired to point out Ins mistakes 
and direct him in the right way. The SrftrnaiiSra^ smiling, 
said, " Your reverence is of great age; your interpretation 
of the words is a mistaken one. My teacher is a man of 
much enlightenment; his years (springs and avfumns) are 
in their full maturity* I have received from him person- 
ally the true method of interpreting (the work in giMstwn); 
there ctin he no miistake/* Ananda remained silent, and 
then went away, ami with a sigh he said, '' Although my 
years are many, yet for men's sake I was wishful to re- 
main longer in the world, to hand dow^n and defend the 
true law. But now men (all crmiures) are stained with 
sin, and it is exceedingly diflkult to instruct them. To 
stay longer would he useless : I will die soon/' On this, 
going from Magadha, he went towards the city of Vatiilip 

^ In ChineHi^p Ttt-van, He was the eion uf SukJMana-rdjiL 






and was now in the middle of the Ganges in a boat, cross- 
ing the river. At this time the king of Magadha, bearinf^ 
of Anaiida'a departure, hia feelings were deeply afiTect^d 
towards him, and so, preparing hia cliariot, he hastened 
after him with hia followers (soldiers) to ask him to return. 
And now his host of warriors, myriads in number, were 
on the southern hank of the river, when tlie king of 
VaiAall, hearing of Ananda's approach, was moved by a 
sorrowful atlection, and, equipping his host, he also went 
with all speed to meet him. His myriads of soldiers were 
assembled on the o[tposite bank of the river (the north 
mde), and the two armies faced each other, with their 
banners and accoutrements shining in the snn. Ananda, 
fearing lest there should be a conflict and a mutual 
slaughter, raised himself from the boat into mid-air, and 
there displayed his spiritual capabilities, and forthwith 
attained Mrvdim. He seemed as though encompassed 
by fire, and his hones fell in two parts, one on tlie south 
aide, the other on tl^e north side of the riven Thus the 
two kings each took a part, and whilst the soldiers raised 
their piteous cry, they all returned home and built 5^i2j?a.^ 
over the relics and paid them religious worship. 

Going north-east from this 500 li or so, we arrive at 
the country ofFo-li-ahi (VrJjji).** 


This kingdom is about 4000 li in circuit, From east to 
west it ia broad, and narrow from north to south. The 
soil is rich and fertile; fruita and flowers are abundant. 

f«-ftbi-SAiiivutji, It w in Northern 
tnd\^—Ck £tL 

*** The csoyntry of the Vfljjia or 
Sainvt-lljiBr <.f.* united Vrljji** ^i^s 
that fit the Gtmfederated eight trib^fl 
of the people colled the Vrijjb or 
Vtijjis, HDL* nf i«hich« viz., that of 
the LichhaviJi, dwelt M Vai4All. 
They were repiiblicAiiH, and^ if wis 

may irly on the infereocfis found in 
note So antt^ tbey were a cfotifcdera- 
tiou of Nurtherti trlbeK who hiid at 
an early date t^ktti ptw^ses^ion of 
ihii* part of Itjdia* Thf y were driven 
back by Ajiltii^tru, kir>|j of Mtig- 
ndhiL Compare CiiuniTighivtnp /inf. 
(J^off., p. 449. Sa(ircd Bookt of ihe 
East, xi. 2 sOi 



Tlie climate is rather cold ; the men are quick and hastr 
ia disposition* Most of the j>eople are heretics; a few 
believe in the law of Buddha. There are about ten saii^ 
gMnhtms ; the disciples (priests) are less than lOOa 
Thej siudj assiduously both the Great and Little 
Vebiclea. There are several tens of Deva temples^ with 
a great number of unbelievers. The capital of the coimtry 
is called Chen-shu-na,^**^ It is mostly in ruins. In the 
old royal precinct (citadel or inner city) there are jet 
some 3000 houses ; it may be called either a village or a 

To the uorth-east of the great river is a mnfjhdrdma. 
The priests are few, but they are studious and of a pure 
and dignified character. 

From this goiug west along the side of the liver, we 
find a diipOi about 30 feet high. To the south of it is a 
stretch of deep water. The great merciful Lord of the 
World converted here some fishermen. In days long past^ 
when Buddha was liviug, there were 5cx> fishermeu who 
joined in partnership to fish for and catch the finny tribes^ 
whereupon they entsxugled in the river stream a great fisli 
with eighteen heads ; each head had two eyes. The fisher- 
men desired to kill it, but Tath^gata being tliea ia the 
country of Vai^li, with his divine sight saw what was 
going on, and raising within him a compasdonate heart, 
he used this opportunity as a means for converting and 
directing {vim). Accordingly, in order to open their 
tninds, he said to the great congregation, ** In the V|ljji 
country there is a great fish ; I wish to guide it {itUo the 
rhjht %vay), in order 10 enlighten the tlihermen ; you 
I lu' re fore should embrace tliis opportunity/' 

^^'^ JuUm rcstor^a thin tci Ch&fi- 
iuiiiki V* de 8t. Martin ci^on.- 
fliM'.l* thti nuito with JnnakA and 
,1 : k, \\\t> «ib|)iul of MitlnU 

\\ ^{6S). Compare Cun- 
I iiu\ G^iff., p. 445. The 

I. jvtTinjitI tbu l&at writer 

1; I r^r old uiouutlfl or r^Cpaa 


(arranged a« » cnnv) mt the old tow^ 
ai Navandgarh in tbb terrilorj (|i. 
449 op. dL]t and the ncpect which 
the Vajjlatifl obaer^'ed towanb them, 
rt-xiiind-s ua of tbo record of Hfiro^ 
dotod Fi-^pectrng the veneratioa of 
the StjthiauHfor the tfjmb*(mcKJi3d«) 
of their auoi^atora {Mtiiioment. 




On this the great congregation surroundiitg hhn, by 
their spirittml power passed through the air and came to 
ihe river- side. He sat down as usual, and forthwith 
addressed the fiahermen : "Kill not that fish. By my spiri- 
tual power I will open the way for the exercise of expe- 
dients, and cause this great fish to know its former kind 
of life ; and in order to this I will cause it to speak in 
human language and truly to exhililt human alllcLions 
(fedinffs)" Then Tathagata^ knowing it beforehand, asked 
(ihejufi), **In your former existence, what crime did you 
commit that in the circle of migration you have been born 
in this evil way and with this hideous body ?" The fish 
said, *' Formerly, by the merit I had gained, I was born in a 
noble family as the Brlbuiao Kapitha (Kie-pi-tha), Rely- 
ing on this family origin, I insulted other persons ; relying 
on my extensive knowledge, I despised all books and rules, 
and with a supercilious heart I reviled the Buddhas with 
opprobrious words, and ridiculed the priests by comparing 
them to every kind of brute beast, as the ass, or the mule, 
or the elephant, or the horse, and every unsightly form. 
In return for all this I received this monstrous body of 
mine. Thanks, however, to some virtuous remnants duv- 
iog former lives, I am born during the time of a Bnddha's 
appearance in the world, and permitted to see his sacred 
form J and myself to receive his sacred instruction and to 
confess and repent of my former misdeeds," 

On this Tath^gata, according to the circumstance, in- 
structed and converted him by wisely opening his under- 
standing. The fish having received the law, expired, and 
by the power of this merit was born iu heaven. On this 
ha considered his body, and reflected by what circum- 
stances he was thus bom» So, knowing his former life 
and recollecting the circumstances of his conversion, he 
was moved with gratitude to Buddha, and^ witli all the 
DSvas, with bended form he bowed before him and wor- 
shipped, and then having circumambulated him, he with- 
drew, and, atanding apart, oflered precious ilower^ and 


unguents in religious service. The Lord of the World 
having directed the fishermen to consiiier this, and on 
their account pi^actied the law, they were all forthwith 
liiihghteneil and offered him profound respect. PvepentiDg 
of ilieir faults, they destroyed their nets, burnt their boats, 
and having tiken refuge in the law, they assumed the 
religious iiabit, and by means of the excellent doctrine 
they heard came out of the reach of worldly influences 
and obtained the holy fruit (of Arkats), 

Going north-east from this spot about lOO li, we come 
to an old city, on the west of w^iich is a sttlpa built by 
A56ka-raja, in height about lOO feet. Here Buddha, wheu 
living in tlie world, preached the law for six months and 
converted the DSvas. Goirsg north 140 or 150 paces is a 
little 5i^i?j»a; here Buddha, for the sake of the Buikshus, 
established some mlea of discipline. West of this not far 
is a stapa containing hair aud nail relics. TathUgata for- 
merly residing in tliis place, men fj'om all the neighbour- 
ing towns and villages flocked togetlier and burnt iocense, 
and scattered flowers^ and lighted lamps and torches in his 

Going north-west front this 1400 or 1500 li, crossing 
some mono tains and entering a valley, we come to the 
country of Ni-po-lo (NfipMa), 

Ni-PO-LO (NSpAl)* 

This country is about 4000 li in circuit, and is situat 
omong the Snowy Mountains, The capital city is about 
20 li round. Mountains and valleys are joined together 
in an unbroken succession. It is adapted for the growth of 
cerealsjand abounds with flowers and fruits. It produces 
red copper, the Faft and the Mi7\^ming bird {jivmn^i^y 
In commerce ihey use coins made of red copper. The 
climate is icy cold ; the manut^rs of the people are false 
and perfidious. Their temperament is hard and fierce, 
with little reL^ard to truth or honour. They are unlearned 
but skilful in the arts; their appearance is ungainly and 


MA a A DMA. 


revolting* There are believers and heretics mixed to- 
gether. The sanghdrdmas and Deva temples are closely 
joined. There are about 2000 priests, who study both the 
Great and Little Vehicle, The number of heretics and 
sectaries of different soi-ts is uncertain. The king is a 
Kshattriya^ and belongs to the family of the Licchavas, 
His mind is well-informed, and he is pureand diyjnified in 
charactpr. He hag a sincere faith in the law of Buddha, 

Lately there was a king called Aift^uvarman**^ (An- 
chu-fa-nio), who was distinguished for his learning and 
iiigenuiLy, He himself had composed a work on " sounds " 
(^abdavtdyd) ; he esteemed learning and respected virtue, 
and liis reputation w*as spread every wiiere. 

To tlie soui!i-easi of the capital is a little stream and a 
Iake» If we fling fire into it, flames immediately arise; 
other things take fire if thrown m it, and change their 

From this going back ^^ to Vtufiail, and crossing the 
Ganges to the south, w*e airive at the coujitiy of Mo-kie- 
t'o (Magadha). 


^** In CJimea^ Kwang-cifaeu r the 
onXf Amnuvntmaxi in tfae liate 
of N^iAJ. djtiastJeB la pLiqed by 
Priiisep inaiiiKdmttily altvr ^ivndevjL, 
whose data b^ adjiiBted tentativetj 
to ^1X 470. In Wdght'B ]i»t8 Siva- 
d^vii h orijltted, nnd Aiiiauvartimn 
standis iki the lieM of tbe Th^kuri 
dynaiiy. In an inj^crlptiun of Siva* 
diva, Aiii.4uvarmaii in apokcTi of as 
A very pawitfrful feudal chief tain ^ who 
piuba,t>Iy ruLtid at first tii the name 
of Sivaikvo, but afterwards aseumtid 
thfi Aupreme power ; and in other in- 
flcn-iptitffii lifted S&in. 39 and 45^ h^ 
is a^'led kiog, ADd th» traditkins.! 
■bC^Cdtiiit says im luarried the dnu^h- 
tAjT uf bi« predecessor and began a 
new dynasty i but it makes him 
eootemporary with VikraniAditya of 
lyjajd \t mr, 540 to 580 A^n., Max 
^mller^ indkt, p. 289). Frtnn 
Iliuen Ttiang'ii olluiicm vft ftboutd 

be inolin^ to placo Athiuvamian^t 
rei^ about A.n. 5^^<^^o<3- His sis^ 
tfjr Bhd^adovt was marn«d to ft 
I'rince Sarasena, and by him wom Ihe 
mother of Bh6gai^armai) and Bh^- 
yad4vi Ailiiuvartuaii msh probably 
nicceed*?<l by Ji4hnugupta, of whuin 
we have ati inHcriptinn dated Saih. 
48^ If thesG dates rt'fer to the ^r1 
Ha rah a era, then Ariii^o varman ruled 
about A4). 644-652— at the ctoae of 
the liftitime of Hi yen Tiiiang — wliich 
it mtber bte. See Wripfht'i* Nutonf 
of Nepdlj p* 150 f * ; Prinitep'a /ai 
Ant.j voL ti.j U. T.f p, 269; Ind, 
Aftt.t vol ix> pp. 169^172* 

^"* But the pilgrim does not ap- 
pear himst* If to have pone mix* NopAL 
He went to the capital of thtt Vflj- 
jjit, and there Kpeaks from report. 
Hid return therefore must be caJcu* 
lafced from tbU plmoe. 

( 8a ) 


Contains the First Paii of Uie Account of the Country of 
Magadha (Mo-kie-fo), 

The country of Magadha (Mo-kie-t'o)^ is about 5000 li 
in circuit. The walled cities have but few inhabitants, 
but the towns ^ are thickly populated. The soil is rich 
and fertile and the grain cultivation abundant. There is 
an unusual sort of rice grown here, the grains of which 
are large and scented and of an exquisite tasta It is 
specially remarkable for its shining colour. It is commonly 
called " the rice for the use of the great." * As the ground 
is low and damp, the inhabited towns are built on the 
high uplands. After the first month of summer and 
before the second month of autumn, the level country is 
flooded, and communication can be kept up by boats. 
Tiie manners of the people are simple and honest. The 
temperature is pleasantly hot; they esteem very xnudi 
the pursuit of learning and profoundly respect the religion 
of Buddha. There are some fifty saiighdrdmas, with about 
10,000 priests, of whom the greater number study the 

I teaching of the Great Vehicle. There are ten D6va 

temples, occupied by sectaries of difierent persuasions, who 

I are very numerous. 

I To the south of the river Ganges there is an old city 

about 70 li round. Although it lias been long deserted, 
its foundation walls still survive. Formerly, when men's 

f ^ Or, it may mean the chief city * This appears to be the rice 

or capital called MaJtdidlt and Sugandkitii 

' Yih^ the towns; Julien gives (Julivn). 




lives were incalculably long, it was called Xusumaputa 
(K'u-su-mo-pu4o),* so called because the palace of the 
long had many flowers, AfterwardSj when men's age 
reached several thousands of years, thea its name was 
chimged to Pitalipuira'^ (Po-ch*a-li-tsu-ch*ing), 

At the beginning there was a Bmhman of high talent 
and Eingular learning* Mauy thousands flocked to him 
to receive instruction- One day ail the students went 
oat on a tour of observation ; one of them betrayed a 
feeling of unquiet and distress. His fellow-student^ 
addressed him and said^ " What troubles you, friend ? ** 
He said, " I am in my full maturity (beauty) with perfect 
streiigtii, and yet 1 go on wandering about here like a 
lonely shadow till years and months have passed, and my 
duties (manltf duiies)*^ not perfoimed. Thinking of this, 
my words are sad and my heart is afflicted/' 

On this his companions in sport replied, ''We must 
seek tlien for your good a bride and her friends/' Then 
they supposed two persona to represent the father and 
mother of the bridegroom, anii two persons the father and 
mother of the bride/ and as they were sitting under a 
PatcUi (Fa-ch*a-H) tree, they called it the tree of the son- 
in-law.® Then they gathered seasonable fruits and pure 

* ExpUmeil in a note to mean 
HJMlg'bu-lEinig-Ah'iDE^,— the city, or 
rojtl pfodnct^ of the act^uted flower 

* The tPit icemR tn refer tii« 
fouiKlnlion of thU dty ti> a remote' 
period, A»d in thii rv^tpect Is in 
Agrvemefit with Dtodorofs who tayi 
lUU ii c«p. 39) that ihb city /^j- 

bj HuukJcD. Th^ BuddhiMl ac^ 
ocnuitH speak of it a,<i a viUtige, 
P&tmlig|jita. which wna being atreng- 
theiivd and eul^rg^ by A}At&4atnt, 
eontetiiparniT of Buddha, for the 
jj«rjK>^t of rqwUtng the advance nf 
the V'fTJjis. Spe *^;fti£L Bookf of tkf 
\yoL%lpp. 16,17; Bi^andL't, life 
'ima, p. 257 ; Fo-ahohintj- 
, p, 24% n. 3 ; Cunning hani, 
An^. OtOQ, of India, p* 4S3< 

* 3o it aeetE}«, from tbe aIotj 
fohowing^ the jMMmg^ Eun«t be 
under^tiiod. Juljen otjnhnea the 
lUtarung to hU "»tndk»" not yet 
etJiupkteil. But there WfliUd be 
no pomt in the pi^t^-nded zxuuriage^ 
if tbnt were hia rej^ret, 

' This ift the natural traiulsktion 
of the pnsfiAqis^ and iniiLkt^» gotMl 
iien»fl without the ^Htamtuin pn^ 
posed by Julien, 

^ Tliat k, the J lutule the trae the 
father -in-luw of the student ; in 
otbci* wordSf he wjls to marry thi? 
dnughtcr of thi^ trtie, a Pdfalt flower 
( Bif/ n on ia Mwwffdenx). I am fi nd no 
authority for Jnlien'i itntement th^t 
the vvurd eon In do w cnrrespond^ tf» 
P^titili ; thi8 ^tatcniient is also re^ 
peated bj Eitd, I/andbook, sUb vgc. 


water, and followed all the imptiul custams, aod reqaeste^l 
a time to be fixed Tlieti the father* of the supposed 
bride, gathering a twi^; with flowers on it, gave it to the 
stutleut and aaid, "Tiiia la your excellent partner; he 
graciously pleased to accept her/* The student's heart 
%vas rejoiced as he took her to himself* And now, as the 
suu was setting, they proposed to return home; but the 
young smdenti affected by love, preferred to remoiD, 

Then the other said, ** All this was f nn ; pray come hack 
with us ; there are wild beasts in tliis forest ; we are afraid 
they will kill you," But the student preferred to reraain 
walking up and down by the side of the tree. 

After sunset a strange light lit up the plain, the sound 
of pipes and lutes with their soft music (was heard), and 
ilie ground was covered with a sumptuous carpeL Sad* 
denly an old man of gentle mien was seen coming, sup- 
porting himself by his staff, and there was also an old 
mother leading a young maiden. They were accompanied 
by a procession along the way, dressed in holiday attire 
and attended with music The old man then pointed to 
the maiden and said, " This is your worsliip's wife (ladi^)** 
Seven days then passed in carousing and music, when ilie 
companions of the student, in doubt whether he had been 
destrayed by wild beasts, went forth and came to the place. 
Tiiey found him alone in the shade of the tree, sitting as if 
facing a superior guest. They asked him to return with 
them, but he respectfully declined. 

After this he entered of his own accord the city, to pay 
respect to his relatives, and told them of this adventure 
from beginning to end. Having heard it with %?onder, he 
returned with all his relatives and friends totlie middle of 
the forest, and there they saw the flowering tree become a 
great mansion ; servants of all kinds were hurrying to and 
fro on every side, and the old man came forward and re- 
ceived thein with politeness^ and entertained them with 
all kinds of dainties served up amidst the sound of mtisia 

* We tnUftt suppose htm to represent the tree, the real fiLtb^r. 


BtJdK vnul 






After the mual complimeiits, the guests returned to the 
city and told to all^ far and near, what Imd happened- 

After the year was accomplished the wife gave birth to 
a sotij when the husband said to his spouse, " I wish now 
to reiurHj but yet I cannot bear to be separated from you 
(^otiT bridal residence) ; hut if I rest here I fear the expo- 
sure to wind and weather" 

The wife havin.4 heard this, told her father. The old man 
then addressed tlie student and said, "Whilst living con- 
tented and happy why must you go back ? I will build 
you a house j let there be no thought of desertion/' On 
this his servants applied themselves to the work, and in 
less than a day it was finished. 

When the old capital of Kusumapura^** was changed, 
this town was chosen, and from tlie eireunistance of the 
genii building the inan&ion of the yonth the n.nme hence- 
iortb of Uie country was Pdtalipatra pur a (the city of 
the son of the P&tali tret*). 

To the noith of the old palace of the king is a stone 
pillar several tens of feet high ; this is the place where 
Aidka (Wu-yan; rtja made " a helh*' In the hundredth 
year after the Nirvdna of Tathfigata, there was a king 
called Aidka (*0-shu-kia), who was the great-grandson of 
Binibis3,ra-r^ja,^^ He changed his capital from Eft j a- 
g|-lha 10 Pa tali (pura), and built an outside rampart to 
surround the old city. Since then many generations have 

** prom thia it wotild &pp€ftr thiit 
Hnsumaptira waa uot on th€! fiaino 
«ite *« PA^liputni, rEAjagfJba wita 
the capital in tbe time of AjiUaJatr:i, 
juid It WM Jie wbo strengthened P&- 
Iftliputm. In the next daufle It b 
^^id Lhiit A^iika changed hh capitiil 
frciHL iQjiigfiLa to Fdtjillptitrt. He 
id described aji the gruat-grt^iKJiioti ot 
Bimbaflilra, and therefore tbc grand^ 

I Mm^ikf AjfttMatni. The Vd^u Purdna 
Kujjum&piira or Pit^niU 

I ptitra wax fimiided by JL^ja, VdfL- 

ifyAlvA, the |^mnd«oQ of Aj^tasatru ; 

f but the MaJidwatiM lu^^A Ud&yu 

thf it<m tjf the kin^^ See CuDniTiLj' 
b&m, ^#1^ Geo^*i p, 453^ 

*^ Hi Ilea Tamng uses in thin paa- 
BJLge the phonetic; efj^uivalentft for 
Ahdki, '0-^hu-hm; on thU Dr. Old- 
en berg fonndtf an tLrguinent that 
the king rtjf birred to i* nnt Dhnrma- 
ul^ka, but KB^lBhdktki VimiyaPtiakam, 
V ol. i. , IntrocJ .^ p, % xxlii . n ) But a note 
in thetex t statanthikt' O-^ku-kin li the 
Sanukrit form of Wu-i^au; the btter 
in the ChinusG form, aiguifying"feiiir- 
ruwlesE/' For BimUUara, leu p. 102, 
n. 4J* 


passed, and now there only remaiti the gld fouutiation 
walls (o/tlu <?%)• The mfighdrdmas, Dfiva temples, and 
stupas which lie in ruins mav be eoimteti bv hundneds. 
There are only two or tliree remaining lentirf}. Tg the 
north of the old palace,^* and bordering on the Ganges 
liver, there is a littlo town which contains about 1CX30 

At first when A£8ka (Wu-yau) rlja ascended the throne, 
he exercised a most cniel tyraDny ; lie constituted a hell 
for the purpose of torturing living creatures. He gur* 
rounded it with high walls with lofty towers. He placed 
there specially vast furnaces of molten metal, sharp 
scythes, and every kind of instrument of torture like those 
in the infernal regions. He selected au impious man** 
whom he appointed lord of the hell. At first every 
criminal in the empire, whatever his fault, was con^^igoed 
tfj this place of calamity and outrage; afit^rwards all 
those who passed by the place were seized and destroyed 
All who came to the place were killed without any chance 
of self-defence. 

At this lime a Sramai;ia, just entered the religions order, 
was passing througli the suburbs begging food, when he 
came to hell- gate. The impious keeper of the place laid 
hold upon him to destroy him. The Sramana, filled with 
fear* asked for a respite to perform an act of worship and 
confession* Just then he saw a man bound with cordfj 
enter the prison. In a moment they cut oiT his liands and 
leet, and pounded his body in a mortar, till all the mem' 
hers of his botiy were mashed up together in confusion. 

The ^ramana having \vitnesst*d this, deeply moved with 
pity, arrived at the conviction of the iiupermanence 
(aniiy^) ^f *^11 earthly things, ai^d reached the frint of 
"exemption from learning'* {Afhatahip), Then the infernal 


H Thti ma J ref«r to Kiisumapurtt, 
^ *' ftowftiy paiace " citj, or to the 
— Im« b the old town of YL%dX\- 

ie«mB to h& only mtt 

man; Julian h^ **uii troQpo dfli 
8Ct*l^rat».'' The Htnry «if tbi» ' 
vf torment ib found also in /'o-JI 




lictor said, ** Now yoti must die." The Sramana having 
became an Arhat, iras freed in heart from the power of 
birth and deafch^ and so, though cast into a boiling caldron, 
it was to him as a cool lake, and on its surface there 
appeared a lotus flower, whereon he took his seat The 
infernal lictor, terrified thereat, hastened to send a 
Tnessenijer to the kin^r to tell him of the circumstance. 
The king ha\ing himself come and beheld the sight, 
raised his voice in loud praise of the miraela 

The keeper, addressing the king^ said, '* Mahlr&ja, you 
too must di^J' " And why so ? ** said the king* " Because 
of your former decree with respect to the itifliction of 
death, that all who came to the walls of the hell should 
be killed; it was not said that the king might enter and 
escape death." 

The king said, " The decree w^as indeed established^ and 
cannot be altered. But when the law was made, were 
tfcu excepted ? You have long destrfved lifa I will piit 
an end to iL" Then ordering the attendants, they seized 
the lictor and cast hi in into a boiling caldron. After liis 
death the king departed, and levelled the walls, filled up 
the ditches, and put an end to the intHction of sucli 
horrible punishraenta. 

To the south of the earth-prison (the hell), and not far 
ofl, is a stUpd, Its foundation walls are sunk, and it is in 
a leaning, ruinous condition. There remains, however, the 
crowning jewel of the cupola.^* This is made of carved 
Stone, and has a snrronnding balustrade-^* This was tlie 

>* Mai |xto, the difltincUvv tt 
■^^mf oniAtii^nt. It fioetna to refer 
to "ttMS kc tAlf)/' as it ja c&lled ; 
the omntntfi^ endoaure above the 
cmpob woald npre«tftit th^ regfion 
of the heftvea of thif thirty -thrve 

^ So the docHif uf Saflcht is 9mt* 
mounted ms peaftored by Mr. Fer* 
giissMjOf Trtt and SerpetU Worship, 
pi iL <«ee «J«o the rtfin%rk8 of th*? 
Muue writer, op. riL p. lOo, mi cd) 
Tb« «itdo<»d tpaci; or boxou the «um- 
lalt o( the at&j^ U tk€%, however, a 

ifmtiluted relic -bux, but reprteie&ttt 
the first huftvent or the Tt-ayastnm- 
imn henven of Sakra and the thirty- 
twu DC' VAN, ThteD^vaM, therefore, aiM^ 
coti*it4*TitIy represented in the M{^u1|)' 
turen a& siim>undlng this onclo^urt: 
and offering th<?ir gifts, in token of 
the relfc^ uf Buddha (hti haingofden 
bowl, &c), taken there fur wonhtpu 
The Tee or Hti i« the evmw of tuetul 
dirole«t rnis^d above tlii4 enclosed 
Kpace, represent in j| the landii {khSt' 
Uttt or l'*hiirtiM} above the Tmyti^ 
tntrijiaa heaven. 



first (or, one) of the 84.000 (dtlftas). Aloka-rlja erected is 
by the power (merit) of man ^® in the midtHe of hb toyal 
firecinct (or palace). It contains a cMTtfji (measure) ol 
relics of Tatbagatn, SpiriLual indications constautly 
manifest themselves, and a divine light is shed round it 
from time to time. 

After King A^oka had destroyed the hell, he met U pa- 
gup ta/^ a great Arhat, who, by the use of (proper) 
means,^^ allured him in a right way according as the 
opportunity (or, springs of action, ie^, his power or ca- 
pacity to believe) led, and converted him. The king 
addressed the Arhat and said, '* Thanks to my acquired 
merit in former births, I have got (hi/ pramise) my kingly 
authority, but in consequence of my faults I did not, by 
meeting Buddha, obtain conversion. Now, then, I deaire 
in all the greater degree to honour the bequeathed re- 
mains of lus body by building sM^ms." 

Tl)ie Arhat said, " My earnest desire is that the great 
king by his merits may be able to employ the invisible 
powers {the spiriis) as agents in fulfilling his vow to pro- 
tect the three precious ones/' And then, because of the 
opportune occasion, he entered largely on the narrative 
of his offering the ball of earth, and on that account of 
Buddha's prediction, as the origin of his desire to bnilA^ 

The king having heard this, was overpowered, and he 

summoned the spirits lo assemble, and commanded them, 

saying, " By the gracious disposal and spiritual eificacy of 

the guiding power of the King of the Law I have beoomei 

as the result of my good actions iu former states of life, 

the highest amongst ihera. (Ivmk now) with especial care 

juid rvft^rn the olTi rlii^ tu thti cli^ty 
of Asiuku in jfiving Jombudvlpii. to 
thti prioL-its, But it is pl&iu tkatt ik> 
prediction of Biiddiia hitkgeU on thiA. 
Kauinhkit In ».aid ilUo tu have Ixm^u 
euu verted by tbt; t^idtiou of m prtdie- 
tit^u referring tt* hUn io«do by Bud- 
dha, aud explained by % abcpbi^tU 

^ Or it may probably be '* by h\» 
religious merit as ci man.'" 

^^ For some reuiarki$ im Upn^pta 
(Km-lin)j B«fl vol. i* p» liia, n. 4^, 

^^ UpdyOf e3£ ped letitH or Bkil ( ui me 
of mebna. 

'* Tbs offering i^f the ball of enrtii 
refers to the circnnii^tance rL'latud 
by Fa-hian lU tiiti <jpcniug of cli^p. 
MJUkiu Juiinn baa uverkHiked %Uu, 

BUOK ?itL] 






to prepare a nieams of paying religions worship to the 
bequeathed botiy of Tath^gata* Do yon, then, spirits and 
geuii, by your combined strength and agreement of pur- 
pose, raise dupas for the relies of Buddha throughont the 
whole of Jambudvipa, to the very last house of all^ \Lt,, 
to the extremity of the land). The mind {or purpose) is 
mine^ tlie merit of completing it shall be yours. The ad- 
vantage 10 be derived from this excellent act of religion 
I i^ish not to be confined to one person only; let each of 
you, then, raise a building in readiness {for completion^ 
and then come and receive my further commands." 

Having received these instriictions, the genii com- 
menced their meritorious work in the several quarters 
where they were ; and ha\'iug finished tiie task {so far), 
tbey came together to ask for further directions- A^oka- 
r4ja (Wu-yau-wang) having opened the dilpas of the 
eight countriea where they were built, divided the relics, 
und having delivered tViem to the geniij he addrt^^sed the 
^rhat^ and said, **My desire is that the relics should be 
deposited in every place at the same moment exactly: 
although ardently desirous of this, my mind has not yet 
been able to perfect a plan fur accoiupiishing it/'^ 

Tiie Arhat addressed the king and said, '* Command the 
genii to go eacli to his appointed place and regard the 
fiun.^ When ilie sun becomes obscured and its siiape as 
if a hand covered it> then is the time : drop the relics into 
the dApas." The king having received these iastructions, 
gave orders accordingly to the genii to expect the ap- 
pointed day* 

Meantime the king, A^ka, watching the sun'a disr. 

s» The text Iv diMcult. Julkii 
tTaaalM«i it ^^dAUB chaque villu 

mtfivmeamy* Thb may be correel, 
but the pbraM iiiwafi keot^ chi B^m& 
to me to nier to the full tak of in- 
habited pl&ce« — evef^where. 

^^ Th&t m, UpAgupta. 

-^ Suah ftppff&TB to be the nieao- 

ing of tho pEk!uuige* Julkn trail i^- 
lates Jt^ ** my dt^aLro 14 not yat 
»<jcoiiiplijihetL" Hm den j re wa« tu 
t>iid out » pJATi or method for de- 
poaitmg ths relics at the s&ute m- 

-^ Or It may be, ''awiilt an up- 
pomUii day/' 


waited far the sign ; then at noon (or the day) the Arhat, 
hy his spiritnal power, stretched forth his hand and con- 
cealed the stin. At the places where the st4pas had been 
huilt for oompletion, all {the gmii^) observing this event, 
at the sama moment concluded the meritorious under- 

By the side of the diipa, and not far from it, in a 
rikdra, is a great stone on which Tathlgata walked. 
There is still the impression of both his feet on it, about 
eighteen inches long and dx inches broad; both tte 
right and left impress have the circle-sign,^ and tlie ten 
toes are all fringed with figures of flowers (or flower 
ecrolls) and forms of fislies, which glisten brightly in the 
light {morning light). In old time Tathdgata, being about 
to attain Nirvdm, was going northward to Ku^inagara, 
when turning round to the soutli and looking back at 
Mflgrtdha, he stood upon this stone and said to Ananda^ 
**Now for the very last time I leave this foot-impression, 
being about to attain Mirtdna, and looking at Magadhn, 
A hundred years hence there shall be a King Aloka ;^ he 
shall build hero his capital and establish his court ; he 
shall protect the three religious treasures and connnand 
the genii " 

When A^oka (Wu-yau) had a.^cended the throne, he 
changed his capiial and built this town; he enclosed the 
stone with the imiu-ession ; and as it was near the royal 
precinct, he paid it constant personal worship, Afterwai'da 
the kings of the neighbourhood wished to carry it off to 

^ 8a it muftt signify, mit the in- 
iiitfvtiinta of tlit? Kev^rral pliicea, bu| 
the ^iHi yiho were awaiting the 

^ The circle -sign m the chtdnt; 
this ift the principal mark on the 
tmle of Buddha'§ fett ; w^^ Alnbu^' 
t«r*i Whtd of the Law^ p. 286 
And flatf, Julien triLTiJiliitt^n th« 
pAitftge rui if the chaknt w«;re visible 
on the i"ight and h?ft of tho feet. 
iiiMteaii of nil the right aud left 
imprint of tlie fevtn 

^ It k plAin that thli prediction 
coDceroing Wn^jwa-wangi iuppo^ 
by Oldenbepg &lwftj« to refer to 
Dhantitoka ^see above, noU 1 i v re- 
lated to U'Chu'kiiv or KAlSidkft, for 
it ^^'a^i he, the gmndsoti of AjAtA^- 
tru, who establiiih«d hia cApit^ &t 
Pit^idifmtm ; so alio In the' n^%i 
fteutetic^. Hi lit' n TtiAUg probably 
tmnslated n\\ the reconis rela^ting 
ti> A^6kft &« thong^h rcftrrinj^ to the 
ftamc |>er«ou, using eitbtT 'O-nbtj^kii 
or *U-yu, or Wa-yaUj indiffereutty. 






their own country; but akliough the stone is not large, 
they could not move it at all 

lately iSa^atLka-rija^ when he was overthrowing aod 
destroying the kw of Buddha, forthwith carne to the 
place where that stone is, for the purpose of destroying the 
sacred marks. Having broken it into pieces, it came whole 
again, and the ornamental figures aa before; then lie flung 
it into the river Ganges, but it came back to its old place. 

By tVie side of the stone is a st^pa, which marks the 
place where the four past Buddlias walked and sat down, 
tJie traces of which still remain. 

By the side of the vihdra which contains the traces of 
Buddha, and not far from it, is a great stoue pillar about 
thirty feet high, with a mutilated inscription on it. This, 
however, is the principal part of it, viz,, " AI6ka-ra,jft 
with a firm principle of faith has thrice bestowed Jam* 
budvtpa as a religions offering on Buddha, the Dharma 
aod the assembly, and tlirice he has redeemed it wiih 
his jewels and treasure ; and thi3 is the record thereof," 
Such is the purport of the record. 

To tlie north of the old palace is a large stone house. 
It looks outside like a great mountain, and within it is 
many tens of feet wide* This is the honse which A^oka- 
rfija commanded the genii to build for hm brother who 
had become a recluse. Early in his life A^flka had a 
half-brother (mother's hrother) called MahSndra*^ (Mo- 
hi-in-to-lo), who was born of a noble tribe. In dress he 
iirrogated the style of the king; he was extravagant, 
wasteful^ and cnieh The people \vere indignant, and the 
ministers and aged officers of the king came to him {ihe 
king)t and remonstrated thus, '* Your proud brother as- 
sumes a dignity as though he were some great one in 
coioparison with others. If the government is impartial, 

greftt mler) ie penfttiLUy spoken of 
nm the mm ol A-^6ksk The Sub« 
bftl^xe hiftonVal Wf^rka fspeak of 
him II* the Unt BuJdhtet tniBifion^ 

ftty (sent to Ceylon. See Maha- 
KvijHW. Tumimrfl trnnal, p. 76, 
Dr. Oldenburg doubts the truth 
of this trnditjtm* Yirmifapiiaia, I, 
InintilmtiuJt^ ILL * 


then the country is contented ; if men are agreed, then 
the ruler is in peace : these are the principles which have 
been handed down to us from our fathers. We desire 
that you will preserve tlie rules of our country, and de- 
liver to justice those who would change them." Then 
A68ka-rfi.ja addressed his brother as he wept, and said, 
' I have inherited {as my rule of) government the duty 
of protecting and clierisliing the people ; how then have 
you, my brother, forgotten my affection and my kind- 
ness ? It is impossible at the very beginning of my reign 
to neglect the laws. If I punish you, I fear the anger 
of my ancestors; on the other hand, if I excuse you, I 
fear the opinion of the people." 

Mahendra, bowing his head, replied, ** I have not 
guarded my conduct, and have transgressed the laws of the 
country; I ask only an extension of my life for seven days." 

On this the king placed him in a dark dungeon, and 
placed over him a strict guard. He provided him with 
every kind of exquisite meat and every necessary article. 
At the end of the first day tlie guard cried out to him, 
" One day has gone ; there are six days left." The sixth 
day having expired, as he had greatly sorrowed for his 
faults and had afflicted (disciplined) his body and his 
heart, he obtained the fruit of sanctity (became an Arh4U)\ 
lie mounted into the air and exhibited his miraculous 
powers {spiritual traces). Then separating himself from 
the pollution of the world, he went afar, and occupied the 
mountains and valleys {as a recluse). 

A^ka-rS,ja, going in his own person, addressed him as 
follows, " At first, in order to put in force the laws of the 
country, I desired to have you punished, but little did I 
think you would have attained to this highest rank of 
holiness.-^ Having, however, reached this condition of 
detachment from the world, you can now return to your 

^ Thut yuu would have mounted up in pure conduct tu attain to and 
poaaeas thia holy f i-uit 

miftiL viiL] 




The brother replied, " Formerly I was ensnared in tlie 
net of (worldly) affeetiona, and rny mind was occupied 
with love of stands (mtisic) and beauty; but now I Lave 
escaped all thii (tlm dangerous citij), and my mind delights 
in {ilie seclusion of) mountains and valleys. I would fain 
give up the world for ever {iTuns socieUj) and dwell hero in 

Tlie kin^ said, " If you Mish to subdue your heart in 
qtiiet^ you have no need to live in the mountain fastnesses. 
To meet your wishes I shall construct you a dwelling." 

Accordingly he aummoned the genii to his presence and 
said to them, " On the morrow I am about to give a 
magnificent feast I invite you to come together to the 
assembly, but you must each bring for your own seat a 
great stone." ^ The genii having received the summons, 
came at the appointed time to the assembly. The king 
then addressed them and said, ** The stones wliich are 
now arranged in order on tlie ground you may pile up, 
and, without any labour to yourselves, construct of them 
for ine an empty house.'* The genii having received the 
order, before the day was over finished tlie task» AdSka- 
rAja then himself went to invite his brother to fix his 
abode in this mountain celh 

To tlie north of the old palace, and to the south of *' the 
liellj" is a great stona with a hollow trough in it, Aloka- 
r^a commissioned the genii as workmen to make this 
Iiollow i;m$f) to use for the food which he gave to the 
priests when he invited them to eat- 
To the south-west of the old palace there is a little 
mountain. In the crags and surrounding valleys there are 
several tens of stone dwellings which A^oka-i^ja made fur 
Upagupta and other ArhatSt by the intervention of the 

By the side of it is an old tower, the ruins of which are 
a mass of heaped-up stones. There is also a pond, the 
gentle ripples of which play over its surface as pure as a 




niirror. The people far and near call it tlie sacred water. 
If any one driuks thereof or waslies in it, the defileni^ 
of ifaeirsins is washed away and destroyed 

To the sonth-weafc of the mountain h a collection 
6veMpG8. The foundadons are lofty but minous; what 
ratnains, however, k a good height At a distance they 
look like little liills, Each of them is several teus of 
paces in front. Men in after-days tried to build on the 
top of these little sivpas. The records of India sUte. " In 
old time, when A^uka-riija built the 84,000 sl4pas^ them 
was still remaining five measures of relics. Therefore he 
erected with exceptional grandeur five other stUpas, re- 
markable for their spiritnal portents {mirmuimis exkibi- 
t%ans)t with a view to indicate the fivefold spiritual body 
of Tath&gata,*** Some disciples of little faith tiilking 
t<^ether argued thus, * In old tijjje Kaada-r^ja^ built 
Uiese five (siypas) as treasure-places for his wealth {scmn 

ecioKS Buislaneisy In conseq^neiice of this gossip, in 
after-time a king of insincere faith, and excited by liis 
covetousness, put his troops in movement, and came with 
his followers to dig (ihe sMjpas), The earth shook, the 
mountains bent (fell), and the clouds darkened the sun, 
whilst from the st4pas there came a great sound like 
thunder. The suidiers with their leaders fell backwarti^ 
and the elephants and horses took to tlight. The king thus 
defeated, dared no longer to covet (ihe treasures). It 13 
giud, moreover {te., vi (M Ifuiiait recvrds), ' Willi respect to 
the gossip of the priests there has beeo some doiiht: 
expressed, but we believe it to be true according to tlia 

V iilif»11y, the body of the l&w earth tinder otie urn bra] U ( TMAitii* 
^ TPllhft jfftl^" {Judai) HividtMl into Pm-diuSf p. 466,W]lftau'« tranalatioak 
^m^m/tlM. Itniayrtfer to the five In the Muhiirfnao he i)i caUed 

'^^i \ikru\ tttrftJMna {$mft^\, devoted himself to the hoiurdiQg of 

^2^^4i„r/% ff/V^^riir/ (i^Ai'-. tre&aure {Max Miiller, /litL Anc, 

fl^lih i«f ers til Namia, the nan Sttntc. Idt., p. 281). The &tat«- 

' ealh't^I Mah^p^xnft, ment in the text, derired from **|Imi 

idingly avaricious* old r^^airdi* of Intiia,"' appe&r 

^^ ^^ ^^ n womim nl tht) Idetitify Niuida with Aldka^ i.t 
^^^^ lU bruught the whuli? KAl^ukuw 

bookvul] the offering OF ASOKA. 



To tbe south-east of the old city there ia ihe mwjhd- 
rima called K*iii-cha-*o-lan-mo^(Kukkutar^nia), wliic]i 
was huilt by A^6ka-r&ja when he first became a believer 
ia the religion of Buddha. It was a sort of fii-st- fruit 
^T^pat-ation in jj! anting the root of virtue), an J a pattern 
of majestic ooustructiou (lo/lg building^ H© gathered 
there a thousand pries ta ; a doubla cougi'egation of lay 
|>eople and saints made their offerings of the four ueces- 
sarj thiugs, and provided gratuitously all the articles for 
use* This building has long been in ruins, but the founda- 
tion walls are still prfjservctl 

By the side of the mnghdrdina is a great &l'A]^a called 
'O-mo-lo-kia (Amalaka), which is the name of a fruit used 
as a medicine in India. King A^oka having fallen sick 
and lingeritig for a long time, felt that he would not 
recover^ and so desired to ofler all hia possessions (jgtms 
amd vaJaahks) so as to crown his religious merit {lopkmi 
high tht JUld of jmrit). The ministar^ who w^as carrying 
on the government was unwilling to comply with his 
wish. Some time after this, as he was eating part of an 
Amalaka fruity he playfulty^ put the half of it (m Uis 
hand of the king) for an ottering. Holding the fruit in 
his hand he said with a sigh to his minister, " Who now 
is lord of Jambtidvlpa t " 

The minister replied, ""Only your majesty." 

The king answered, *' Kot so I I am no longer lord ; for 
I have only this half fruiE to call my own! Alas! the 
wealth and honour of the world are as difficult to keep as 

** Tlib ecmvent or mintjftdrdma 
must not be confounded with tht? 
Kukkn^piilagiriT near Gay4« B^^i 
F4^kmi%, cap, x^xiii p. 132 o,, also 
^rcA» Surrey af Jndia, vol 3lv. p, 4 ; 
/ndl AnL^ vc*L xil P- 3^7; compuru 
alao Julieii'i renmrk (p. 42S, u, i), 

■ It m&j be ** mioifiters ; " tbo 
ftUirv of the ieKt U f nil ltd auiuug 
Aivj4fh6sh&*B Beruioti& II b No. 20 
ft« given in lb« AiMrctct of Four 
/^tttirn^ p. 103* 

** la tt iriflmg way. Thb trwiila- 

Uon ia difficult Julien trvJiHlatett it 
fta though the kiDg were aiuu^d ug 
h^ playtd with the fruit, utitil h^ 
hiMl rsduoed it to 4k hiilf * Th ^ tranahh- 
tlon ifl more ag-ptseable to tho tesit. 
But, on the Qth«r band, in AivnghA- 
Hha's rtf Elder iug of the ^tory, h& fiijH 
thiit the itimistat- offered the king 
a half Atiiu1& fruit, to bt^:ttow in 
charity. The translation I have 
^{vi^n requu'f^ the fiubatitution of 
tan (to give im charity) for Ian 
^cooked Of thorotighJy dr«a*t'd)i 


it is to preserve the light of u, himp in the wiiidl 11/ 
wide-spread possessions, my name and high renown, at 
close of life are snatched from me, and I am in the hands 
of a minister violent and powerful. The empire is no 
lonnjer mine ; this half fruit alone is left I " 

Tl^eu he commanded im attendant officer to come, and 
he addressed In'ni thus: "Take tins Iialf fruit and offer it 
in the gnrden {drdma) of the cock (m&nasia'^) to the priest?, 
and speak thus to the venerable ones, 'He who was 
formerly lord of Jambudvlpa, hut now is master of only 
this lialf Amala fruit, bows down before ihe priests 
(chirf priciU), I pray you {on behalf of the Mny) receive 
this very last cifTeriiiL% All tliat I havt; is gone and losti 
only this half fruit remains as my little possession. Pity 
tlie poverty of tlie offering, and grant that it may increase 
the seeds of hjs religious merit/" 

The Stljavira, in the midst of the priests, spake thus 
in reply: ** *4l6ka-rfl.ja by Ids former deeds may hope to 
recover. Whilst the fever 1ms held his person, his avati- 
cious ministers have usurped liis power and amassed 
wealth not tlieir own. But this offering of half a fruit 
will secure the king an extension of life/* The king 
having recovered froin his sickness, gave large offerings to 
the jniests. Moreover lie ordered the manager of the 
afliiirs of the convent (Tin -see — KarramadS,na) to preserve 
the seeds** of the fruit in a vessel of liquid fit for the 
purpose, and he erected this st'Apa as a mark of gratitude 
for his prolonged life*^ 

To the nortij'West of Amalaka d&pa, in the middle of 
an old miighdrdma, is a stdpa; it is called " establisbing 
the sound of the ffhan(d {Kin-t'iy* At first there were 
about lOO miif/hdrdmas in tins city; the priests were grave 


^ Or, the dtone or kerne L Thti 
Karmmudiln^ k the stew^fd of the 

^^ This passage fa obacurc, and 
the tr&nKlatiou I givfa i» nut m 
AgtetiiBtnit Viitb M. JoJien's. He 
mokfii the wordi of the Sthavim to 

be ai.lJressed to the other pdoit^ 
And not to the measeng^r f mm the 
king. It Appeari to me that they 
wero msLde in replj to lUo king'j 
tuessagef and include m them A 
pFO[nI»i:d autJdpatioii of the kiog t 


*<*JE TlTLl 





ami learned^ and of high moral character. The scholars 
among the heretics were silent and dtinib. But afterwards^ 
when that generation of priests had died out, their suc- 
cessors were nf>t equal to those ^one before. Then the 
teachers of the heretics, during the interval, gave themselves 
to earnest study with a view to the mastery. Whereupon 
they summoned their partisans, namberin^^ roooto io,ooo, 
to assemble together within tlie priest*a precincts^ and 
then they addressed them saying, with a loud voice, 
** Strike loudly the ghantd and summon all the learned 
men ; let the foolish ones also stop and dispute ; if we are 
wrong, let them overthrow us " {or^ to overthrow their 

They then addressed the king and asked him to decide 
between the weak and the strong. And now the heretical 
maaters were men of high talent and marked learning ; the 
priests, although numerous, were weak iu their points of 
verbal discussiotL 

The heretics said, " We have got the victory ; from this 
time forth let no mngMrdrrwL dare to sound the ghantd to 
call together a congregation," The king confirmed this 
result of the discussion, and, in agreement with it, bonnd 
the priests to the penalty. They on their part retired 
with shame and chagrin. For twelve years the tjhanfd was 
Bot sounded. 

At this time lived (Na-kia-'o-la-chu-na) NAgS,rjuna 
Bfidhisattva in Southern India, as a youth of high renown 
for scholarship. When grown up he assumed a lofty title. 
Giving up his home and its pleasures, he practised himself 
in the acquisition of the deepest and most excellent 
principle of learning, and arrived at the first earth {tht 
first degree). He had a great disciple called (Ti-po) Dfiva, 
a man illustrious for wisdom and spiritual energy. This 
man, arousing himself to action, said, " At Vai^dll the 
followers of learning {Buddhist immers) have been 
defeated in argument by the heretics, and now for twelve 
years, days, an(| montha together^ they have not sounded 



the ghaii(d. I am bold enougli to Wish to overturn 
the mountain of heresy and to light the torch of true 

N&gSrjuna replied, ** The heretics of Yaisfili are singa- 
larly learned j you are do nmtch for them. I will go 

Dfiva said, *'In order to trample down sunie rotten 
stems why should we overthrow a mountain t I am bold 
eijongh to think that by tlie instructions I have received 
I can silence all the heretics. But let my master assume 
the side of the heretics, and I will refute you according to 
the points of the thesis ; and according as tlie question is 
decided, let my purpose to go or not be settled/' 

Then Kilgitrjuna took tlie side of the heretics, and Diva 
set himeelf to overthrow his arguments. After seven days 
Ndgirjuna lost his superiority (was de/eaied)^ and said 
with a sigh, "False positions are easily lost; erroneous 
doctrines are defended witti difficulty. You yourself can 
go ; you will overthrow those men/" 

DSva B6dhisattva*s early reputation being known to 
the heretics ofVaiiS3.ll, they forthwith called an assembly, 
and went at once to the king, saying, "Mah^rdjal you 
formerly condescended to attend to us and bind the 
^rama^as, not to sound the ghan{d. We pray you issue 
an order that no foreign Sramaija be allowed to enter the 
city, lest they should combine together to bring about an 
alteratiou in the former law." The king consented to 
their request, and gave strict orders to his officers to carry 
it out (to spy TWLTT&mly), 

D^va having come to the city, was not able to enter it ; 
having understood the order, he made arrangements to 
change his garments, and wrapped up his kasltdya robe 
in a bundle of grass (shrnhB) ; then tucking up his gar- 
ments, he went straight on with his bundle on his back, 
and entered the city> Having come to the middle of the 
city, he tlirew away his grass bundle, put on his robes, 
fmd came to this miyjIicLrdma^ intending to stop there« 




Knowing few people tbere^ he had no place to lodge, and 
so be took up his night's rest in the Ghanti Tower, and 
at early dawn he strack it (the f/kanfd} with all his 

Tlie people hearing it, on investigating the matter, 
found that the stranger of yesternight was a travelling 
Bhikshiu Forthwith all the mn^Mrdmas repeated the 
sounds {of ty fjhanid). 

The king hearing the noise, and inquiring about it 
closely, could not ascertnin the origin of it all; coming to 
this mngMrdma, they at length charged Dfiva with the 
deed. DSva answering flaid, "The ghanpX is struck to 
assemble the congregation ; if it is not used for that pur- 
pose, what use is it ? "' 

The king*s people answered, " In former da3^3 the con- 
gregation of priests having heeu defeated in argument^ it 
wai* decided the ghatifd should not be sounded any more. 
and tiiis is twelve years since/' 

Deva said, ** Is it so ? Nevertheless, I venture to sound 
afresh the drum of the law," 

The messenger told the king saying, *' There is a strange 
flramana who wishes to wipe out the former disgrace (of 
ike pricdsy 

Then the king assembled the men of learning (the 
Muddhista), and said, by way of decree, "Whoever is 
defeated shall die, as a proof of his inferiority/* 

Then the heretics came together witli their flags and 
drums J and began to discuss together with respect to 
their opinions; each displayed tlxe point of his argument 
to his best ability. Then D6va Bddhisattva, liaving 
mounted the preaching- throne, attending to their former 
arguments, and following each point, refuted them one 
by one. In less than one hour he refuted the sectaries, 
and the king and his ministers being satisfied, raised this 
venerable monument in honour of his extreme virtue 

To the north of the si^^a built where the ghaiifd was 


sounded is an old foundation. This was the dweUin;,^- 
place of a Brdhman that was inspired by demons. At 
tlie beginning there was in tbis city a Brfthman who 
bad constructed for himself a hut in a wild and desert 
spot far from the haunts of men ; he sacrificed to demons^ 
seeking religious merit. By the assistance of such 
spiritual connection he discoursed in a high tone and 
disputed with ea^^eruess. The report (echo) of lus elo- 
quent discourses resounded through the world. If any 
one came to propose a difficult question, ho answered 
him after letting down a curtain. Old men of leamiog 
and of higli talent could not wrest from him his pre- 
cedence. Officers and people were silenced in his pre- 
sence, and looked on him as a sainU At tbis time lived 
Afivaghfisba EodJiisattva (O-shi-po-kiu-sha-pu^m),^ 
His wisdom embraced all subjectSj and in bis career he 
had traversed the arguments of the three Vehicles (LilHe^ 
Great, and Middle Vthid^t), He constantly spoke {ahtmi 
the Brdhman) thus: "This Brahman is learned without 
a master; he is skilful without examining the ancients; 
be lives apart in the gloomy desert, and arrogates a great 
name. It is all done by the connivance of the evil 
spirits and the assistance of occult powers ; this is the 
way he does it 1 Men, therefore, on account of his elo- 
c^uence derived from the devil^ are unable to reply, and 
exalt his renown and say be is invincible. I will go 
to bis place, and see what all this means, and expose 


Forthwith he went to bis cabin and addressed him 
tbus: ''I have long felt respect for your illustrious quaH* 
ties; pray keep up your curtain whilst I venture to 

^ Ti^Titl&ted into Chiti£«o by 
Ma-minfff "the voice of the hoFffe. * 
For some remfrrki renpeoting hbn, 
•ee Ahatraet of F(mr I^iurt^t !>■ 95 
■L He )Ji sfiok^ti of as the twelfth 
Buddhbt patriarch. According Ui 
Tibetan accoynts, he it« the aani^ aa 
Blfttr>jetA (mother-diild}, who oom^ 

po»ed hjmua fop Btiddhkt wtorahJp 
{ap. &k.t p. 141). Ndgftrjuna &!» 
wiui a i-HJt^tt Mid composed H work 
called Siihfhi lilht^ {itt liU\ which 
be dedie^^ti^d to bk p&troii, S&di Ah«s 
king of StiQtherti Kdsal& {I*tti»^ k. 
iv. foL 5 h] 


express my mind to you.*' But the 
ndifference, let 
and to the end 





au air of proud 

down his curtnliLMu^, 
would not face hb* 

order to reply, 


ASvagbfisha feeling ia his heart the presence of the 
evil spirits, his feelings revolted, and he finislied the 
discussion ; but as lie retired he said, *' I have found 
him out, and he shall be overthro%tn/' Going strjii^ht- 
way to the king, he said, "Pray condescend to permit 
Bte to propose a subject and discuss it witli that lay- 

The king, hearing the req^uest, said with feeling, ** Do 
you know your man ? Unless well learned in the three 
ridifda and in the six supernatural faculties, who can 
dlscuea with him?" Giving permission, he himself or- 
dered his chariot in order to be present during the discus- 
fiion, and to decide as to the victory. 

Then ^IvaghSsha discoursed on the minute words of 
the three PitaJcas, and alluded to the great principles of 
the five Viil^d^, and nicely divided the length and breadth 
of his argument with a high and various discourse* Then 
the Brahman following in the argument, A^vaghSsha 
said, "Yon have lost the tln-ead of the subject. You 
must follow mj points consecutively." 

The Bi^Shman then was silent and closed his mouth, 

Alvaghflsha finding fault, said, ** Why do you not solve 
the difficulty ? Call tlie spirits to your help to give you 
words as quickly as you can;" and then he lifted up hia 
curtain to see bow he looked. 

The Brahman, terrified, cried out, " Stop I stop I " 

AivaghSaha, retiring, said, "This doctor has forfeited 
his high renown. * A hollow fame lasts not long,' as the 
saying is " 

The king answered and said, '* Without the eminent 
ftbility of a master, who can detect the errors of the 
ignorant I The acumen of the person who knows men 
casta honour on his ancestors, and shuts out possibility of 



sup^rto^ity among his euccessors. The country has a 
^ stantKtig'rule that such a person should ever be honoured 
'land remembered/' 

..' Leaving the south-west angle of the ciiy and going 
about 200 H,^ there is an old ruined mnffhdrdma, by the 
side of which is a stUjya which from time to time reflects 
a divine light and displays many miracles. This place is 
frequented by crowds from a distance and near by, who 
offer up their prayers®* in worship* There are traces 
where the four past Buddhas sat and walked to and fra 

To tlie south -west of the old saiigh drama about lOO li 
is the saiighdrdma of Tila^aka (Ti-lo-shi-ki*i)/** This 
build iijg hag four halls, bcdvideres of three stages, high 
towerSp connected at intervals with double i^ates that open 
inwards (deeply). It was built by the last descendant 
of Bimbis^ra-r&ja (Pin-pi-sha-Io)*** He made much of 
high talent and exalted the virtuous. Learned men from 
different cities and scholars from distant countries flckck 

^ tn the Fneticti trandation the 
dtatancc given is 200 pa^a. The 
itxt doei not TequLre the dlatunce 
of aoo 1 1 to be reckoned in a flouth- 
westerly diniction from the cit? ; 
the conBtnicttorip it) deed, la unnsiui], 
nnd it ia possibie thu-t the Rvmbol ^u 
(oocner) Ls an error fur king {going); 
bat as it etaDda, tho Usxt K&dji, 
" ulH>ut two linndrcd li (fmrn) the 
fti.iuth-u'eat anglfs *A the city there 
iii,^' &a K the text be correct, soque 
of the difliculties Uiiticed by Cqn- 
ningbam [A ne. Oeog. of Itid.y p. 456) 
will be <^xp!dned. 

^ Make their requeata in worsbip. 
Whatever the theory la as to the 
poHi^ibility of prayer in the Huddhifit 
religion, the fact reroaina that prayer 
was offered up^ 

^ S*i Cunningham re*tofe« it 
And the symbol thi mny re?preiiaut 
dm as in Cbftndakn. It might hXbo 
be tnade to reprcjiient Dj^rAik^ and 
an the K?t (ieBcendant of BLmbbjlm- 
r&ja nvm K^ga-diBaka, I thought at 
rmc time that thiJ* might be the rij^ht 
re«tomtion. But I-taJug given Ti- 
to- ch a a^ on ulttfriiative rising 

{Nan Aaff k, iv% foL 12 b,}^ whwh 
ciko enly represent Tila^a fft« la 
Ma» cfia for 3tandak*t^ &c,} Thii 
inonafltery of Tila^ak* W4W three 
ydjjinaa weat of N&l&nd:4, or aboul 
twenty -one milea (Vie de II. T,, p. 
2tt). In thia hk^ pa&sai,'e Htuen 
Teian^ notices th:it there wa« kq 
eminent priest called Praj&itbhadin 
reaiding in thia monasteiry when he 
^iaited it. When I^tsing was thetv 
a few yearv later, there vtim a prieit 
called PrftjUewbiWidra there. Pitrf* 
Max Miiller by Rome uiletajc^ has 
pliufed ihU templti of Til&dAka In 
Surat {Indict p. 312), &tid hu lipeftks 
of it aa Si^ra^chUt but it U not sa in 

*^ Or Vimbaaiim, juice of the 
Bimha* {Brytmim grnnaWU (tee osile^ 
p. S5} bid deiicendAnt Kfig&diiaka, 
who Appears to have preceded th« 
niueNatidafl ; he seems to be the eam« 
an MabA-Naudiii. Gonf. K. D&vid c 
jViumif, OrienL^ pp 50 and 45* Ji 
he the game as Kill&iSdka ? lAaseni* 
/»d AU.j voi i p. 859^ &iid Ank,, p^ 





together in crowds, and readiing so far, abide in this 
mn/;hdrdma. There are looo priests in it who study the 
Great Vehicle. In the road facing the middle gate there 
are three vikdras, above which are placed the connected 
succession of metal rings (circles) with bells suspended in 
the air; below they are constructed storey above storey, 
from the bottom to the top. They are surronnded by 
railings, and the doors, windows, the pillars, beams, and 
staircases ar© all carved with gilt copper in relief, and 
in the intervals highly decorated- The middle vihdra 
contains an erect image of Baddha about thirty feet high. 
On the left is an image of Hra {To-lo) Bodhisattva;** on 
the right, one of AvalokitSsvara (Kwan-tsz'-tsai) Edd- 
hisattva. Each of these images is made of metallic 
stone; their spiritually composed appearance inspires a 
mysterious awe, and their influence is felt from far (or, 
spreads far). In each vihdra there is a measure of relics 
which emit a supernatural brilliancy, and from time to 
lime shed forth miraculous indications, 

To the south-west of the Tiladaka san^hdrdnm about 90 
li we come to a great mountain of blue-clouded (^mri^ated) 
marble,** dark and tangled with wood* Here the divine 
Ktshis dwell ; poisonou^s snakes and savage dragons in- 
habit their dens, ivhilst numerous beasts and birds of prey 
dwell in the forests, On the top is a large and remark- 
able rock, on which is built a sldpa about ten feeb or so 
high. This is the place where Buddha entered on ecstatic 
meditation. Of old, when TatU&gata descended as a spirit 
(to be hom)*^ he rested on this rock, and entered here 
the mfmldJii called "perfectly destroyed/' and passed the 
night so. Then the Devas and spiritual saints offered 

^ T4rm, «aid to be » female deity 
ol TilM>t^ origin, woohlpped by the 
foUoweri of thd Y^^&cb&ra echool 
iE\U\), TAr&vott i> ftl«o a form of 
Dnrg^ Jnd, A 7»t, voL jt, p, 273, 

** Yun $hih b "variegated roarbje'* 
telmid-Btime). Whether this be the 
maantn'^ in the tejct it le djfiicult to 
wAy. Juliet] given " enveloped with 

dark clotida,** This may be w> ; the 
uriginal is literally, '* cloiul- rock- 
dark - tangled.*' 

** The phrai*e Kinn^ ahin, de* 
Bcei^d spiritually, in g^eoo rally ap- 
plied to the mcarnation of Buddha ; 
in this pflfisagej howtiv^rT it may 
timply mean " deacc-'adcd lui « 


their offerings to Tatliiigata, and sounded the dmms ajxd 
]ieaveDly music, aud rained down great flowers, TatM- 
gat4 leaving hia ecstasy^ the Dfivas all reverenced lilm, 
and raised a sliipa composed of gold, silver, and precious 
Btones. Now so long time baa elapsed since then, that 
the precious substances are changed into stone. Ko one 
has visited the spot for ages; but looking at the mountain 
from a distance, one can see difi'erent kinds of beasts and 
snakes turning round it to the right. The Ddvas and 
Rlahis and spiiitual saints accompany them in a body, 
praising and worshipping. 

On the eastern summit of the mountain there is a 
stApa. Here Tath&gata formerly stood for a time behold- 
ing the country of Magadha. 

To the north-west of the mountain 30 li or so, on a de* 
clivity of the mountain, mELsaiighdrdma; it is flanked by a 
high precipice, and the lofty walls and towers stand up in in- 
tervals of the rocks. The priests are about fifty in number, 
who all study the great Vehicle. This is the place where 
Gunamati (Kiu-na-mo-tiJ Bodhisattva overcame the here- 
tic In the early time there was in this mountain a heretic 
called Mfidha va(Mo-ta-po), who at first followed the law of 
the Safikhyil (Seng-kie) system, and practised the acquire- 
ment of wisdom. He had studied to tlie bottom the doctrine 
of " the extreme void," as found in the orthodox and errone* 
ous {booh). His fame was great, and surpassed tliat of 
former teacliers, and outweighed all then living. The king 
honoured him exceedingly, and named him " die treasure 
of the country/' The ministers and people regarded him 
with admiration, and spoke of him as " the teacher of the 
houseliold/' The learned men of the neighbouring coun- 
tries acknowledged his merits and honoured his viriua^ 
and compared him to the most eminent of his prede- 
cessors; a man, verily! highly accomplished. He had as 
hia means of subsistence two towns of the district, and 
the surrounding houses paid him for the privilege of build* 
ing (knani du€S i). 



At this timd in Southern India there lived Ganam at i ** 
BWhisattva, who in his youth had displayed great talents 
and acquired in early life a brillitmt reputation. By close 
fitudy he had penetrated the meaning of the three Fitakas, 
and investigated the four truths ** Hearing that M d d h a v a 
discussed on the most mysterious and subtle questions, he 
desired to humble him by overcomiDg liim (in arffum-cnt). 
He ordered one of his followers to carry a letter thus 
written (t^ hiB advermry) z '* I have heard with all respect 
of Midhava*3 virtuous ease. You must now, %sitliout 
thought of fatigtie, take up again your ancient studies, for 
in three years' time I intend to overthrow your brilliant 

And so in the second and third years he sent a messen- 
ger with the same tidings ; and now when he was about 
to go to meet him, he again wrote a letter, saying: "The 
appointed period has expired ; your studies, such as they 
are, I am now coming i}o investigaie); you ought to know 
the fact,'* 

MSdhava now was alarmed, and gave orders to his dis- 
ciples and to the inhabitants of the towns : *'' ** From thin 
time forth give no hospitality to the Sramana heretics; let 
this order be generally known and obeyed." 

At this time Gnnamati Bfidhisattva, with his staff in 
hand, arrived at the town of M^dhava, The people who 
guarded the town, in agreement to the order, would give 
tiim no hospitality.*® The Brdhmans, moreover, deriding 
him, saiti, *' What mean you by your shaven head and 
yotur singular dre3s t Begone from this 1 there ia no place 
here for yon to stop/' 

^ Transkiied bj the Chinese "vir- 
tue »nd vrbdoin " {Tih Airui). 

^ The four tauthSr the fouoda- 
^on tif the BuddliiHt dogma^ are— 
<r)tfae truth of *' suffentij;'" {ditk- 
JUtit) ; iz) the iDcreaae or ihCCimmU- 
lioQ of mkery from the pi^nioi^ 
{mmadaifa}; {}) thu eKtinetioii or 
destructiou of nuSenng U po«i«ible 

{nirSdhaj j (4) the waj or roeuu 
{rndt-^a}. See Cbitder«^ Pali JMd., 
ikuh voc Ari}/asacciim ; Bumouf, 
l^tui, p. 5 1 7 ; ifanuo/ cf Budhum, 
p. 496 ; i^iao Julien in ioca, tit I. 

* ThAt is, the two towns he held 
in feoffment. 

^ Would kiave no inten^QOSse with 


OiinaTnati E&dhisattva desiring to overthrow tlie here- 
tic, sought to remain the night in the town, and so he 
said with gentle words, " You, in pursuing your worldly 
studies, observe a pure conductw I also, in studying higher 
truth, observe a pure liue of conduct**^ Our life being 
alike,*^ why do you exclude me ?" 

But the BrAhmans would have no words with hiin, and 
only drove him from the place. Leaving the town, he 
went into a great forest in vrhich savage beasts prowled 
about to destroy all passers-by. At this time there was a 
faithful brother'^ who, fearing {the rM ke ran from) the 
beasts and the prickly thorns^ hastened to hira, staff in 
hand. Having met him, he said to the Bddhisattva, "la 
Sonthern India there is a Bddhisattva called Gunamati^of 
far-spread renown ; because tliia man wants to come here to 
discuss principles of belief, the master of the town, being 
afraid of him and Ids fame, has strictly enjoined to give 
no shelter to the Sramanas, and because I am afraid leai 
some accident should happen to him, I have come to 
nccompany him in Ids journey, and to assure him of 
safety (that ]u marj rest free from fear of the otkery 

Gunamati replied, ** Moat kind believer, I am Gu^-^ 
matL" The disciplejiaving heard this, with the greatest 
reverence replied to Gunamati thus: *' If what you say 
be truCp you must go quickly (pniimrdsy* Leaving the 
deep forest, they stopped awhile on the open plain; the 
faithful believer, following with his torch (?) and holding 
his bow, kept guard on the right and left The {fird) 
division of the night being past, he addressed Gunamati 
and said, "It is better for us to go, lest men, knowing that 
you have come, should plot together to kill you " 

Gunamati, expressing his gratitude, said, '* I dare not 
disobey you ! *' On this, following him, they came to the 
king's palace and said to the door-keeper, there is a 

<■ They w«re both men of "pure U esplwned by *'a pure-UveJ tiuui.** 

cnndnct.'* The e^cpneBeion **ptare '^ As we both aim At pure om- 

Ini^thtsr '^ ie AppUed tc the Buddhist duct, 

ixaiv^irt. Tht: W'lrd Br Ah man a1ih» ^^ A pure believer. 









Hramana here who has come from a diatance ; he prays the 
king to agree in condescension to permit him to discuss 
^ith Mddhava* 

The king liearing the news, moved by his feelings, saidj 
" This man is bereft of reason/' and then he ordered an 
oflBcer to go to the place inhere MIdhava was, with this 
royal order: ** There is a foreign Sramana come here who 
seeks to discuss with you, I have now ordered the hall 
for the discussion to be prepared and watered ; I have told 
those in the neighbourhood and far off to await the usual 
arrangements after your coming. Pray condescend to come 

MUdhava asked the messenger of the king, "This surely 
is the doctor Gonamati of South India." "Yes/' be said, 
" it is he/' 

Mildhava hearing this, his lieart was very sad, hut as he 
could not well avoid the difficulty, he set out for the hall 
of discussion, where the lung, the ministers, and the people 
were all assembled desiring to hear tliis great controversy. 
Gunamati first laid down the principles of his school, and 
continued his speech till the aetting of the sim. Then 
Midhava excusing himself on account of his age and 
infirmities, to defer his answer, asked permission to retire 
and meditate. Ho would ttien reUujL and answer every 
objection {diJlcuU}/) in order.*^ At the early morn he 
returned and ascended the throne, and so they w^ent on to 
the sixth day, hut on that day he vomited blood and died. 
When on the point of death he gave this command to his 
wife, '* You have high talent; do not forget the affront 
paid to me" When iI3,dhava was dead, she concealed 
the fact and had no funeral ceremonies ; and clothing 
herself in shining apparel^ she entered forthwith the 
fissembly where the discussion was lield, and a general 
clamour was raised as the people said one to another, 
•^MSdhava, who boasted of his talents, is unable to reply 

** Thi» aeriteiice appeArs to b6 explain the l&ngtu^ iisvd bj Quiiii- 
pftn^ntheticftlp Aiid U introfdioed to tniLti. 


to Hunamati, and so he sends hia wife to make up for hia 

Gu^amati, addressing the wife, said^ "He wlio cutild 
bind you, has been bound by me," 

Mldhava*s wife, seeing the difficulty, retired. The king 
then said, " What secret words ane these at which she 
reiiiains silent ? ** 

Gui^anmti said, "AIrs! MSdhava is dead I and hit 
wife desires to come and discusB with me 1" 

The king said, " How know you this ? Pray explain it 
to me" 

Then Gtinamati said, *' When the wife came her face 
was pale as death, and her words were toned in bitter 
enmity. I knew therefore that Madhava is dead ! 'Able 
to bind you/ is a phrase applicable to her husband/' 

The king having sent a messenger to verify the state- 
ment, he found it even so ; then the king in gratitude said, 
" The law of Buddha is a mysterious one ! Eminent sagea 
succeed one another without interruption ; with no personal 
object they guard themselves in wisdom and use their 
secret knowledge for the purpose of converting (trans/t^rm' 
in§ the world). According to the old rules of the country 
the praises of such a sage {or, of your virtue) should be 
ever celebrated.** 

GuQamati replied, '* Whatever poor talents I have, I 
reserve them for the benefit of all that lives ; and when 
I would draw them to the truth first of all I subdue 
their pride, then use the influences of converting power. 
Kow then, in this case, king^ let the descendants of 
M&dhava's territory for a thousand generations employ 
themselves in the service of a mnfjlidrdma. Your in- 
structions will extend, then, from age to age, and youf 
reputation will be immortah Persons of a pure faith, 
consoious of protection, their religious merit will benefit 
the country for ages. They will be nourished as the priaftts 
are, and so the faithful wiU be encouraged to honour their 




On this he founded the mit^hdrdma to celebmta the 

At first, after the defeat of JfUdhava, six Bra^lunans 
{ptire-lived men)^ fleeing to the frontiers, told the heretics 
of the reverse they had suffered, and they selected men 
of emineot talent with a view hereafter to wipe out their 

The king having a sincere respect for Gunamati^ went 
in person, and addressed the followini^ invitation to him: 
**Xow the heretica, not measuring their strength aright, 
have plotted together, and dare to sound the drum of 
discussion. Pray, sir, condescend to crusli these 

Gnnarnati replied, " Let those \vho wish to discuss 
come together I'* 

Then the learned men among the heretica w^re re- 
joiced, and said, '*We shall be sure of the victory to- 
day!" The heretica then laid down their principles with 
energy for the purpose of opening the discussion. 

Gun a mad Bodhisattva replied, 'VNow those heretics 
who fled from tlie difficulty they were in of obeying the 
king's commaud, these are mean men» What have I to 
do to discuss with and answer such persona ? *' Then he 
added^ ** There is a young servant here by the pulpit who 
baa been accustomed to listen to these discussions. He 
IS well acquainted with abstract questions from attending 
by my side and listening to the high language of the 

Then Gunamati, leaving the pulpit^ said to the ser* 
vaBt, "Take my place, and carry on the discussion,*' 
Then all the assembly was moved with astonisliment at 
this extraordinary proceeding. But the servant, sitting 
by the pulpit, immediately proceeded to examine the 
difficulties proposed* His arguments were clear like the 
water that wells from the fountain, and his j>oints were 
true as the sound of the echo* After three replies the 
heretics were defeated, and once more they were obliged 


to hide their disgmce aod clip their wings* From this 
time forth the mv^kdrdma enjowed the endowment of 
the town and dwellings. 

South-w*est of the convent of Gnnamati alx>ut 20 li we 
come to a solitary hill on which is a convent called (the 
Baii^hdrdma of) ^ilabhadra (Shi-lo-po-t'o-loJ.^ Tliis is 
the convent which the master of sdUrm after Ixis victorv 
caused to he built out of the funds of a village which 
wape given up. It standi by the side of a single sharp 
crag like a si^pa. It contains some sacred relics of 
Buddha, This master of Msirai belonged to the family of 
llie king of Sam a tat a (San-mo-ta-ch'a), and was of the 
Brflhma^ caste. He loved learning and had gained a 
wide reputation. Travelling through the Indies to exa- 
mine into and seek after religious truth, he came to this 
kingdom, and in the BaiigJiArdma of N41anda (Na-lan-t'o) 
he encountered Dharmap&la B6diiisattva (llu-fa-pu-sa). 
Hearing him explain the law, his understanding waa 
opened, and he requested to become a disciple.^ He 
inquired into the most subtle questions,^ and investi- 
gated the way of deliverance to its conclusion \ and thus 
having reached the highest point of intelligence, he estab- 


^ In Cbincse, Ki&t hieni '' Ihe sage 
of moTiil cooiiiict.^' 

^ ToiLssame Ibe eoiled ot coloured 
robes of i^ mendicant. 

** He inquired a^ to '^the ex- 
tteme point of the end of aJL' * Thiit 
fdeib of "» ternkinal fixed point of 
aU things" {}fik-tsa.i-AM k^u-hen*j 
jhn-lTi) correspond* to the Sanalcfit 
dkniva^ and m%y be rendered ''final 
triith." It ia the nanie of a SamJl- 
dhL ; it ii abo ui£d a« a definition 
of Nirvdna ; it ib the furtnuL dcfini 
tfcm fif the title of n* well - known 
Bdddhitit »iUra^ the S'urangama. In 
Ihiii etinnectiim it denotes the inves- 
llgmtioti nf the higheftt (mjaticiil) 
Irulh, ThiJi t&tra was writ ten at 
Nilamli^ \ it U'ft£ prob&bfv the work 
of l)harMi}i])dli4 (it iiiUHt not tH: con- 
lutid with aui.»ther work of the jiame 

njLtne tmnslated bj Kum.tnijtva, afnl 
recitf^d by Pa^hiao at the Vnltur* 
Peak near Hlja^g^iha) ; It wn^ 
brought to China aqd tf»nAlated 
A,D, 705, In the cotnmentMj 
(k. Tjtt. fol 30 b) it i# said, " Tfa» 
ifdtfu wau brought ftotn India «ul 
belongs to the M^rdbAbhioMkta 
school (Kun tenfj pu]. According 
to Colebrooke (faaa^'B, p. 2jz\ Ibe 
M^i?dh&bhiiihikta» were a mixed 
dase sprung from A BrahmaTia mkd m. 
IvBhatriva girL The school ns^med, 
therefore, waa probably founded on 
a mixture of Bn\!injJiTi and Buddliiol 
doctrine. Now NflJanda w«a ei^* 
clally a place of etudy both for the 
Brahmanical and Buddblfit bookj» 
(KdkinR, Chtnfte BvddhisfA, p, 2$qK 
Thia achool, therefore^ probabljorigi* 
tuited there. 

BOOK mu.} 



lished liis fame over men of liis time, even to distant 

There was a heretic of South India who delighted in 
ejtamining profound questions and searching out hidden 
matters, in penetrating obscure and abstrwae points of 
doctrine. Hearing of Dharmap^la's fame, the pride of 
fielf rose up within him, and, moved bj profound envy, lie 
passed over mountains and rivers in order to sound the 
drum** and seek discussion. He said, "I am a man of 
Southern India It is reported that in the king's country 
there ia a great master of Mairas;^^ I am but ignomiit, 
yet I would wish to discuss with him." 

" It is true, as you nffirm," the king said; and forthwith 
he sent a messenger to ask Dharmapala thus : " There is a 
heretic of Soutliern India who has come from a long dis- 
tance here, and desires to discuss with you* Will you 
condescend to come to the hall of assembly and discuss 
with him?'' 

Dharmaplla having heard tho tidingji, gathered up his 
garments and went, whilst Silabhadra and the inferior 
disciples surrounded him as he advanced. Then I§ila- 
bhadra (the chief disciple) addressed him thus : "Whither 
goest thou so quickly ? '* answered, " Since 
the sun of wisdom went down,^ and only the lamp of the 
inherited doctrine bums quietly, the lieretics like clouds 
of ants and bees have risen ; therefore I am now going to 
crush tliat one in discussion/* 

Silabhadra said, "As I have myself attended at various 
discussions, let me destroy this heretic/' Dharmapdla* 
knowing his liistory, allowed him to have his way* 

At this time Silabhadra was just thirty years old. The 
assembly, despising his youth, feared that it would be 
difficult for him alone to undertake tlie discussion, Dhar- 
tnap^a knowing that the mind of hid folio uers 

** To Bcrand the drum ii %n ex- 
pci^noa for * cboiltD^ to di»cidBa 

^ Tm turn ue, ex plaint^ bj Juljen 


{note I, pb, 453) to be wui^^nleiil to 


» That 

k, iinoe thti death of 


disturbed, hastened to relieve them and said, "In honouring 
the conspicuous talent of a person we do not say, * He has 
cut his teeth * (cmmt his ymrs acearding to his UttJi), As I 
see the case before us now, I fee] sure that he will defeat 
the heretic; he is strong enough." 

On the day of discussion {a^embhj for discua^wn) the 
people came together from far aud near ; both old and 
young in numbers assembled. Then the heretical teacher 
on his part laid opeu his case with gi^eat emphasis^ and 
penetrated to the utmost the abstruse points (of his ar^u^ 
menty ^llabhadra followed his arguments {principles), 
and refuted them by profound and subtle allegations. 
The heretic, his words being exhausted, was covered with 
shame and retired. 

The king, in order to reward the virtue (of ^ilabh4idra)t 
gave him the revenues of this town as a bequest. The 
master of Sddras, declining the ofiler, said, "A master who 
wears the garments of religion (dj/ed garments) knows 
how to be contented with little and to keep himself para 
What would he do witk a town ?" 

The king in reply said, " The King of the Law hss 
passed into the obscure {abod€)f and the vessel of wisdom 
has been engulfed in the stream. If there are no distinc- 
tions now made (between the learned and vjnorant), then 
no encouragement is given to the scliolar to press forward 
in the attuinraeut of religion. Pray, of your pity, accept 
my offering," 

The doctor, not persisting in his refusal, accepted the 
town and built this mitghdrdma, vast and magnificent, and 
endowed it with the revenues of the town,^ as a means of 
providing it with the offerings necessary for religious semca 

Going to the south-west of the saiif/hdrdnia of ^la- 
bhadra about 40 or 50 li, and crossing the Nairalljan&* 

* Of the houRei of tho town- I 
tLndentftnd it to nje^o the revenueg 
of thQ tan f/hdnhna vmrQ derived from 
the reiitaJA of the ploi^ ; not that 
tho people or the iiihabttiititit were 
iMiund to the mwtUis of the pHeBtn. 

^ This river U now oftlled Pbfttgn ; 
the name IJIAjaq orNil&fijana lactm- 
fined to the wevUm brweb#whicli 
jmna tht^ MDhrmi five miles abci¥9 
Gaj4 (CunnJnghaim, Ant. Gtotjtt 
P^ 457)^ 

BOOK tul] 



river we come to the town of GavL"^ This town is 
naturally strong (dtuatcd amid crags or precipices). It 
has but few inlialjitants ; there are about looo families of 
Brft)imau3 only; they tire the offipring (mrcessors) of a 
RishL The king does not regard them as vassals and the 
people everywhere highly respect tlienu 

To the north of the town ^ li or so there is a pure 
fouutaiti of water. The tmdition handed down in India is 
that it is called *' holy water ; " all who bathe or drink 
thereof are cleansed from whatever defilement of sin they 

To the soutli-weat of the town s or 6 li we come to 
Mount GayS (Kia-ye), with its sombre valley^ streams, and 
steep and dangerous crags. In India the name commonly 
given to this is the divine {^piriittai) mountain. From 
old days it has been the custom for the ruling sovereign 
when he comes to the throne, with a view to conciliate his 
subjects at a distance and to cause hia renown to exceed 
previous generations, to ascend {this mminiaiTi) and declare 
his succession witii accompanying ceremonies (religious 
€ermwnie»). On the top of the mountain is a stUjja about 
lOO feet high, which waa built by Ai6ka-r^ja. Divine 
prodi^^ies are exliibited by it, and a sacred elTulgency often 
shines from it. In old days Tathiyata here delivered the 
^ao-yun ** and other s4tras. 

To the aouth-east of Mount Gay& is a Btdpa, This is 
the spot where K^lyapa (Kia-she-po) was born. To the 
south of this dUpa are two others, The?5e are the spots 
where Gay4ki^yapa (Kia-ye-kia'She-po) andNadlk^^- 
yapa (Nai-ti-kia-she-po) sacrificed as fire-worshippers,** 

<i "Sow called Brahma-Gay 4 t<s TAiang's ^gnrv^ 

dittUnguibh it fruto Bauddha-Lt^yii, 
the placo where Buddha rea^chitd 
enlightenment. The diitance from 
Fjitiia tt* Gay a ii 60 mi led by the 
highroad, about 70 by the route 
of Hiuen Tfiang, We do not kncivf 
the direct ion of the " old otmveiit,*' 
JOO U ft^m Fitoa, and thert^f{>re 
eaaiiat lest the correcttiefta of MiueQ 

^^ itefitored to Mainam^fjha SiUra 
by JiiiibD, 

"* For an account of the threo 
Ka^yapas and their converaioc hbq 
Fo ' ikii ' Aim/ ' taan - kin f^ varga j &» 
v\\ 1304 H!^» For the Hoene of the 
*'ftre yr«t" nee Tree and S^prnt 
Wuf skiff pL ^iiv« I5g. I* 


To the east of the place where Gaj^aivapa sacrificed 
to^re,cros«^ing a great river, we come to a tnountaiii called 
Pr4gb6dhi (Po-lo-ki-po-ti>»* Tathagnta, after diligently 
seeking for six years and not yet obtsuning supreme wis- 
dom, after this gave up his peoatice and accepted the rice- 
milk {afSiijaldy As he went to the north-east he saw 
this mountain that it was secluded and dark, whereupon 
he desired to seek enlightenment thereon. Aseeodiog the 
northeast slope and coming to the top^ the earth shook 
and the mountain quaked, whilst the mountain D6va in 
terror spake thus to B6dhisrittva : " This mountain is not 
the fortunate spot far attaining supreme wisdom. If here 
you atop and engage in the ' Sajnadhi ot dmmond,^^ the 
earth will ^juake and gape and the mountain be over- 
thrown upon jou,** 

Then Bddhisattva descended, and half-way down the 
south-west slope he halted. There^ backed by the crag 
and facing a torrent, is a great stone chamber. Here he 
sat down croagJegged, Again the earth quaked and the 
mountain shook. Then a D^va of the pure abode 0ud- 
dkavdsas) cried out in space, ''This is not the place for a 
Tathflgata to perfect supreme wisdom. From this south- 
west 14 or 15 li, not far from the place of penance, there 
is a Fippcda (Pi-jmlQ) tree under which is 'a diamond 
throne/** AH the past Buddhas seated on this throne 
have obtained true enlightenment, and so will those yet 
to come. Pniy^ then, proceed to that spot."*^ 

Then E6dhisattvaj rising up, the dragon dwelling in the 
cave said, " This cave is pure and excellent. Here you 

^ III CliincB« TMin-t:kinff-ki«* 
lAan, ^^t '* ^^^ mountain leading tn 
( before) pe rf KCt inteUigenoe ." When 
T&thilgata was about to Atiihiii to 
eullgbteimicut he fir»t aao«Dded tlm 
tiiuuntain i h^nce the nAETie. 

M Vujra aani(kthi, becatine it 
p4?tietr&b4^ aU oouditiou^ of i»ekig 

" VftjrlBaaa, &n imperiahabb 
thit>ti& It wu suppiiaed to be titti 
centre of the earthy and the spot 
where aJl the Buddbas arrived 
compltto wisdom. 

^ The whole of this _ 
irpolcen b; the DSva, Julian 
Mea it difffit^ntly* 




may accomplish th© holy (aim). Would that of your ex- 
ceeding love you would not leave me/' 

Theit Bodhisattva having discovered that this was not 
the place for accomplishing his aim, to appease the dra- 
gon, he left him his shadow and depaited, Tije Devas going 
Ijefore, led the M*ay, and accompanied him to the B6dki 
tree. When A^oka-raja came into power, lie signalised 
each spot up and down this mountain whicli Bfidhisattva 
had passed, by erecting distinguishing posts and sldpas. 
These, though of different sizes, yet are alike in spiri- 
tual manifestations. Sometimes flowers fall on them from 
heaven; sometimes a bright light illuminea the dark val- 
leys. Every year, on the day of breaking up the season of 
WasB (Vars/tds), religious laymen from different countries 
ftaeend this mountain for the purpose of making religious 
offerings to the faithful. They stop one night and return. 

Going south-west from Mount Prigbodbi about 14 or 
15 li, we come to the B&dhi tree. It is surrounded by a 
brick wall {a wall of piled h-icks) of considerable height, 
sleep and strong. It is long from east to westi and short 
from north to south. It is about 500 paces round. Bare 
trees with their renowned flowers connect their shade and 
cast their shadows ; tlie delicate sha ^ berb and different 
shrubs carpet the soil. The principal gate opens to the 
east, opposite the Nairafijand river. The southern ;:?ate 
adjoins a threat ilowury bank. The western side is blocked 
up and difficult of access {deep and slrong). The northern 
gate opens into the great sangkdrdma. Within the aur- 
roundiug wall the sacred traces touch one another in all 
directions. Here there are st4pas, in another place vihdras. 
The kings, princes, and great personages throughout all 
Jambudvlpa, who have accepted the bequeathed teacliing 
as handed down to them, have erected these monuments 
as memorials. 

In the middle of the enclosure surrounding the Bddhi 

■• The Sha i'm b tbf CyptruM iria of Llnu»as (Doolittk'a Uandtj^ok^ 


tree is the diamond thrtsiie {Vajrdmna), In former days, 
wlien tbe Bhadra-kfilpa wm arriviug at tlie period of per- 
fection {mvartta), when the great earth arose, this (throTte) 
also appeared. It is iu the middle of the great c/u7tt«:o^wi; 
it goes down tu the limits of tlje golden wheel (ih^ *jtM 
drde)t and upwards it is flush with the ground. It is 
composed of diamond. Iti cli^cuit it is icx> paees or so. 
On this the thousand Duddhas of the Bhudra-kalpa have 
sat and entered the diamond Samddki; hence the name of 
tlie diamond throne. It is the place where the Bnddd^ 
attain the holy patii {Ote sacred way of Biuldhahmd), It 
is also called the JBddkifnandla, WLeu the great earth 
is shaken, this place alone is unmovefh Therefore when 
Tath&gata was about to reach the condition of enlighieiK 
ment, and he went successively to the fonr angles of this 
enclosure, the earth shook and quaked; but afterwards 
coming to this spot, all was still and at resL From tlie 
time of entering on the concluding portion o! the kalpm^ 
when the true law dies out and disappears, ihe enrth and 
dust hegin to cover over this spot^ and it will be no 
longer visible. 

After the Nii^^dna of Buddha, the rulers of the different 
countriea having learned by tradition the measurement of 
the diamond throne, decided the limits from north to south 
by two figures of Kwan-tsz'-tsai (Avalfikitlirara) Bgdhi- 
sattva, there seated and looking eastward. 

The old people say tliat " as soan as the iigui'es of tliis 
B6dhisattva sink in the ground and disappear, the law of 
Buddha will come to an end," The figure at the south 
angle is now buried up to its breast. The Bodhi tree 
above the diamond throne is the same as the Pippala trea 
In old days, when Buddlm was alivCi it was several hundred 
feet high. Although it has often been injured by cutting, ii 
still ia 40 or SO feet in lieight. Buddha sittiirg under thia 
tree reached perfect wisdom, and therefore it is called the 
{Samyak samhddhi) tree of knowledge (Pu-ti-Bodki). llie 
bark is of a yellowish-white colour, the leaves and twigs 






of a ilark green. The leaves wither not either in winter 
cr summer, but tliey remain shining and glistening all the 
year round without change. But at every successive JWr- 
vdjm,'d^y (of th^e Buddhm) the leaves wither and fall, and 
then in a moment revive as before* On this day (of the 
Kirtdnat) the princes of different countries and the reli- 
gions multitude from difFurent quarters assemble by thou- 
sands and ten thousands unbidden, and bathe {the roota) 
with scented water and perfumed milk j whilst they raise 
the sounds of music and scatter flowei^ and perfumes, and 
whilst the light of day is continued by the burning torches, 
they offer their religious gifts. 

After the AHrvdna of Tath%ata, wlien AI5ka-r4ja began 
to reign, he was an unbeliever (a hdiever in Jures^), and 
he desired to destroy the bequeathed traces of Buddha; so 
he raised an anuy, and himself taking the lead, he came 
here for the purpose of destroying (ths tree). He cat 
through the roots; the trunk, branches, aud leaves were 
all divided into small bits and heaped up in a pile a few 
tens of paces to the west of the place, Tiien he ordered 
a Brlhma^ who sacrificed to fire to burn them in the dis- 
charge of his religious worship^ Scarcely had the smoke 
cleared away, when lo ! a double tree burst forth from the 
flaming fire^ and because the leaves and branches were 
shining like feathers, it was called the " ashes bfldlii tree.'* 
Aloka-rija, seeing the miracle, repented of his crime* He 
bathed the roois {0/ ike old tree) with perfumed milk to 
fertilise them, when lo! on the niorniug of the next day, 
the tree sprang np as before. Tlie king, seeing the mira- 
cnloua portent, wm overpowered with deep emotion, and 
himself offered religious gifts, and was so overjoyed that 
he forgot to return (to ike palace). The queen, who was 
an adherent of the heretics, sent secretly a messenger, 
who, after the first division of night, once more cut it down. 
A^ka-raja in the morning comiug again to worship at 
the tree, seeing only the mutilated trunk, was filled with 
exceeding grief. With the utmost sincerity he prayed as 


he worshipped ; he bathed the roots \i'ith perfanied milk, 
aud in less than a day agaia the tree was restot-ei 
The king, looved by deep reverence at the prodigy, sur- 
rounded the tree with a stone (brick) wall above lo feet^ 
which still remains visible. In late times ^a^afika-rfija 
(She-s]iang-kia)^ being a believer in heresy, slandered the 
ifeligion of Buddha, and through envy destroyed the con- 
vents and cot down tlie BMhi tree, digging it np to the 
very springs of the earth ; but yet he did not get to tlie 
bottom of the roots. Then he bamt it with fire and 
sprinkled it with the juice of the sugar-cane^ desiring to 
destpoy it entirely, and not leave a trace of it behind. 

Some months afterwards, the king of Magadha, called 
PftrnavarmA (ru-la-na-fa-mo), the last of the race of 
A^ka-r&ja, liearing of it^ sighed and said, " The sun of 
wisdom having set, notlnng is left but the tree of Bud* 
dha, and this they now have destroyed, what source of 
spiritual life is there now ?" He then cast his body on the 
ground overcome with pit-y; then with the milk of a 
thousand cows he again bathed the roots of the tree, and 
in a night it once more revived and grew to the height of 
some lo feet Fearing lest it should be again cut down, 
he surrounded it with a wall of stone 24 feet bigb* So the 
tree is now encircled with a wall about 20 feet higlu 

To the east of the BSdhi tree there is a mhdra about 
160 or 170 feet high. Its lower foundation- wall is 20 or 
more paces in its face. The bailding {pUt) is of bine tiles 
(bricka) covered with chunam {hmmt stomj liim) ; all Uie 
niches in the different storeys hold golden figures.® Tha 
four aides of the building are covered with wonderful 
ornamental work ; in one place figures of stringed pe^u-la 
(^arlaiuh)^ in anotber figures of heavenly Elshls. The 
whole is surrounded by a gilded copper Anmlaha fruit.^ 
The eastern face adjoins a storeyed pavilion, the project- 
ing eaves of which rise one over the other to the height 

* There U no roention mjM3e of cAUed^aprecidu&pikslifir'Waprc^ 
' * fi gur* A of Biidd luL ' ' doui gourd. '* But ie« fiCPte &£ «] d of 

'^ Afiffvbotuntmbitc; it Is alao tbia Book. 



of three distinct chambers ; its projecting eaves, its pil- 
lars, beams, door's, and windows are decorated ^'ith gold 
and silver ornamental work, with pearls and gems Ut in 
to fill up interstices. Its sombre chambers and mys- 
terious halls have doors in each of the three storeys^ 
To the right and left of the outside gate are niches like 
chambers ; in the left is a figure of Aval6kitl^vara Bfidhi- 
eattva^ and in the right a figure of Maitr^ya (T'se-shi) 
BddliisattTa. Tbey are made of white silver, and are aboiit 
lo feet higk Oa the site of tiie present inhdra AMka-Hija 
at first built a small vihdm. Afterwards there was a Br&h- 
man who reconstructed it on a larger scale. At first this 
Brahman was not a believer in th« kw of Buddha, and 
sacrificed to MahS^vara, Having heard that this heavenly 
spirit {^(hI) dwelt in the Snowy Mountains, he forthwith 
went then^ with liis younger brother to seek by prayer 
(his wuheg). The D^va said, "Those who pray should 

Laim to acquire some extensive religious merit. If you 
who pray have not this ground (o/7mrit}rtliBti neither can , 
I grant what you pray for,*' 

The Brdhman said, " What meritorious work can I set 
about J to enable me to obtain my desira ? " 

The god saidj " If you wish to plant a superior root 

Mf^frmctk) of merit, then seek a superior field (an which to 
ucquir^ it), Tlie Bddki tree is the place for attaining the 
fruit of a Buddha. You should straightway return there, 
And by the B6dhi tree erect a large mhdra, and exca* 
▼ate a large tank, and devote all kinds of religious ofifer- 
iugB {to the sermct). You will then surely obtain your 

The Brfihmana having received the divine communica- 
ion, conceived a believing heart, and they both returned 
to the place. The elder brother built the vihdra, the 
younger excavated the tank, and then they prepared large 
eligious offerings, and sought with diligence their heart'a 
desire (row). The result followed at once< The Br&hnia^ 
became the great minister of the king. He devoted all 
his emoluments to the work of charity. Having: finished 


the mhdra, he invited the most skilful artists to make a 
fi;^ure (liJ:€ncss) of Tathtigata when he first reached the 
condition of Buddha. Years and months passed witliout 
result; no one answered the appeal. At length there was 
a BrShtn<'iii who came and addressed the congregation 
thus: "I will thoroughly execute (paint and mark) the 
excellent figure (or distinguishing points) of Tathigata." 

They replied, " Por the purpose of doing this, what da 
you require ? " 

"Place in the vihdra a pile of scented earth and a 
lighted lamp ; then when I have gone in, fasten the doors. 
After six montlLS you may open them again/* 

Then the priests did as he directed. After four months. 
the six not heing passed, the priests being astonished at 
the strange circumstance, opened the door to see what had 
happened. In tlie vihdra they found ^ beautiful figure of 
Buddha iu a sitting position, the right foot uppermost, the 
left Imnd resting, the right Ijand hanging down. He was 
Kitting facing the east, and as dignified in appeamuce as 
when alive. The throne was 4 feet Z inches high> and 
12 feet 5 inches broad. The figure was 11 feet S iuches 
high ; the two knees were 8 feet 8 inches apart, and the 
two siionlders 6 feet 2 inches. The signs and marks {of 
a Buddha) were perfectly drawn. The loving expression 
of his face was like life, only above his right breast th« 
material was not yet completely rounded off. Having 
seen no man, they were satisfied that this was a miracle, 
and all of them were filled with strung emotion {pU^&udy 
sightd) as they diligently souglit to find out the secret 
(earnest ti/ in quired in order to know). Now there was a 
Sramana who wag passing the night tli«rew He was of an 
honest and tnitliful heart, and being affected by the cir- 
cumstanoe (just related), he had a dream, in which he saw 
the forementioned Br&hraan, who addressed him thus: 
*'I am MaiLr6ya Bddhisattva. Fearing that the mind 
of no artist could conceive the beauty of the sacred 
features, therefore I myself have come to paint and 



delineate the figure of Buddba. His right hand hangs 
down ^ in token ihat when he was about to reach the 
fruit of a Buddba, and the enticing Mira came to fascinate 
biin, then the earth-spirits came to tell him thereof* Tiie 
first who came fortli advanced to help Bnddha to resist 
Mara, to whom Tathigata said, * Fear not I Bj the puwer 
of patience he must he subdued !' Mara-rSja said, * Who 
will bear witness for you ?* Tathlgata dropped his liand 
and pointed to the ground, saying, ' Here is my witaesa/ 
On this a second earth-spirit leapt fortli to bear witness 
{lo itstify), Tlierefore the present figure is so drawn^ in 
imitation of the old posture of Buddha." 

The brethren having understood this sacred miracle 
(spiritual rejleciion), were all moved with a tender emotion, 
and they placed above the breast, where the work was as 
yet nnfinisbed, a necklace of precious stones and jewels, 
whilst on the head they placed a diadem of encircling 
gems, exceedingly rich* 

8ais\6ka-r«lja having cut down the Bddhi tree, wished 
to destroy this image ; but having seen its loving features, 
his mind had no rest or determinationj and be returned 
with hi» retinue homewards* On his way lie said to one 
of his officers, ** We must remove that atatue of Buddha 
and place there a figure of Mahe^vara." 

The officer havint' received the order, was moved with 
fear, and, sighing, said, *'If I destroy the figure of Buddha, 
then during successive kalpas I shall reap misfortune ; if 
I disobey the king, he will put me to a cruel death and 
destroy my family; in either case^ whether I obey or dis- 
obey, such will be the consec^uences ; what, then, shall 
I dot- 
On this he called to his preset ice a man with a believing 
heart (i.^., a believer in, Buddha) to help him, and sent him 
to build up across the chamber and before the figure of 
Buddha a wall of brick. The man, from a feeling of 
shame at the darkness, placed a burning lamp {wUh the 
'^ Thk is tbe BkHmiMjparia niu<^^ 


€miccal€dfifjiuTt)\ then on the interposing wall he drew a 
figure of {qt, he made a figure of)^- Mahf^lvara-d^va, 

The work being finished^ lie reported the matter. The 
king hearing it, was seized with terror ; hia body produced 
sorea and his flesh rotted off, aiid after a short while he 
died. Then the officer quickly ordered the interreiiitig 
wall to he pulled down again , when, although several 
days had elap^sed, the lamp was still found to be burning 

The figure still exists iu its ptsrfect state as it was made 
by the sacred art of the god. It atauds in a dark chamher j 
lamps and torches are kept burning therein; but those 
who wish to see the sacred features cannot do so hy 
coming into the chamber; they should in the morning 
reflect the sunlight by means of a great mirror on the 
inteiior of the room ; the saered marks may then be 
seen. Those who behold them find their religious emo- 
tions mnch increased. Tath&gata obtained complete en- 
llghtennieut {Smmjak mmhodhi) on the eighth day of the 
latter half of the Indian month A^ai^kha (Fei-slie-kie), 
which is with us the eighth day of the tliird mouth. But 
the Sthavira school (Shang-tso-pu) say on the fifteenth 
day of the second half of Vaiialcha, which corresponds wirh 
us to the iiftei^ntb day of tlie third month, Tath&^zata 
was then thirty years old, or, according to others, thirty- 
five yeai*3. 

To the north of the Bddhi tree is a spot where Buddha 
walked up and down. Wiien Tathagata had obtained 
enlightenment^ he did not rise from the throne^ but r^ 
inained perfectly quiet for seven days, lost in contempla- 
tion. Then rising, he walked up and down during seven 
days to the north of the tree ; he walked there east and 
west for a distance of ten paces or so. Miraculous flo Wei's 
sprang up under his foot-traces to the number of eighteen* 
Afterwaitls this space was covered in by a brick wall 
about three feet high. According to tiie old belief, these 

^ Julien ibtnks % translfttioii fihoold be adopted that would »|)pl^ 
orjualJ^ to » «Utue or a pictun}. 






ho! J traces thug covered in, indicate the length or short- 
ness of a man's life. First of all» having offared up a 
sincere prayer, then count the measurement (or, pace the 
distance and measure) ■ according as the person's life is to 
be long or short, so will the measurement be gi-eater or 

On the left side of the road, to the north of the place 
where Buddha walked, ii a large stone, on the top of 
wliich, as it stands in a great vihdra, is a iigure of Buddha 
witii his eyes raised and looking up Here in former times 
Buddha sat for seven days contemplating the B6dhi tree ; 
he did not remove his gaze from it during this period, 
desiring therehy to indicate his grateful feelings towards 
the tree by so looking at it with fixed eyes* 

Not far to the west of the £ddhi tree is a large pihdra 
in which is a figure of Buddha made of Ceou-shik (brass), 
ornamented with rare jewels ; he stands wiUi his face to 
the east Before it is a blue stone with wonderful marks 
upon it and stmngely figured. This is {the place whi^re) 
Buddha sat on a seven-gemmed throne made by Sakra 
Deva-rija when Drahma-rstja built a hall for him of seven 
precious substances, after he had arrived at complete 
tinljghtenment. Whilst he thus sat for seven days in 
reflection, the mysterious glory which shoue from his 
person lit up the Bddhi tree. From the time of the holy 
one till tlie present is so long that the gems have changed 
into stone, 

Kot far to the south of the Bddhi tree is a st^pa about 
100 feet high, whicii was built by A^oka-rS^ja. Bodhis- 
attva having bathed in the Nairafijanl river, proceeded 
towards the Bddhi tree. Then he thought, ^^What shall 
I do for a seat ? I will seek for some pure ruslies when 
the day breaks/* Then Sakra-rSja (Shi) transformed him- 
self into a grass-cutter, who, with his burden on his back, 
went along the road, Bodhisattva addressing him said, 
** Can you give me the bundle of grass you are carrying 
on your back I " 


The assumed grass-cutter, hearing tlie request, offered 
the grass with respect. Bflihisattva having received it^ 
went onwards to the tree. 

Not far to the north of tliis spot is a si4pa. BMhisattva, 
when about to obtain enlightennient {thE/ruii of BuddJia), 
saw a flock of blue birds riainL; up {rokin t) ^* according 
to the lucky way. Of all the good omens recognised in 
India this is the most so. Therefore the Devaa of the 
pure abodes 0uddkavdsas accommodated their proceed- 
ings to the customary modes of the world, and caused the 
birds thus lo encircle him as spiritually {miraculoitsli/) in- 
dicating his holiness. 

To the east of the BSdki tree, on the left and right of 
the great road, there are two siUpas {one on each mh). 
This 33 the place where Mara-rdja tempted Bodhisattva, 
Bddhisattva, when on the point of enlightenment, waa 
tempted by MAra to become a Chakravarttiu (Lun-wang) 
monarcL^* Oil his refusings he went away heavy and 
sorrowful. On this his daughters, asking him. went to trj 
to enticu the BddhisaLtva, but by his apiritual power he 
changed their youthful appearance into that of decrepit 
old women. Then leaning together on their sticks they 
went away.^^ 

To the north-west of the B6dhi tree in a viJidra is the 
image of Ka^yapa Buddha, It is noted for its miraculous 
and sacred qualities. From time to time it emits a glo- 
rious light The old records say, that if a man actuated 
by sincere faith walks round it seven times, he obtains the 
power of knowing the place and condition of his (farmer f) 

^ The exprenaina m the te^tt 
fle«£DS to be pbotiottc. Julien trana^ 
lates '* iuk ^' literaUj by *' detir/' 
But ibe refflronca i^ to the blue 
blrdB riBing up and oircliu^^ round 
Bddhii«.ttv'>i m a fortunate waj, vid. 
Tre€ and Serpent WovMhipt pi IviiL 
fig, 2, ^rnt section. T\w ai^Tjiint i>t 
tbene eigtin ii to be found in Wonff 
P^h^ and tn otbc't legendary lives of 

^^ Te ftcci-pt Ihe letter mTttibg 

bim to be a Cfaakr&varttin, or the 
hit cast hy tbe Boothaayers wUh 
respect to hiH being a Chalitm>- 
varttin (Cb'uendnn-winjg). 

^ The temptAtUm acene m repro- 
s^ntcid in ^W the JM^ulptunesc See, 
t,g.t Cave Trmpir*, by Dr. Burgeia, 
pL XX. For an actxmnt of the dif- 
ferent events tmtnod in the t«xt lu^il 
a descnption of the gr«&t temple of 
Gay A built by a king of Ceylon, Bee 
Buddha Gay4f by Dr. Kaj. Mitr^ 

aooE vitl] 




To tlte north-west of the vihdra bf Kalyapa Raddba 
there are two brick chambers, eacli contaiaiug a figure of 
an earth-spirit. Formerly, Tvhen Buddlia was on the point 
of obtaining enlightenment, MUra came to him, and each 
one (or one) became witness for Buddha, Men afterwards, 
on account of his merit, painted or carved this figure of 
him with all its points of excellence. 

To the north-west of the wall of the Sddhi tree is a 
stUpa CEilled Yuh-kin-hiang (the saffron scent, Kufikuma) i 
jt is about 40 feet high ; it was built by a merchant chief 
(BrMipd) of the country of Tsao-kiu-ch*u (Tsankuta), 
In old days there was a merchant-prince of this country 
who worshipped the heavenly spirits and sacrificcjd to them 
with a view. to seek religious merit. He despised the 
religion of Buddha, and did not believe in the doctrine of 
" deeds and fruits.'* After a while, he took with him some 
nierchanta to engage in commercial transactions {i& take 
^oodsfor having or not kamnfft ie^jfor ^ckati^i). Embark- 
ing in a ship on the southern sea, a tempest arising, they 
lost their way, ^vhilst the tumnltuous waves encircled 
tliem. Then after tliree years, their provisions being 
gone and their mouths parched with thirst, when there 
was not enough to last the voyagers from morning till 
evening, they employed all their enei'gies with one mind 
in calling on the gods to whom they sacrificed. After all 
their efforts no result followed (jJinT ucret desire not 
accam^lisked), ^^dien unexpectedly they saw a great moun- 
tain with steep crags and precipices, and a double sun 
gleaming from far. Then the merchants, congratulating 
ihemselves, said, " We are fortunate indeed in encounter- 
tag this great mountain ; we shall here get some rest and 
refreshment.** The merchant -master said, '^It is no 
jnountain^ it is the MaJcara fish; the high crags and 
scarped precipices are hut its fins and mane; the double 
suns are its eyes as they shineJ* Scarce had he finished 
when the sails of the ship began to drnsv; on which the 
merchant-master said to his companions, '*! have heard 


sav that K^van-tsz^-tsai Bfidhisattva is able to come to 
the help of those in difficulties and give them rest; we 
ought then with all faith to call upon that name," So 
mih one accord and voice they paid their adorations^ 
and called on the name. The high mountains disappeared, 
the two suns were swallowed up, and Buddenlj they saw a 
^ramana with dignified luien and calm demeanour holding 
his staff, walking througli the sky, and coming towards 
them to rescue them from shipwreck, and in consequence 
they %vere at their own country immediately," Then 
because their faith was confirmed, and with a view not to 
lose the merit of their condition, they built a sMpa and 
prepared their religious offerings, and they covered the 
sii^pa from top to bottom with saffron paste. After thus, 
conceiving a heart of faiih, those who were like-minded 
resolved to pay their adoration to the sacred traces; be- 
holding the BSdki tree, they had no leisure for words about 
returning ; but now, a month having elapsed, as they were 
walking together, they said in conversation^ *' Mountains 
and rivers separate us from our native country, nnd now 
as to the sMpa which we built formerly, whilst we have 
been here, who has watered and sw^ept it ?" On finishing 
these words and coming to the spot {where this sM^)a standi), 
they turned round in token of respect; when suddenly 
they saw a stilpa riae before them, and on advancing to 
look at itj they saw it w^as exactly like the one they had 
built in their own countiy. Therefore now in India they 
GaU it the Ivnfikuma st&pa. 

At the south-east angle of the wall of the £6dhi trfie 
is a shipa by the side of a Kyagrodha {ni-km-Uu) tree. 
Beside it there is a vikdra in which is a sitting figure of 
Buddha. This is the spot where the great Brahmadeva 
exhorted Buddha, when he had first acquired enlighten- 
ment, to turn the wheel of the excellent law.^ 

^ Kvfai-minffj pay their adora- ^ Can tluji be the Fcene t«pr«- 

tlons ; the Mme &« hmt-L Jullen seuted in the Ajanta (n^coes? See 

tranj^Iatea it -* placed tbfiir lot in Burg«v, t'ttrt Temple** pit. xru 

bU hftudtf.** ^" Buddha w«ft in dcubt whether 

E>K YUl!} 


Withiu the walk of the Bddhi tree at each of tbe four 
anglt's 13 a great shipa. Formerly, when Tath&gata re- 
ceived the gra33 of good omen (Sanit), he ^ralked on the 
four sides of the Boclhi tree from point to point; then 
the great earth trembled. When he came to the diamoud 
throne, then all wag quiet and peaceable again. Within 
tbe walls of the tree the sacred traces are so thick to- 
gether that it would be difficult to recite each one par- 

At the south-west of the B&dhi tree, outside the walls, 
there is a dupa ; this is where the old house of the two 
sbepherd-girla stood who offered the rice-milk to Buddlia. 
By the side of it is another diijm where the girls boiled 
the rice; by the side of this dilpa Tatluigata received 
the rice. Outside the south gate of the £6dk% tree is a 
great tank about 700 paces round, the water of which is 
clear and pure as a mirror. Nigas and fishes dwell 
there. This was the pond which was du<T by the ErSh- 
mans, who wero uterine brothers, at the command of 
Mah^^vara (Ta-thseu-thsai). 

Sdll to the south there is a tank ; formerly, wlien 
Tathagata had just acquired perfect enlightenment, he 
wished to bathe; then ^akra (Shi), king of liSvas, for 
Buddha's sake, caused a pond to appear as a phantom ♦ 

On the west is a great stone where Buddha washed his 
robes, and then wished to dry them * on this, Sakra, king 
of DfivaSj brought this rock from the great Snowy Moun- 
tains. By the side of this is a d4pa ; this is wliere 
Tathagata put on (?) the old garments offered him. Still 
to the south in a wood is a stUpa; this is where the poor old 
woman gave the old garments whicli Tathagata accejited. 

B^j wei« fit to hear him pre&eh. 
Od thiMf Brahmi fFanl, the lord of 
the **3ahA world " (MabAbrahthfi S&- 
hinipttti), camB and f^xhorted hini to 
*' turn the wheel/' for, hb i^iLid, '* i&a 
on tbe iurfaoe o£ a pond there Are 
white and bine lotua aowt^n, »ame 
miljr m btid, lOiDja opening, uthen 

f finj opened ; thun it ia with men ; 
Aome Mxe not yet fit to b« taught, 
fithura are b«mg made tit, whilst 
some a^re ready to recti ive thtr tAvjng 
doctnae/* See the account in the 
thit^3-hu'mO'ho-ti Siiti^a, See alau 


To the east of the pood which ^akra caused to appear, 
in the midst of a wood, is the lake of the Nfiga king 
Muchilitida (Mu-chi-liii-t*o). The water of this lake is 
of a dark blue colour, its tiste h sweet and pleasant ; on 
the west bank is a small n7/4m io which is a figure of 
Buddha. Formerly, when Tatljagata first acquired com- 
plete eulightcumentr he sat on this spot in perfect compo- 
sure, and for seven days dwelt in ecstatic contemplatioiu 
Thin this Muchilinda Niga-rSja kept guard over Tatb4- 
^ta; with his folds seven times round the body of 
Buddha, he caused niany heads to appear, which over- 
shadowed him as a parasol ; therefore to the east of thi$ 
lake is the dwelling of ihe Niga. 

To the east of the tank of Muclulinda in a viMra 
standing in a wood is a figure of Buddha, which represents 
him as thin and withered away. 

At th« side of this i^ the place where Buddha walked 
up and down, about 70 paces or so long, and on each side 
of it is a Pippaia tree. 

Both in old times and now, among the better classes 
and the poor, those who suffer from disease are accus- 
tomed to anoint ilie figure with scented earth, on whicii 
they get cured in many cases. This is the place where 
B&dhisattva endured his penance. Here it was Tatha- 
i^ata subdued the heretics and received the request of 
M&ra, and then entered on his six years' fast, eating a 
grain of millet and of wheat each day; his body then 
became thin and withered and his face marred. The 
place where he walked up and down is where he took 
the branch of the tree (as he left the river) after his 

By the side of the Fippala tree which denoted the 
place of Buddha's fast is a stupa; this is where AjMta^ 
Kaupdinja and the rest, to the number of five, resided. 
When first the prince left his home, he wandered through 
tlie mountains and plains; he rested in forests and by 
wells uf water. Then Suddh6dana-]4ja ordered five men 10 



follow him and wait on his person. The prince having 
entered on his penance, then Ajiiata Kanii<|inya and the 
rest gave themselves also to a diligent practice of the 

To the sonth-weat of thia spot there is a shlpa. This 
is where Dodhisattva entered the Nairaujan^. river to 
bathe. By the side of the river, not far off, is the place 
where Bfidhisattva received the rice-milk. 

By the side of this is a stdpa where the merchant-prince 
(fufifSfholder) offered him the wheat and honey. Buddha 
wns seated with his legs crossed beneath a tree, lost in 
contemplatioDj experiencing in silence the joya of eman- 
cipation, After seven days he aroused himself from his 
ecstasy. Then two merchant-princes travelling by the 
side of the wood were addressed by the Diva of the place 
thas: " The prince-royal of the ^^kya family dwells in this 
wood, having jnst i*eached the fruit of a Buddha. His 
mind fixed in contemplation, he has for forty-nine days 
eaten nothing. By otlering him whatsoever you have {as 
food) you will reap great and excellent profit*' 

Then the two merchants offered soma wheat-flour and 
honey from their travelling store. The World- honoured 
accepted and received it. 

By the side of the merchant-offering place is a stApa. This 
ia the spot where the four DSva-ri\jas presented {Buddha) 
with a pdtra. The merchant- princes having made tlieir 
offering of wheat-flour and honey, the I^rd thought 
with himself in what vessel he should receive it. Then 
the four Deva-rSjas coming from the four quarters, each 
brought a golden dish and offered it. The Lord sat silently 
and accepted not the offeriugs, on the ground that such a 
costly dish became not the ehatacter of a hermit. The 
four kingi casting away the golden dishes, offered silver 
ones ; afterwards they offered vessels of crystal (po-ch'i^ 
lapis-lazuli (Hn^H), cornelian (ma-nao), amber {ku-chH)^ 
ruby {chin cku), and so on* The Lord of tlie World would 
accept neither of them. The four kings then returned to 



their pidaces and brouglit as an oflerbg stone pdiras, of 
a deep blue colour and translueent Again presenting I 
tbesep the Lord, to avoid accepting one and rejecting thf j 
DtlieTS, forthwith joined them all in one and accepted them 
thua. Putting them one i^ithin tlie other, he made one 
vessel of the fonr Therefore may be seen the foutj 
bordei^ on the outside of the rim (of the duk). 

Not far from this spot is a stdpa. This is the pUce 
where Tathrigata preached the lasv for the sake of his 
mother. When Tathdgata had acquired complete en- 
lightenment, he was termed **the teacher of gods and I 
of men," His mother, MSyt\ then came down fiomj 
heaven to this place The Lord of the World preached 
to her according to the occasion, for her profit and 

Beside this spot is a diy pool, on the border of which ' 
is a 3t4pa. This is where in former days Tathagata dis- 
played varions spiritual changes to convert those who 
were capable of it. 

By the side of this spot is a Mpa, Here TathSgata 
con%^erted UravilvS-Kfi^yapa (Yeu-leu-pin-lo-kia-she- 
po) with his two brothei^ and a thousand of their foUowera 
Tath&gata, for the purpose of following out his office as 
"illustrious guide," according to his opportunity (or in a 
Buitable w*ay), caused him (i.e., Ku^yapa) to submit to his 
teaching* On this occasion, whe a 500 followers of Uravilvfi- 
KISyapa had requested to receive the instniction of 
Buddha, then Kfilyapa said, " I too with you will give up 
the way of error " On this, going together, they came lo 
the place where Buddha was, Tath&gata, addressing them, 
said, " Liy aside your leather gai'ments and give up your 
lire-sacrificing vessels," Then the disciples, in obedience 
to the command, cast into the Nairanjana river their 
articles of worsb i p (scrvim or use). When K a d i - K i Sy ap a 
(Nai-ti-kia-she-po) saw these vessels following the current 
of the river, he came with bis followers to visit his brother* 
Having seen his conduct and clmnged behaviour, he also 



took the yellow robes. Gaya-Ka^iyapa also, witli two 
hundred followers, heariag of his brother's change of 
religion, came to the place where Buddha was, and prayed 
to be allowed to practise a life of purity. 

To the north-west of the spot where the K^iyapa 
brothera were converted is a Mpa, This is the place 
where Tatbdgata overcame the Hery M^4ga to which 
£Myapa sacrificed. TathUgata, when about to convert 
these men, first subdued the object of their worship^ and 
rested in the liouse of tlie fiery Ndga of the Brahmachilrins. 
After the middle of the night the Naga vomited forth fire 
and smoke. Buddha having entered Samddhi^ likewise 
raised the brilliancy of fire, and the house-cell seeTued to 
he filled with fiery flames. Tlie Brahmachirins, fearing 
that the fire waa destroying Buddha, all ran together to 
the spot with piteoEs cries, commiserating his fate. On 
this Uravilva-Kdiyapa addressed his followers and said, 
* Aa I now gather (see), this is not a fire, but the Sramana 
eubduing the fiery N4ga/' Tathligata having got the fiery 
dragon firmly fixed in his alms-bowl, on the morrow came 
forth bolJing it in bis band, and showed it to the disciples 
of the unbelievers. By the side of this nionument is a 
i^^po, where 500 Fraty^ka Budtlhas at the same time 
entered Jfirtdna, 

To the south of the tank of Muebilinda Kftga is a siApa, 
This indicates the spot where KSijapa went to save 
Buddha during an inundation. The Kiislyapa brothers 
Btill opposing the divine method/^ all who Uved far off or 
near reverenced their virtue, and submitted themselves to 
their teaching. The Lord of the World, in his character as 
guide of those in error, being very intent on their conver- 
aion, raised and spread abroad the thick clouds and caused 
the torrents to fall The fierce waves surrounded the 
place where Buddha dwelt* but he alone was free from 
the flood. At this time Kafiyapa, seeing the clouds and 

^ I^t the m^;]iod« Buddbft bad used lor Ibelr oonveraioo. 


Tfiin, callujg liis disciples, said, "Tlie place wliere tlie 
Simman tlwelk must ba engulfal in the tide I" 

Embarking in a boat to go to his deliverance^ he saw 
the Ixjrd of tlie World walklug on the water as on land ; 
and as he advanced down the stream, the waters diviied 
and left the ground visible, KiUyapa having seen {tht 
mirack), his heart was subdued, and he returned.®^ 

Outside the eastern ^ate of the ^all of the Bodlti tree, 
2 or 3 li distaut, there is the house of the blind K%a. 
This Nftga, by the accumulated effect of his deeds during 
fornier existences, was born blind, qm a punishment, in hit 
present birth, TatbS.gata going on from Mount Priigbodhi, 
desired to reach the BdtUti tree* As he passed this abaJe, 
the eyes of the Ndga were suddenly opened, and he saw 
BSdhisattva going on to the tree of intelligence (B&Vti). 
Then addressing BSdliisattva, he said, *'0 virtuous master! 
erelon:4 jou will become perfectly enlightened ! My eyes 
indeed have long remained in darkness; but when a 
Buddha appears in the world, then I liave my sight re- 
stored. During the Bhadra-kalpa, when the three past 
Buddhas appeared in the world, then I obtained light 
and saw {/or a whik); and now when thou, O virtiious 
one 1 didst approach this spot, my eyes suddenly opened ; 
therefore I know that you shall become a Buddha." 

By the side of the eastern gate of the wall of the Bd 
tree is a sMpa. This is where Mtlra-r&ja tiied to fright 
Bddhisattva, When first Mini-rSja knew that BWhi? 
attva was about lo obtain perfect enlightenment, having 
failed to confuse him by his enticements or to terrify him 
by his arts, be summoned his host of spirits and arranged 
bis demon arniyj and arrayed his soldiers, armed with their 
weapons, as if to destioy the Bodbisativa, On this tho 
winds arose and the ndua descended, the thundei^ rolled 
in space and the yghtning gleamed, as it lii up the 
darkness ; flames of tire and clouds of smoke burst forth : 

** Se0 Tjtee and Serpfnt WQrghip^ pL xMxi. 

BooE viil] the great TilMPLE OF GAYA. 



sand and Ijnilstones fell like lances, and were as arrows 
flying fioiii tlie bow, Wlieretipon tlie E&dhiaattva entered 
tlie samddhi of "great love/' and changed the weapons of 
the liost t€ lotus liowers. JIum's army, smitten by fear, 
retreated fast and disappeared. 

Not far from tins are two stupas built bj Sakra, king of 
D^vas, and by Bralima-rAja. 

Outside the northern gate of the wall of the Bddhi tree 
is the Mah&bodhi safif/hdrdma. It was built by a former 
king of Siihhala (Cct/ion.) This edifice has six halls, with 
towers of observatiuu (tuuiple towers) of three storeys; it 
is surrounded by a %yall of defence thirty or forty feet higlu 
The utmost skill ol the artist has been emidoyed; the 
ovnamentation is in the richest colours {red arul him). The 
statue of Buddha is cast of gold and silver, decorated with 
gems and precious stones. Tlie sttlj/as are high and large 
in proportion, and beamifully oriuimented; they contain 
relics of Buddha, The bone relics are as great as the 
fiDgerg of the hand^ shining and sinooth^ of a pure white 
colour and tmnbluceut. The Hesli relics are like the great 
tnie pearl, of a bluish-red tint, Eveiy year on the day of 
the full moon of (the inonth whm) Tathigata displayed great 
spiritual changes, they take these relics out for public 
exhibition.®^ On tliese occasions sometimes a bright light 
is diBTiised, sometimes it rains fiowei*s. The priests of this 
convent are more than looo men; they study the Great 
Vehicle and belong to the Sihavira (Shang-tso-pu) school. 
They carefully observe the Dkarma Vinaya, aud their 
conduct is pure and con-ect. 

In old days there was a king of Ceylon, whicli is a 
country of the southern sea, who was tnithful and a 
believer in the law of Buddha. It happened that his 
brother, wlio had become a disciple of Buddha {a houseless 
onfi), tiiinking on the holy traces of Buddha, went forth 
to wander through India. At all the convents he visited, 

■^ In Indl% the tbirtieth day of the twelfth month ; in Ohhm, tlia 
gfteculh d»y ol the first tuontb. 


he was treated with disdain as a foreigner {a frontier 
cQuniTi^vmn), On this be returned to his own country. 
Tho king in person went out to a distance to meet him, 
bat the ^ramana was so affected that he could not speak- 
The king said, " Whet has so afflicted you as to canse this 
excessive grief ? '* The ^ramaija replied, " I, relying on 
the dignity of your Majesty 3 kingdom, went forth to 
visit the world, and to find my way through distant 
regions and strange cities* For many years all ray 
travels, during heat and cold, have heen attended with 
outrage, and my words have been met with insnJta and 
sarcasm. Having endured these afflictions, how can I be 
light-hearted I " 

The king said^ "If these things are so, what is to be 

Hu replied, " In truth, I wish your Mnjesty in the field 
of merit would undertake to build convents throughout 
all India, You would thus signalise the holy traces, 
and gain for yourself a great name; you woidd show 
your gratitude for the advantage derived from your pre- 
deceseors, and hand down the merit thereof to your suc^ 

He replied, " This is an excellent plan j how have I but 
just heard of it?" 

Then he gave in tribute to the king of India all the 
jewels of his country. The king having received them 
as tribute^ from a principle of duty and affection to his 
distant ally, he sent mesaen.2er3 to say, " What can I now 
do in return for the decree ? " 

The nunister said, "The king of Siihhala salutes the 
king of India (JIahS. Srt r4ja). The reputation of the Mah&* 
rftja has spread far and wide, and your benefits have 
reached to distant regions. The Sramaijas of this 
inferior country desire to obey your instructions and 
to accept your transforming influences* Having wan- 
dered through your superior country in visiting the 
sacred traces, I called at various convents and found 





great difficulty in getting entertainment, and so> fatigued 
and very much woru by affronts, I returned home, I have 
therefore formed a plan for the benefit of future travel- 
lers ; I dtisire to buUd in all the Indies a convent for 
the entertaiumeiit of such strangerSj who may have a 
pkce of rest between their journey there and back- Thus 
the two countries will be bound together and travellers be 

Tlie king said, " I permit your royal master to take (for 
this purpose) one of the places in which TathSgata baa left 
the traces of his holy teaching.** 

On thia the messenger returned home, having taken 
leave of the king, and gave an account of his inten^iew. 
The ministers received bim with distinction and assembled 
the Snim[lnas and deliberated as to the foundation of a 
convent. The Sramanas said, " The (Bddht) tree is the 
place where all the past Buddhas have obtained the holy 
frnit and where the future ones will obtain it. There is 
no l:K?tter place than this for carrying out the project." 

Then, sending all tbe jewels of the country, they built 
this convent to entertain priests of this country (Cci/lon), 
and he caused to be eugraved this proclamation on copper, 
'*To help all without distinction is the higiiest teaching 
of all the Buddhaa ; to exercise mercy as occasion offers is 
the illustrious doctrine of former saints. And now I^ 
an worthy descendant in the royal line, have undertaken 
to found this sanf/hdrdma, to enclose the sacred traces, 
and to hand down tVieir renown to future ages, and to 
spread their benefits among the people. The priests of 
my country will tlius obtain independence^ and be treated 
as members of the fraternity of this country. Let tiiia 
privilege be handed down from generation to generation 
without interruption/' 

For this cause this convent entertains many priests of 
Ceylon. To the south of the Bddki tree lo li or so, the 
sacred traces are so numerous that they cannot be each 
named. Every year when the Bbikshus break up thuir 


yearly rest of the rains, religious persons come here from 
every (quarter in thousands and myriads, and during seven 
dftys and nights they scatter flowers, bum ineense, and 
sound music as they Meander through the district®* and 
pay their worship and present their oflerings. The priests 
of India^ according to the holy instruction of Buddha, on 
the first day of the first half of the month ^ravana enters 
on Wiiss, With us this is the sixteenth day of the fifth 
month ; they give up their retreat on the fifteenth day of 
the second half of tlje month Aivayiija^ which is with us 
the fifteenth day of the eighth month. 

In India the names of the moutlis depend on the stars, 
and from ancient days till now there has been no change 
in this. But as the different schools have translated the 
accounts according to the dialects of the countries without 
distinguishing oue from the other, mistakes have arisen, 
and as a consequence contradictions are apparent in the 
division of tJie seasons. Hence it is in some places they 
enter on Wass on the sixteenth day of the fourth month, 
and break up on the fifteenth day of the seventh month. 

Note i, p, 102. 

1 nc pygnms rouie irom ratna in uaya is ajtncuit 10 settle, j 
III ink we must omit tbe paBJ^a^e on p. 102, L 5, "goiijg about 20< 
ill" ttud consider tlie ** old mnijhdTdma as beia^ perhaps 10 Ji \m 
yond the Boiith-weet angle of the city. This 10 li| togeifier witU tiai 

The pilgrini*s route from Pitna to Gaya is difficult to settle. I 


two dielaiicea of 100 U + 90 li to the " cload-filone mouutaiii/ wiU 
thu» make up 200 li (put down by mis lake), ^^d correapoiid wiih 
the 6 or 7 ^j^^anux in Hwui4jh from Putiia to the Ti lo-chi-kia con- 
vent, Tiiib ia£t piace I should identify with the Barabar Hills \ but 
wc mUBt place iJie Tiladaka convent at Til^ra, Hiueu Tsiang did 
tiot actually vkit the spote named between the Barab^r Hilk and 
I5ay4 (ieu Fej:gUBon'B reniarka, J* it A> K, voh vi part 2^, 

Note 2^ p. m8. 

With reference to the traiialaticm on p. iiS| vvhere the Chineae 
iVitiluiItt ^0-tm4o-kia'ko have be«n reutiered tlic "Amalaka frit it/' 314 
idouijh thii M ere the gurjjiounting oniameiit of tbe great vihdra \ 

^ The diatrigt of the penance of Buddhik 

BOOKvm.] NOTES. 137 

Buddha Qay&, it ip to be noticed that in the Chinese text these 
symbols are explained as being equivalent to " precious pitcher or 
vase" (j>ao f^ing), ITiis phrase is freauently explained as " the sweet- 
dew dish or vase," or, "the immortal dish!" M. Julien, in his note 
on the passage in question, restores the phonetic symbols, in defer- 
ence to the Chinese explanation, to Amalakarka, that is, "pur« 
dish or vase." But the nght restoraiion is doubtless Amara Karka, 
**the immortal dish or va.*e," for, as before stated, "sweet-dew" is 
always rendered by " immortal " or " immortality." This " sweet- 
dew dish or vt^ssel is represented in Chinese drawings us an oval 
bottle with a long narrow neck (see the illustration in the Liturgy 
of Aval6kite^vara, " possessed of a thousand hands and a thousand 
eyes "). This explains the statement of Dr. Burgess {Ajantd Caves, 
xvii § iv.): " Aval dkit& vara holds the palm of his rigiit liand 
forward and has a bottle with oval body and narrow neck in his 
left" This is the Amara Karlca, In the illustration of the pavement 
slab of the ^at temple of GayA (t.e., the vihdra under present 
notice) given m the first volume of the Archasological Survey of India, 
pi. vL (following p. 8), there is the fifpre of a devotee praying in 
iront of a Mpa, which is crowned with flags and a bottle or vase, 
doubtless the fame as the Amara Karka. This illustrates the inscrip- 
tion found at Buddha Qayft and translated by Sir Charles Wilkins, 
in which the building of the temple is attributed to Amara Kosha ; 
one of the nine gems of the court of King Vikram&ditya. General 
Cunningham, then, is probably correct in saying that this great 
temple of Buddha Gay& was built betw^een the time of Fa-hian 
and Hiuen Tsiang. The crowning member or stone of a temple 
spire is called AnmaHU^ or " pure stone." 


C J38 I 


The Seem^ Part of the Country Ma^adhm, 

To the east of the BMhi tree, crossing the NairaijaD& 
(NWeu-shan-na) river, in the middle of a wood,ia h&tdpa. 
To the north of this 13 a pool. This k the spot where a 
perfume elephant (Gandhahasti)* waited on his mother. 

Formerly when Tatbflgata was practising discipline ns a 
Bfidhisattvaj he was horn as the offapring of a pcrfnuw 
dqfkmU, and lived in the mountains of the north, Wan- 
derios^r forth, he came to the border of this pool. His 
mother being blind, he gathered for her the sweet lotus 
roots, and drew pure water for her use, and cherished her 
with devotion and filial cara At this time there was a 
man who had chonrjed his home,* wlio wandered here and 
there in the wood without knowing his way, and in liis 
distress raised piteous cries. The elephant-cub heard hiin 
and pitied him; leading him ou, he showed him his way 
to the road. The man having got back, forthwith weni 
to the king and said, " 1 know of a wood* in which a 
perfumC'dcpIiant lives and roams. It is a very valuable 
animal. You had better go and take it." 

Th(3 king, assenting to his words, went with his soliliera 
to capture it, the man leading the way. Then pointing 

^ See aftU, vol. j, p. 5, ivot« 25. 
Consult flitio MtinierWnJmms, Same, 
I}ictf Hub v^>c, (JandhadrifMi^ 

* Tuii thuh seetD» to implj ihAt 
he bJid changed hU pla<^ oi khade^ 
and so wmt at a losa tc» find hii waj 
nbiut ; or itmoj Bimply ni^i^n, "In 
the lap«tf of time it happc':D^il that,'* 
&o. fk^ Julieu traniiliLUd it. 

> The mmi of tbo ttUpa &nd thm 
lower portion of the ahkft of th« 
pill&r n^iaed oa the ipoi wbera the 
young elephftnt wm taken itiU exisl 
ftb Bukror, on the ei^tem bank of 
the LtbXjsm rivei-i ftbout one mile to 
the south -iiskst of Bti tidhA Gay i 
(Cunningham, Aatu 6'wff,, p. 459), 





to the elephant to show it to the king, immediately both 
his arms fell off as if cut by a sword* The king, though 
he saw this miracle, yet captured the elepliant-cub, and 
bound it with cords, and returned to his palace* The 
young elephant having been bound (in order to tame it), 
for a long time would neither eat nor drink. The stable- 
keeper stated the matter to the king, who, on hia pait, 
came to see for himself ^ and asking the elephant the 
reason.* " Lo I " he answered and said, '* my mother is 
blind, and now for days together is without food or 
drink, and here I am bound in a dreary dungeon. How 
can I take my food with relish I " The king, pitying his 
feelinga and resolution, therefore ordered him to be set 

By the side of this (pool) is a siiipa, before which is 
htult a stone pillar. In this place the Buddha Kalyapa 
(Kia-she-po) long ago sat in meditation. By its side are 
traces where the four past Euddhas sat down and walked. 

To the east of this spot, crossing the Mo-ho^ (Mahi) 
river, we come to a great forest m which is a stone pillar. 
This is the place w^here a heretic entered a condition of 
ecstasy and made a wicked vow. lu old days there was 
a heretic called Udra-R3imaputtra (U-tGOU'lan-tseu). 
In mind he soared above the vapoury clouds, whilst he 
left his body among the wilds and marshes. Here in this 
sacred forest, restraining his spirit, he left Ids traces,** 
Having acquired the five supernatural faculties,^ he reached 
the highest condition of Dhydna^ and the king of Magadha 
greatly respected him. Each day at noon he invited him 
to his palace to eat. Udra*Kamaputtra, mounting through 
space, walking in the air, came and went without hin- 

* In s fond way^ as we epe^k to 
dumb cr^atun^. 

* The Mohftim Nad! river* 

' Udrtt-RiLtiia|mttiu wm one of the 
t^Acbf-t^ to whom B6dMjuittva went 
btlof^hia penance {Fo-ako-kii^j-taan- 
Mn^r viu^Ai 12) ; but it ia unoertiiin 
wketbcr he b tfae one reft;rT«d ta In 

the t^xt. The expression, '* re- 
st raiu in j^ hU spirit ** miL&n^ th*t 
when liti cijiifined bh spirit withia 
bb bt»iiy ho left here bodily traoei. 

'' PafichdUiipldg / «ee Childeri, 
Pali Ukt, anb voc* Afikiilild ; Bur* 
noufj JntnMi.f p., 263 ; LoiU4, pp. ^ao 


Tlie king of MagaJIia, expecting the moment of Lis 
aiTival, kept watch for him, and, an his comitig, respect- 
fully placed for him his seat The king being ahout to 
go forth on a tear, wished to put this alTair in charge of 
some one during his absence, but he found no one in his 
irmer palace whom he could select, capable of trndet- 
takiiig his commands,® But (amongst his attendants) 
there was a little pet girl of modest appearance and 
well-mannered, so that in the whole palace none of lus 
followers (?tm folic) was able to excel her.^ The 
king of Magadha sumraoned thk one^ and said to her, 
"I am going some distance on a tour of observation, 
and I desire to put you in charge of an important 
business J you must, on your part, giv« all jour mind 
to do thoronghly as I direct in the matter. It relates 
to that celebrated Klshi Udra-ESmaputtra, whom I liaYe 
for a long time treated with reverence and respect* Now 
when he comes here at the appointed time to dine, do 
you pay him the same attention that I do/* Having left 
these instiuctions, the king forthwith gave notice of his 
absence (non-aikridance). 

The little girl, according to her instructions, waited in 
expectation as usuah The great Rishi having come, she 
received him, and placed a seat for him, XJdra-B4ma^ 
puttra having touched the young female, felt within him 
the impure risings of earthly passion (of the world of 
deBire), and so he lost his spiritual capabilities. Having 
finishei! his meal, he spoke of going, but lie was unable 
to rise in the air. Then feeling ashamed^ he prevaricated, 
and addressing the maiden said, *' I am able, as the result 
of the discipline I practise, to enter Samddhi, and then, 
my mind at rest, I can ascend into the air, and comt i 
and go without a moment's delay, I have heard long 
ago, however, that the people of tlie country desire to see 
nie. In agreement with the rule of the olden time, our 

^ Thftt Iat none of the femoleg of * Could Uka ber pl«ee of pvv- 




iitniost aim sliould be to benefit all that lives. How 
shall I regard only my own benefit and forget to benefit 
others ? I desire, therefore, on this occasion, to go 
through the gnte and walk on the ground, to bring 
liappiuess and profit to all those who see me going," 

The royal maiden liearing thia, straightway spread the 
news far and wide. Then the people began with alt 
their hearts to water and sweep the roads, and thousands 
upon thousands awaited to see him come. Udra-lZama- 
puttra, stepping from the royal palace, proceeded on foot 
to that religious forest Then sitting down in silence, 
he entered Samddhi Then his miad^ quicldy escaping 
outside, was yet limited within the boundaries of the 
forest*** And now (as it wandered through the woods) 
the birds began to scream and il alter about, and as it 
approached the pond, the fishes began to jump and 
iplash, till at last his feelings being wrought up, and 
his mind becoming confused, he lost his spiritual capa- 
bilities. Giving up his attempt at ecstasy ,^i he w^as 
filled with anger and resentment, and he made this 
I wicked vow, "May I hereafter be born as a fierce anti 
wucked beast, with the body of a fox and the wings of 
a bird, that I may seize and devour living creatures. 
May my body be 3000 li long, and the outspread of my 
wings each way 1500 li; then rushing into the forest, I 
w^ill devour the birds, and entering the rivers, I will eat 
the fi^h." 

Wlien he had made this vow his heart grew gradually 

at nest, and by earnest endeavours he resumed his former 

^ state of ecstasy* Not long after this he died, and was 

born in the first of the Bhuv^i heavens, ^^ where his years 

*•* Tbftt i«, « I though biB ipirit was 

k ^blo to leave bis bodj, yet, owiiig to 

hiii evil tbottght^i it woe unabb to 

wime as before ^*&bov4f the vapoury 

^ This Beetna to show that al* 
thongh hh epirifc tpicklj paased 
•« outside,'* tt wtks uuable to ubtain 

oc^mplete independi^tioe of hb 

^^ That 1% in the highest of the 
Arupa heaveng. Thia hei^ven h 
calltid In Chinese j^-#«(iii^'jl-j('*iii»;7* 
iiiif ur.t the heaven where there h 
miither thought (oonMeloUBiiesa) nor 
mu abseutie of thoui^ht; in F&II, 


would be 80,000 kalpas. Tatb&gata left this record of 
liim t '* The years of hia life ia that heaven being ended, 
tlien he will reap the fruit of his old vow and possess this 
ignoble body. From the streams of the eTU ways of birth 
he may not yet expect to emerge." ^ 

To the east of Mahi river we enter a great wild forest, 
and going ico li or so, we come to tlie Ki*u-ki'u-cha- 
po-to-shan (Kukkiitapfidagiri, the Cock Vfoot Mouutain), 
It U also called Kiu-liu-po-to-shan (Gunipadab gm^*)- 
Thc sides of this mountain are high and rugged^ the 
valleys and gorges are impenetrable. Tumnltuons torrcnis 
rush down its sides, thick forests envelope the valleys, 
whilst tangled shrubs grow along its cavernous heights* 
Soaring upwards into the air are three sharp peaks ; their 
topa are surrounded by the vapours of heaven, and their 
shapes lost in the clouds. Behind these hills the venter- 
able Mahft-K&^yapa dwells wrapped in a condition of 
Nirvdnnu People do act dare to utter his name, and 
therefore they speak of the " Guru-pailab " (^/«J vmumUB^ 
teaditr.) ^* Mah^-Kfiiyapa was a ^rS.vaka and a disciple {or 

" KevasalifiAnftsoliM " (aee Childers, 
Fdti Did, iiub vt»c* From the hiiitoiy 
given in the Fo-^o-linff, it would 
aeem that this refineinetiiof language 
&B to the choTACtor of the iughent 
heavi?ii IB ilue to Udm-Eftmftputtt-ft. 

'* Thnt i«, fiithoiij^b be h now in 
the bight'st bci&v£sii of Eubstancre 
{bhutii]i where bia life will last 
8d|000 gteat kalpas {tm incalculable 
period), jet he i« Dot iaved fron] 
future mif)€r)\ This eiebibita the 
ch«nict«r of EuddhA^s coDception of 
Nir^dr^ that it is a conditioti free 
from any possibilitj of ft ruturti to 
mundane or other bodily form of 

" That Wt the Mountaiu of the 
Venerable Maiter, i.t., K^njapa. 
Fida U berc added as a tuk«n uf 
respect, as In Ddva-pddAli, Kut)iil< 
rila^pnUilUf &^ It seeiufi to have been 
caHfd the Cock's'foot from itis »ha[)f , 
the tbrve peaks or apurs reiieuiblmg 
Ike fuutof tbe cock. Fa-hioa plocei It 

3 U to the south of GayA, probalily 6 
mistake for 3 ifdjanaa to tbe c^«l ^ 
(aee Fn-hmiL, Beal'a ed,, capi xxtitl J 
n. 1). It has h^n Id^itiSed fa^ 
CunDmgbam with the Filljige of Kur- 
kihAr (vid. Arch. Survey, voL u ppi 
J4-16 ; vol XV. p. 4 ; and ^4*?^ mffi . 
Ind., p, 460), Tbis hill of tbe ocselc • I 
foot must not be oonfuaed Willi tht 
sanfjlidnima of tbe COOkr^ttf^iOi SMC 
Patoa. There is no ^^Id&s/m tlufe ^ 
there waa a bill near this last i 
blishmeut, and it is nowhere i 
the KnkJcnta • jMa vibibiL Tbi ' 
quotation made bf Jnlien ivdL li 
42S n.) refers to the bill neast Gajft ; 
BO also does the note of Burnout, I 
IrUrod^^ p. 366. See also Scbi^ner'i ^ 

378; Ind. Ant., vol. liL p, 327. 

^ This is a difficult paasage, ' 
the seuee is e ddent. K &sy a|}a d wotli 
in the moontalEi awaiting the amv ' 
of ^iaitrt^ja ; he cannot 
hftve pafi»ed into oompk^te Nh 





^rlvaka clisciple) perfectly posseascd of the six super* 
natiiml faculties and the eight enfranchisQments^^ (ashlmi 
viTn^kshm),^'^ Tathdgata, his Tvork of conversion being 
done, and just on the point of attaining Nirvdfja, ad- 
dressed Xyyapa and said, "Through many^ kalpas I 
have undergone [dilif^aithj home) painful penances for the 
sake of all that lives, seeking the highest form of religion. 
What I have all along prayed for (dedred) I have now 
obtaiaed to the full Now, as I am desirous to die (miter 
MaMnirvdm)^ I lay on yon the charge of the Dkarma 
^(aka. Keep and disseminate (this doctrine) without loss 
or diminution. The golden-tissued l^asMya robe given 
me by my foster-mother (motkefs dskry^ I bid you keep 
and deliver to Mai trey a (T'se-chi) when he boa com- 
pleted the condition of Buddha,^** All those who engage 
in the profession of my bequeathed law, whether they be 
Bhikshus, Bhikshunts, Upasakas, or Up^ikas, must first 
(ie^t he/ore this he accomplished) cross over and escape the 
stream of transmigration," 

KSiyapa having received this commission to undertake 
to preserve the true law^ summoned an assembly*^ (council 
QT wnvQcaiimi). This done, he continued twenty years {in 
cAflf^ t^fthc ord^)^ and then, in disgust at the imperma- 


Iti iux^ tbe vubfiequent natmtiv^ 
■bows tb&t be wUl only ritULch thiit 
omidJtioQ wb^iii Maitr^yA comea. I 
tAke tbe e3ipr«A«iDu chujig Ui€ mih 
id denote tbe mdettnitti cbftroGter of 
bis preec-nt cotiditumi which cannot 
be <^ed J^indjia^ but ii a middle 
State of exiHteocc!. Pddtif oa stated 
ftbore, is an hoiit.!nLr^ affix ; the 
evpnmiim ki-hcoa refera to the iiiD<$r 
pooci w oa of the mountiiin. Julien 
truMlatei the pftmnge thus % ** In 
the msminsmoc of tline tbtt great K^- 
ji^ dwelt in this mountaint and 
there entered Nirvd^a^ Man dare 
not eaU blm by hk name, and ao tbey 
Mnr " tbe foot of the venerable." 

» ShA^ttUiijndi. See CbQders, 
Pm Ma., a. V. Ai^i^M, and antt, 
w6L L p. 104, &. 73. 

^"^ Sefi CbildorBf «♦ i., a, v. Vimokhij; 
Etimouf. Lotu9t pp, 347, 8^4 f. and 
anU, vol i. p. 1 49, n* 9a 

^^ Mnl^&piujiipatl. 

^ The worn meana '^wa'^te" or 
" dijitaat ;'* aa we mi|;bt Eu^y, througb 
"a waate of ogija," or "dreary 

^ Thia paaaags ia irane^li^tt^d by 
J u lien tbuB 1 ** Which Maitri^ya 
aftfir he became Buddha left, that 
it might be tranamitted to yiiu.** 
Byt thi8 cannot be co^rt^ct* Mai* 
trOya has not btccium Buddhaw I 
tratij^lati^ it, ''I daltvi^r to jou t«i 
keep, awmtitig the time when Mai- 
irC^ya hh&ll become perfect Buddha,'* 

^ Thia ia the usual phroa^ uaed 
for *^ (^ing a cotivocation/ 


nence of tlie world, and desiring to die, he went towards 
Cock'a-foot Mountain. Ascend iim the north side of the 
Rioutitain, he proceeded along the winding path, and came 
to the south-west ridge« Here the crags and precipices 
prevented him going on. Forcing his way through the 
tangled hrnshwood, he struck the rock with his staff, and 
thus opened a way. He then passed on, having divided 
the rock, and ascended till he was again stopped by the 
rocks interlacing one another. He again opened a 
passage through, and came out on the mountain peak on 
the north-east side* Then having emerged from the de- 
files, he proceeded to t!ie middle point of the three peaks. 
There he took the KashAya garment (ckivara) of Bnddha, 
and as he stood he expressed an ardent vow. On this 
the three peaks covered him over; this is the reason why 
now these three rise up into I he air. In future ages, 
when Maitr^ya sliall have come and declared the three- 
fold law»^- finding the countless persons opposed to liim 
hy pride, he will lead them to this mountain, and coming 
to the place where KiUyapa is, in a moment (the snapping 
of the fingtr) Maitreya will cause it to open of itself, and 
all those peoplei having seen O^yapa, will only he more 
proud and obstinate. Then Kaiyapa, delivering the robe, 
and having paid profound reverence, will ascend mto the 
air and exhibit all sorts of spiritual changes, emitting fire 
and vapour from his body. Then lie will enter Nirvdnm. 
At this time the people, witnessing these miracles, will 
dismiss their pride, and opening tbt^ir minds, will obtain 
the fruit {of holUuu). Kow, therefore, on the top of the 
mountain is a st&pa builU On quiet evenings those look- 
ing from a distance see sometimes a briglit light as it 
were of a torch ; but if they ascend the mountain there is 
nothing to be observed.^ 

^ The thrtce-rcpeftted law ; »oe 
anitf p. 47( ti. lo. 

^ The three - peaked mountain 
hfsre referred ki butt bt;«n l^kntilitfd 
hf General Gimnitighiim ^llJi the 
thtee p«ak» of thu MtiriUi moun* 

taiiLt which stftnds ihre« mv\e^ nuirtli- 
north-eait of the town of KnrkihAf. 
There k still a iiqaAi^ b&semcnt 
iumrtinded by cjuantittes <jf bricks 
ou the highest ^ midclle peak of Ihu 

BOOK tX.] 

THE yashtivana: 


Going to the north-east of the CockVfoot Mountain 
about icx) li, we come to the mountain called Buddha- 
Tana (Fo-to-fa-na), with its peaks and cliffs lofty and 
precipitous. Among its steep mountain cliffs is a atone 
chamber where Buddha once descending stayed ; by its 
tide is a large stone where Sakra (Shih), king of DSvas, 
aad Brahma-r&ja (Fan-wang) pounded some ox-head 
(^HrsJiu)^ sandal- wood, and anointed Tath^gata with the 
same. The scent (of this) is still to be perceived on the 
stone. Here aho five hundred Arhats secretly dwell ^ in 
a spiritual manner, and here those wlio are ioflnenced by 
religious desire to meet with them sometimes see them, 
on one occasion under the form of SamanSras just enter- 
ing the \dllagc to beg food, at other times as withdrawing 
(to their cells), on some occasions manifesting traces of 
tlieir spiritual power in ways difficult to describe in 

Going about 30 li to the east, amongst wild valleys of 
the Buddhavana (Fo-to-fa-na) mountain, we come to the 
wood called Tashtivana (Ye-sse-chi).^ The bamboos 
that grow here are large ; they cover the hill and extend 
through the valley. In former days there was a BrS,hman, 
who hearing that the body of Sitkya Buddha (Shih-kia-fo) 
was sixteen feet iu height, was perplexed with doubt and 
would not credit it. Then taking a bamboo sixteen feet 
long, he desired to measure the height of Buddha; the 
body constantly overtopped the bamboo and exceeded the 
sixteen feet. So going on increasing, he could not find 
the ri^ht measurement. He then threw the bamboo on 

^ " In Pin called ^rtsiaam^ among 
the TiWtaDA f/f7riAt-i/i<T, nor! among 
tlie Mi*ngol» t/urthoika. It U ap- 
|*Ar«ntly SippUed to Bandivt-wtvid 
baviitg the odmir of tbe cow'« t]e«d '* 
(Barnoaf, Jntrot/.^ p. 5 571. Bat per* 
|iiip(» Ua name is derived from its 
UppearancCt ^^^ ^ centre of Rilvf?ry 
while wood within a darker oat side 
ejjole. Com pure l\w description of 
the bull thftt carfMd off Europe — 

Twiry. AbstfO^ of Four Lecturet, pv 
1 5^- For the circle on the f oreheAd, 
fiee the figures ** from the oldeert 
paioting in C&ve X. at Ajan^&'' 
{Burgtu, pUtes Tiii in. x.^ Rtpori 
oj» the Paitititt^t aC Ajarifd). 

^ I do ncit find in the text thmt 
tbey entered Nirntna here* 

^ "The forest of the ataff*" 


I lie ground and departed; but becnuse of this it stood 
upright and took root. 

In the midst of this T^ood is a st^pa which was btiilt 
by A^ka-rlja, Here Tatha*:ata displayed for seven 
days ^reat spiritual wonders (mirades) for the sake of 
the D§vas, aad preached the mysterious and excellent 

In the forest of the staff (Yashtivana) not long since 
there \vas an Uplmka named Jayasfnia (She-ye-si-na), 
a Kshattnya of Western India. He was exceedingly 
simple-minded and moderate. He amused himself amid 
the forests and hills, dwelling in a sort of fairyland, 
whilst his mind wandered amid the limits of truth (truA 
limits). He had deeply studied the mysteries both of 
orthodox and otlier treatises (insitlc ami ouimk boQUy 
Hh language and observations were pure, and hia argu- 
ments elevated; his presence was quiet and dignified 
Tlie ^ramnnas, Brdhmanas, heretics of difft^rent schools, 
the king of the country, the great ministei-s and house- 
holders, and persons of rank came together to visit him 
and personally to ask him questions. His pupils occu- 
pied sixteen apartments;^ and although nearly seventy 
years of age, he read with them diligently and without 
cessation, and applied their minda only to the study 
of Buddhist mUmSf rejecting all otlmr engagements. 
Thus night and day he gave up body and mind to this 
pursuit alone. 

It is a custom in India to n»ake little ^fqxa of 
powdered scent made into a paste ; their height is al^out 
six or seven inches, ^id they place inside them some 
written extract from a mltra; this they call a dharma^ 
Sartra ^ (fa-shi-li). When the number of these has be* 
come large, they then build a gi'eat stupa, and collect all 
the others within it, and continually otjer to it religious 

" The test here scemv to be ft ban ; Arch^ Sarr., voL W. p. 157, 
faulty pU xlvl I aee r1»o J, Bom. B.JLd^S^ 

^ 8€« the flfi&lM foiuid fl>t Blt^- vol vi p, 157 U 





offerings. Tlxis then ivas the occupation of Jaya-s^na 
fChing-kian) ; with his moath hu declared the excellent 
law, and led aod encouraged his students, whilst with his 
hand he coEstructed these sMpas. Thn3 he acquired 
the highest and njost excellent religious raerit In the 
cveningj again, he would walk up and down worship- 
ping and repeating his prayers, or silently sit down in 
meditation. For eating or sleeping he had little time, 
and relaxed none of liis discipline ni*^ht or day* Even 

, after he was an hundred years old his mind and hody 

I'were in full activity* During tiiirty years he had made 
£ven k6fis of these dMrma-Sarira stilpast and for every 
kS{i tliat he made he huik n great stilpa and placed 
them in it When full, he presented his religious ofifer- 
ings and invited the priests ; whilst they, on their 
part> offered him their congratulations.^ On these 

►occasions a divine light shone around and spiritual 
wonders {miTadcs) exhibited themselves ; and from 
that time forth the miraculous light has continued to 

South-west of the Yashtivana^ about lo li or so, on 
the south side of a great mountain, are two warm 
Bprings;^^ the water is very hot. In old days, TathUgata 
caused this water to appear, and washed himself therein* 
The pure flow of these waters still lasts without di mi- 
ll ntion. Men far and near flock here to bathe, after 

rwliicU those who have suffered from disease or chronic 
affections are often liealed. By the side of the springs 
is a Mtupa, to mark the place where Tatliilgata walked for 

To the south-east of the Yashtivana about six or seven 

• Or, invited the oon^egation of 
pri«^sta to u religious aasemb]y to 
cci&$«*cnite the ieivioe. 

•* The Biunboo forest (Chutig-Un) 
ifl still known aa the Jnkhti bun ; it 
lies to tht £]k»t of the Buddtmin hiU 
(BiiddhavAnA), and m frtcjuetitpd 
bjr thi.' people far tLe purpot»e of 

cutting bambooB (Cunningham, Ant, 
Oe(Kf., p, 461), 

" These spring?! ar^ a bout two 
miles to the MiuXh of Jakbti-ban, 
at & place caUed Tapibai^ whidi 
name m a couimon cmitractiun of 
Tapta-pani, or the " hot wattr ** 


11 we come to a great mountain. Before a cross-ridge^ of 
this mountain is a slilpa. Here in old days TatliSgata 
explained the law daring the three months of rain for the 
btinefit of men and Devas* Then Bimbia&ra-rija (Pin- 
pi-30-lo) wished to come to hear the law. He cut away 
the mountain, and piled up the stones to make steps in 
order to ascend- The width is about twenty paces and 
the length 3 or 4 li.^ 

To the north of the great mountain 3 or 4 li is a 
solitary hilL Formerly tlie B&hi Vylsa^ (Kwang-po) 
lived here in solitude. By excavating the side of the 
mountain he formed a house. Some poitiona of the 
foundations are still visible. His disciples still hand down 
his teaching, and the celebrity of his bequeathed doctrine 
still remains. 

To the north-east of the solitary hill 4 or 5 H there 
]B a small hill, also standing alone. In the side of tlus 
hill (has hi€n €3Qcavated) a stone chamber. In length aod 
Ineadth*^ it is enough to seat lOOO persons or so. In 
this place Tathagata, when living in the world, repealed 
the law for three months* Above the stone chamber is a 
great and remarkable rock, on whicli Sakra, king of Devas, 
and Brahma- raj a pounded some ox^Iuiad sandal- wood, and 
with the dust sprinkled the body of Tathigata, The sur- 
fuce of the stone still emits the scent of the perfume. 

At the south-west angle of the stone house there is a 
lofty cavern which tli^ Indians call the palace of the 
Asuras ('O-sn-loJ, Formerly there was a good-nattined 
fellow who was deeply versed in the use of magic fomiulia 
He engaged with some companiona, fourteen altogether, 
to coven nnt with one another to enter this lofty cavern. 
After going about 30 or 40 li, suddenly the whole place was 

^ Or it mifcj be " » trans verae 

^ Th© gre*t mountain referrtd 
to In the text correflpcttide with the 
kfty hill of Handitt, 1463 fe^t in 
height (Coomnghaiii). 

^ Thia reeti^ratioii Tmi9 on M. 
JuH&iifl Afithority, ia expl&med in 
bie note (ill 13). 

^ A'uvin^ mow^ 'see MeJbun^ 
CAi'm Diet, tab Mow^ p, 994^ 




lighted up witii great brilliancy, and they saw a walled 

city before theuj, with towers and look-outs all of silver 

and gold and Inpis-bizuli {licu-li). The men haviEg ad- 

■vancetl to it, there were some young maidens who stationed 

rttemselves at the gates, and wiih joyful laughing faces 

greeted them and paid thena reverence. Going ou a little 

.farther they came to the inner city-gates, where there 

^isere two slave-giiis liolding each of theui a golden vessel 

full of flowers and scents. Advancing with these, they 

waited the approach of the visitors, and then said, "You 

must first bathe yourselves in yonder tank, and then 

anoint yourselves with the perfumes and crown yourselves 

with the flowers, and then you may enter the city. Do 

not hasten to enter yet; oiily that master of magic can 

come in at once/' Tht;n the other thirtt^en men went 

down at once to bathe. Having entered the tatik, they 

all at once became confused, and forgot all that had taken 

place, and were (found) sitting in the middle of a rice 

field distant from this due nortli, over a level country^ 

f about 30 or 40 !i. 

By the side of the stone lumse there is a wooden way 

(a road made "jviih timher) ^ about 10 paces wide and about 

4 or S li. Formerly Bimbis^ra-rija, when about to go to 

tthe place where Buddha was, cut out a passage through 

[the rock, opened up the valk^ys, levelled the precipices, 

f^nd led a way across the river-courses, built up walls of 

etone, and bored through tlie opposing crags, and made 

ladders up the heights to reach the place where Buddha 

was located. 

From tliis spot proceeding eastward through the moun- 
tains about 60 li, we arriye at the city Ivn^agira-pura 
(Kiu-she-kie-lo-pu-lo), or " the royal city of best grass 
i(iuck^ gramy This is the central point of the kingdom 
' of Magadha,*^ Here the former kin^s of the country 

sodiiDtelii chjMnns (Khiuig-hit quoted 
bj Jiilieti, note in tocoh 

^ KuSigftnipurfc wa^ th<3 origiital 
i^pit&l uf MIfc|plcillJ^ £iDd wu dialled 

RSjagri^ftf or the *'royftlTeddenoe." 
It was aUo named Girivroja, or tbe 
*'hilJ Burrounded*'* (See Cimning- 
ham, Anc. (Jtog.f p. 462), 


fixed their capital. It produces ranch of the most excel- 
lent, scented, fortunate gra^s, and therefore it h called 
"the city of the superior grass/' High mouutains sur- 
round it on each side, and form as it were its external 
walls.*® On the west It is approached througlj a narrow 
pass, on the north there is a passage through the moun- 
tains. The town is extended from east to west and narrow 
from north to south. It is about 150 li in circuit. The 
remaining fonndations of the wall of the inner city 
are about 30 li in circuit, The trees called K^te-ni-tm 
(Kanakas) border all the roads, their flowers exhale a 
delicious perfume, and their colour is of a bright golden 
hue- In the spring months the forests ai-e all of a golden 

Outside the north gate of the palace eity Is a stUjxi, 
Herti Dfn^adatta (Ti-pVto-to) and Ajltalatru-rSja 
Wi*sing-jun), haTiiig agreed together as friends, liberated 
the drunken elephant for the purpose of killing TathAgata. 
Ent Tathlgata miraculously caused five lions to proceed 
from his finger-ends ; on this the drunken elephant was 
subdued and stood still before him,^ 

To the north-east of this spot is a sti^pa. This is where 
S&riputra (She-li-tseu) heard Alyajita CO-shi-pVshi) 
the Bhikshu declare the law, and by that means reached 
the fruit {0/ an Arlwl), At first Sflriputra was a layman ; 
he was a man of distinguished ability and refinement, and 
was highly esteemed by those of his own time* At thii 
time, with other students, he accepted the traditional teach- 
ing as delivered to bim. On one occasion, being about to 
enter the great city of ES^jagrlha, the Bhikslm Al vajita 
(Ma-shing) was also just going his round of begging* Tben 
5>&iiputi'a» seeing him at a diatanee, addressed his disciples, 
saying, " Yonder man who comes, so full of dignity and 
nobleness^ if he has not reached the fruit of sanctity 

^ Si) aIso Fft-hiaii stat^^ thhrt the ^ ThlB li • perversion of ttw 

five hiUa which Biimound thtj town film pie Htory foutid in thti F^-^ko- 

ftre likt! the w&Ui ol ft city (c^p. htufj^w. i^ij 8«>, and oompare p. 

lezTJu.) 246, n. 4, 




(ArJiatsMp)^ how is he thus oomposed and quiet? Lei us 
stop awhile and ohserve hiai as he approaches," Xow as 
Alvajita Bhikshu had reached the condition of an Arhat, 

Liua mind was self-possessed, his face composed and of an 

fagreeaUe refinement; thus, holding his religious atafl:^ he 
earne along with a dignified air. Then ^^ripntra sa:d, 
•* Venerahle sir! are you at ease and hnppy ? Pray, who 
is your master, and what the system you profess, that you 
are so gladsome and contented I " 

Aivajita answering him snid, "Know you not the royal 

f prince, the son of J^uddhodana-rfija, who <^ave up the condi- 
tion of a Cbakravarttin monarcli, and from pity to the six 
Itinds of creatures for six years end tired penance and 
reached the condition of SamMdki, the state of perfect 
[^mniseience ? This is !uy master! As to his law, it has 

^fiespect to a condition including the absence of existence, 
without nonentity ; *^ it is difficult to define ; only Bnddhaa 
with Buddhas can fathom it; how much less can foolish 
and blind mortals, such as I, explain its principles. But 
for your sake I will recite a stauga in praise of the law of 
Buddha/'** S§riputra having heard it, obtained forthwith the 
fruit of Arhatahip, 

To tlie north of this place, not far off, there is a very 
deep ditch, by the side of which is huilt a sMpa; this is 
the spot where Srtgupta (She-li-kio-to) wished to destroy 
Buddha by means of fire concealed in the ditch and 
aisoned rice. Xow Sngupta (Shing-mi) greatly honoured 

f^beliemd in) the heretics, and hia miud was deeply possessed 
ty false view^s. All the BrahmachArins said, "The men of 
the coimtry cjroatly honour Gautama (Kiao-ta-mo), and in 
onaequence he causes our disciples to be witliout support 
Invite him then to your house to eat, and before the door 
make a great ditch and fill it with fire, and cover it over 
slightly with wooden planks to conceal the fire ; moreover^ 

♦^ The opp<wdte of existence {}fttUt 
tniileriih] or ecmditintied exiiiUiiGi^)» 

*^ The «ian£a ha rtcjted is given 
in the /o-jfAci-Jtnny, v, 1393, See 
alio p. 194^ ti. 3i 


poison the food/so that if he escape the fire (fier^ dikJt% 
he will take the poison " 

Srigupta, according bo his directiona, caused the poison 
to be prepared, atid then all the people in the town, 
knowing the evil and destructive desi^jn of ^rlgupta 
against the Lord oi the World, entreated Buddha not to go 
to the house. The Lord said, " Be oot distressed ; the body 
of TathSi^ata cannot be hurt by such means as these." He 
therefore accepted the invitation and went. When his foot 
trod on the threshold of the door tlie fire in the pit l»e- 
came a tank of pure water with lotus flowers on its sur- 

^^rigupts having witnessed this, being filled with shame 
and fear lest his project should fail, said to his fullowersp 
"He has by his magical power escaped the fire; but 
there is yet the poisoned food I " The Lord having eateu 
the rice, began to declare the excellent law, on which 
Siigupta, having attended to it, himself became a dis- 

T^ ihe north-east of this fiery ditch of Sitgupta (Shing* 
mi), at a bend of the city, is a stdpa; this is wliereJivaka 
(Shi-fo-kia),*^ the great physician, built a preaching-hall 
for Buddha. All round the walls lie planted flowers aud 
fruit trees. The traces of the fouudation-walls and the 
decayed roots of t]je trees are still visible. Tathlgata, 
when he was iu the world, ofteu stopped here. By the 
side of this place are the remains of the house of Jtvaka, 
and the hollow of an old well also exists there still* 

To the north-east of the palace city going 14 or 15 U, 
we come to the monntaixi GrldhrakQta (Ki4i-tho-kiu- 
ch'a). Touching tlie southern slope of the northern 
mountain, it rises as a solitary peak to a great height, on 
which vnltures make their abode* It apj^ears like a high 
tower on which the azure tmts of the sky are reflected, 
I he colours of the mountain and the heaven being com* 

^ For the history of Jtvftka lee S. H&rdy^i Manuai ^ Buddkiim^ p, 238^ 





When Tath4gata had gnided the world for som^ fifty 
years, he dwelt much in this mountaiD, and delivered the 
excellent law in its developed form {kwaiig)}^ Bim\>is4ra- 
r&ja, for the purpose of hearing the law, raised a number 
of men to accompany him from the foot of the mountain 
to its summit. They levelled the valleys and spanned the 
precipices, and with the stones made a staircase about 
ten paces wide and 5 or 6 li long. In the middle of the 
road there are two small s^4pas, one called " Dismounting 
from the chariot" {Sia-shimj)^ because the king, when he 
got here, went forward on foot. The other ia called 
*" Sending back the crowd " {Tui-fan), because the king, 
aeparating the common folk, w^ould not allow them to 
proceed w^ith him. The snnimit of this mountain is long 
from the east to the west and narrow from north to south. 
There is a brick vihdra on the borders of a steep precipice 
at the western end of the mountain. It is high and wide 
and beautifully constructed. The door optns to the east* 
Here Tath^gata often stopped in old Jays and preached 
tlie law. There is now a figure of him preaching the law 
of the same size as life» 

To the east of the vHidra is a long stone, on which 
Tath^gata trod as he walked up and down for exercise* 
Bj the side of it is a great stone about fourteen or fifteen 
feet high and thirty paces ronni This is the place where 
Devadatta** ilung a stone from a distance to strike 

South of this, below the precipice, is a sidpa. Here 

^ A great Dumber of tb© later 
developed *4ln\i are said to bavf» 
been delivered here. Them \& ideo 
m J«it0 fonn of belief whkh coiinecta 
the HplHttiftl form of Buddha with 
this mountaiD. It ia Lii^r&ly pcMsible 
that Buddbu did in htA later yeare 
deelAns A dev^lop^ (mjaticoJ) form 
of hi* ddGtrine, and perhaps thk 
mountain wa« the icene of bia teach- 
ing ; but the greater portion of tbu 
ff^rm clatmlng the ihiitborilj of \m 

tittf^^miice here ore fabuloiii. Com* 
part) Fa-hian, cap. xxix* Th& Vul- 
ture Peak is a part of the lofty hiU 
now cttlltjd Sailagirt, but no cavta 
have been discovered there (Cun- 
mngb&m, Ana, Gfo^-i p. 466). 

^ The fltory of Duvadatta rolHtig 
down the etone wiU be found in Fa- 
bian, chap, xxh; also in the /'a-jAti- 
kirtJ/, p. 3461 and in the Manuiil of 
Bu(Uki$m, p. 333. The aecgunl^ 
however^ fillghtlj differ. 


Tathfllgata, \rlien alive in old time^ delivered tiie Sad- 
dJiarma PmidaAka SillraJ^ 

To the south of the viMra, by the side of a mountaio 
cliff, is a great stone housa la tins Trulmgata* when 
dwelling in the ^orld long ago, entered Samddhi, 

To the north-west of the stone house and ia front of it 
is a great and exti^ordinarj stone. This is the place 
where Auunda (0-nan) was frightened by JIara, When 
the venerable Ananda had entered Sam4dhi in this place, 
M9.ra-rftja, assuming the form of a vulture, in the middle 
of ihe night, during the dark portion of the month, took 
his place on thia rock, and flapping his wings and ntter- 
ing loud screams, tried to frighten the venerahle one.** 
Ananda, filled with fear, was at a loss to know what to 
do; then Tatliagata, by his spiritual power, seeing his 
state, stretched out his hand to compose him. He pierced 
the stone wall and patted the head of Ananda, ami with 
his words of great love he spoke to Idm thus: ** Yon need 
not fear the assumed form which Hlfira has taken," 
Ananda in consequence recovered his composure, and 
remained with his heart and body at rest and in peaoa 

Although years and months have elapsed since then, 
yet the bird traces on the stone and the hole in t!ie rock*^ 
still remain visible* 

By tlie side of the viJtdra there are several stone 
houses *^ where Silriputra and otlier great Arhats entered 
Samddhi. In front of tlie stone house of ^ariputra is a 


^ FH'hiao relates bow he visited 
the cftve on this peak, %tid wept in 
rvoolleotion uf Buddbft*i i^aldeiiofi 
iberem Here alsc^ he adds, **h& 
delivered the Skeu4ing-!fan Sulra.^' 
This is the Supa ngam^t ^df t-o^ H lu en 
TMifttig «ajs b? B.}aQ d«ilivured here 
tbtt &aiidkairff%a Pui^artltt SiUra, 
TbeM MftUt belonging to the lant 
itige of Buddhist development, lyra 
Inferred to this i^outitaJut t\s it was 
the •oene of Buddha'a l^te^jt tt^iLch^ 
ing. Sets Cuniiiiigham, Anc Gco^., 

p. 467 ; Bee &im Tetgmmn, Cape 
Tem^ۤ of IiidiOf p. 50. 

^ Forhi&u, cbup. xxixt 

^ JuHen traniilAtes " Thu long 
cavern which truverHL^ the a&nk? nf 
the mountajtL" But the '' Jong 
cavem " is tho hole ruiferrt^d to, 
pjercing the aide t*f the rrjck. 

^ Frobably caves or {^I^ Cun* 
nlngham understaDds them to be 
small rooms built ikgaittat the cHff 
[A tic, Geoff. ^ p. 4671 The Chluiae 
quite bean out this ide&> 

great well, dry and waterless^ The liollow {sjiaft) still 

To the north-east of the viJtdra^ in the middle of a rocky 
stream, is a large and flat stone* Here TathSgata dried 
hm Kmkdya garmeat. The traces of the tissue of the robe 
fidil reinaiD, as though they were cut out oti the rock. 

By the ^ide of this, and upon a rack, is a foot-trace of 
Buddha, Although the *' wheel" outline is somewhat ob- 
scure, yet it can be distinctly tracei 

On the top of the northern mountain is a ^4pa. From 
this point Tathd^ata beheld the town of Magadha/"* and 
for seven days explained the law. 

To the west of tlie north gate of the mountain city 
is the mountain called Pi-pu-hj (Vipula-giri).^ Accord- 
ing to the common report of the country it is said, 
*'Ori ihe uorthern side of the south-wesiern crags of 
this mountain there were fornierly five bundled warm 
springs ; now there are only some ten or so j but some 
of these are irarm and others cold, but none of them 
liot " These springs have their origin to the south of the 
Snowy Mountains from the Anavatapta (Wu-jeh-no- 
jc hi) lake,^^ and (lowing undergroLind, burst forth here, 
The water is very sweet and pure, and the taste i^ like 
that of the water of the lake. Tlie streams {from the 
r/oie) ai*e five hundred in number {hrancht^^ and as they 
by the lesser underground fire-abodes {hells), the 
power of the flames ascending causes the water to be 

• Th&t k, as it see ma, the capital 
« ol MAgadha, viz., Hdjugfiha. 
I ■* I have reut'jred Pipu-h to 
["VipuU ill deference to Julkn. 
l£ll£ it might be e^^ually ^vell re- 
ed to Vaibb4nL or BiLibhAr^ 
as Cunningham in his map of 
|]RJ.j^r {Arch, Surpe^, vol. i. pL 
^%i^'.) plftC£S B&ibhflr tAt the w^ml af 
the north g&t« of the towD^ it 
wmiid b^ tao>re agreeable to tbu 
aoo^nnt in the text to restore it ao, 
IJd the other hand, as Hiuen 
^TsiAIlg pUoes thti hot springti gn 

the sou tb-w«!i tern slopes of Pi^p*- 
h, atid as we lU'e told that ** the hot 
spriii^^ of RiljiigT^hft are found at 
the eanteru foot of Mount Baibh&r 
jidd the wojitcirn foot uf Mount 
Vipula *' (CunninghnmT Anr. Gcoij.f 
|K 466), it would sei^m that he muft 
b« speaking of Vlpiilo. 

^^ RSvaiOabrad ; in Pali^ Anavi^ 
tatU., in Tibetan^ Ikra-droa, in Chiueae, 
Wnje^nao, B&eAwiat Ra,, vol, ix. 
p, 65 1 or Ann. Muiie Guitndt torn, ii» 
p. t6S I Bnmouf, Iriii^ad.^ pp. 152, 
I 54 ; and aut€f vol 1, pp. It*I j* 


hot* At the mouths of the various hot springs there are 
placed carved stones, eomeUmes shaped like lions, and 
at other times as the heads of white elephants; some* 
timea stone conduits are constructed, throu|^li winch the 
water flows on high {aqueducts), whilst below there are 
stone basins, in which tlie water collects like a pond. 
Here people of every region come, and from every city, 
to bathe; those who suffer from any disease are often 
cured* On the right and left of the wai-m springs^* ara.^ 
nmny st^paB and the remains of vilidras close together* 
Ju all thesu places the four past Buddhas have sat and 
walked, and the traces of their so doing are still left, 
These spots being surrounded by mountains and supplied 
with water, men of conspicuous virtue and wisdom take 
up their abode liere, and there are many hermits who 
live here alao in peace and solitude. 

To the west of the hot springs is the Pippala (Pi- 
polo) stone house ® When the Lord of the World was 
alive in olden times, he coustanily dwelt iiei-e. The deep 
cavern which is behind the walls of this liouse is the 
palace abode of an Asura (or, tlie Asaras), Many Bhik* 
shos who practise Sitm44Vii dwell here. Often we majr 
sea strange forms, as of Xagas, serpents, and lions, comei 
forth from it. Those who see these things lose their 
reason and become daieA XeverihelesSj this wonderful 
place (^apedkmi fofuf) is one in which holy saints dwells 
ai^ occupying the spot eotiaecrated hy such sacred 

1% wt ^ bMMd to PllK 
tat boiMe is ntppoaeilj 

Pi|«-ka M^ b* «A U«i 

, J stib|e«fe J 




truces, they forget the calamities and evils that threaten 

Not long ago there was a Bhikshfu of a pure and up- 
rl*;lit life, whose mind was eimmoured of solitude and 
quiet ; he desired to practise Sumddhi concealed in this 
house. Some one protested and said, "Go not there! 
Many calamities happen there, and strange things causing 
death are frequent* It is difficult to practise Sairtddhi 
in such a spot, and there is constant fear of death. You 
ought to remember what has happened before time, If 
you would not reap the fruits of after-repentance " Tlie 
Bhikshu said, '*Not sol My determination is to seek the 
fruit of Buddha and to coiiquer the DSva Mdra. If these 
are the dangers of which you speak, what need to name 
them ? " Then his took his pilgrim's staff and proceeded 
to the house. There he reared an altar and began to 
recite his magic protective sentences. After the tenth 
day, a maiden came forth from the cave and addressed 
the Bhikshu, sayings "Sir of the coloured robes! you 
observe the precepts, and, with full purpose, voo adopt 
the refuge (foiiTid in Buddha) ; you aspire after ( prepare) 
wisdom, atid practise SamddM, and to promote in your- 
self spiritual power, so that you may be an illustrious 
guide of men, you dwell here and alarm me and my 
fellows I But how is this in agreement with the doc- 
trine of Tath^gata?" The Bhikshu said, ''I practise a 
pure life, following the lioly teaching {of Bnddka), I 
'conceal myself among the mountains and dells to avoid 
the tumult of life. In suddenly bringing a charge 
against me, I ask where is my fault ? " She replied, 
' Your reverence ! when you recite your prayers, the 
3otind causes fire to burst into (m^ Iiotise) from without, 
and burns my abode ; it afflicts me and my family ! I 
pray you, pity us, and do not say your charmed prayers 
any more ! '* 

The Bhikshu said, " I repeat ray prayers to defend my- 
self, and not to hurt any living thing. In former days, 


a religious person (a disciple) occupied tliis place and 
practised Samddhi with a view to obtain the holy fruit 
and to help the miserable ; " theu with unearthly sights 
he was frightened to death and gave up bis life. This 
was your doing. What have you to say ? " 

She replied, " Oppresed with a weight of guilt, my wis* 
dom is small indeed ; hut from this time forth I will bar 
my house and keep the partition Qfitwccn U and ihis 
cjtamhcr). Do }ou, venerable one, on your part, I pray, 
i^peat no more spiritual formulae/' 

On Lhis the Bhikshu prepared himself in Samddltit and 
from that time rested in quiet, none hurtiiig him. 

On the top of Mount Vipula (Pi-pu-lo) is a st^pcu This 
is where in old times TatliS-gata repeated the law. At the 
present time naked heretics (Kirgranthas) frequent this 
place in great numbers; they practise penance night and 
day without intermission, and from morn till night walk 
round {tlie st^pa) and contemplate it with respect. 

To tlie left of the northern gate of the mountain 
city (Girivjaja, Shan-sldiig), going east, on the north 
side of the southern crag (precipm or cliff), g^ing 2 or 
3 li, we come to a great stone house in which Devadatta 
formerly entered Samddhi 

Not far to the east of this stone house, on the top of a 
fiat stone, there are coloured spots like blood. By tlie 
side of tills rock a siupa has been built. This is the place 
where a Ehikshu practising SamdtUd wounded bimseU' 
and obtained the fruit of holiness. 

There was formerly a Bhikshu who diligently exerted 
himself in mind and body, and secluded himself in the 
practice of SamddkL Years and months elapsed, and he 
had not obtained the holy fruit. Ee tiring from the spot, 
he upbraided himself, and then he added with a sigh, "1 
despair of obtaining the fruit of Arhatship (freedom Jwm 
Itarninff), What use to keep this body, the source of im- 

s* /.f., to Riiccour the people in the dark w%f% of birtb, ie., daiiMm» 
mud pretas and '*tbe ]Q«t" 




pediment from its very character," Having spoken thus, 
he mouDted on this stone and gashed Ina throat Furtli- 

iwitb he reached the fruit of an Arhat^ and ascended iiita 
the air and exhibited spiritual cbangea; finally, his body 
was consumed hy fire, and he reached MhTdm.^ Be- 

I cause of his noble resolution they have built {this slttjm) 
U3 a memoriah To the east of this place, above a rocky 
crag, there is a stone ^iljia. This is the place where a 
Bhikshu practising Satnddhi threw himself down and 
obtained the fruit. Formerly, when Baddha was alive, 

t there was a Bhikshu who sat quietly in a mountain wild, 
practising the mode of Samddhi leading tu Arliatship, 
For a lon^ time he had exercised the utmost zeal without 

l^^stilt. Night and day he restrained his though t^^ nor 

(«ver gave up his quiet composure. Tathdgata, knowing 
that his senses were fit for the acquirement (of emaiwipa- 
lion% went to the place for the purpose of converting him 
{j^r/eciing him). In a moment^ he transported himself 
from the garden of bamboos (Venuvana) to this mountain- 
wde; and there calling liim,^' stood standing awaiting 

At tills time the Eliikshu, seeing from a distance the 
holy congregation, his heart and body ravished with joy, 
he cast himself down from the mountain. But by his 
purity of heart and respectful faith for Buddha's teaching 
before he reached the ground he gained the fniit of Arhat- 
ship. The Lord of the World then spoke and said, *^ You 
ought to know the opportunity/* Immediately he ascended 
into the air and exhibited spiritual transformation. To 
«how his pure faith they have raised this memoriah 

Going about one li from die north gate of the mountain 
city we come to the Karan^^vSnuvana (Kia-lau-t'o- 
chnh-Yuen).^ where now Dm stone foundation and the 

** ThUi iacidtfnl Ib ako related by 
Fik-bi&u^ cap, xxx. 

** f^n I understand tan <i'hi^ ^* in 
tll« s;ti»{:i{^i]}jf of a finder." JuIIcd 
tmiOf^im iltm thmig^h Bnddba cftlled 

^ It mikj b^ eithiff ** caUin^ him '' 

or " CAlling uti aBH^mbly." 

^ The bambtitj garden of Ki^rnndaj 
f>r Kalunda. For an accoujit nf ihln 
garden Bee F& bliui| (Bt*l'» edit, pu 
J ] 7i D. £), and also Jullen in hte&t 
n. 1 ; e4?e alAO Burooiif« InlrotLt liitticL 
p. 456 ; LtitiUt ViMtrnttt p. 415* 


brick walls of a viJidra exist. The door faces the east. 
Tatli^lgata, when in tlie world, frequeiitly dwelt here, and 
preached the law for ttie guidance and conversion of men 
and to rescue the people. They have now made a figure 
of TathSgnta the size of life. In early days there wag in 
this town a great householder (ffftkapaH) called Karanda ; 
at this time he had gained ranch renown by giving to the 
heretics a large bamboo garden. Then coming to see 
Tath^gata and hearing his law, he was animated by a true 
faith. He then regretted that the multitude of unbelievers 
should dwell in that place. "And now/' he said, "the 
leader of gods and men has no place in which to lodge * 
Then the spirits and demons, affected by his faithfulness^ 
<lrove away the heretics, and addressing them said, '^Kar- 
anda, the householder, is going to erect a vilidra here for 
the Buddha J you must get away quickly, lest calamity 
befall you I" 

The heretics, with hatred in their heart and mortified 
in spirit, went away; thereupon the householder built this 
viJidm. When it was finished he went himself to invite 
Baddha, Thereon Tathaguta received the gift. 

To the east of the Karandavenuvaua is a fi^^^ which was 
built by Aj^ta^atru-r/ija, After the Nirvdria of Tath&gata 
the kings divided the relics (akeM) ; the king Ajata^atru 
returned then with his share, and from a feeling of extreme 
reverence built (a sMpa) and offered his religious offerings 
to it. When A^oka-nlja (Wu-yau) became a believer, he 
opened it and took the relics, and in his turn built another 
stupa. This building constantly emits rairacnlous light. 

By the side of the stilpa of Ajata^atni-rSja is another 
sf^jKt which encloses the relics of half of the body of 
Ananda, Formerly, when the saint was about to reach 
NirvAv^i he left the country of Magadha and proceeded to 
the town of Vaiiali (Fei-she-li). As these two countries 
disputed {about him) and began to raise troops, the vener- 
able one, from pity, divided his body into two parts. The 
king of Magadha, receiving his sharCj returned and offered 








to it his religious homage, aiid immediately prepared in 
this renowned land^ with great honour, to raise a siitpa. 
By the side of this building is a place where Buddha 
walked up and down. 

Kot far from this is a sMpiu This is the place where 
Siriputra and Mudgalaputra dwelt during the rainy 

To tlie south-west of the bamboo garden (V6i>uvana) 
about S or 6 li, on the north side of the southern 
mountain, is a great bamboo forest In the middle of it 
la a large stone house Here the venerable Ka^y apa with 
999 great Arhats, after Tath&gata's Nirvdna, called a con- 
vocation (for the purpose of settling) the three Pifakas.^ 
Before it is the old foundation-walL King Aj^ta^tni 

rmade this hall*^ for the sake of accommodating the great 
Arhats who assembled to settle the Dhamia-pifaka, 

At fir^t, when Mahft Kl^yapa was seated in silent 
(stud^) in the desert (m^utUain forests), suddenly a bright 
light burst forth, and he perceived the earth shaking. Then 

lie said, ** What fortunate change of events is there, that 
this miracle should occur?" Then exerting his divine 
sight, he saw the Lord Btiddha between the two trees 
entering Nirvdi^ka. Forthwith he ordered his followers to 
accompany him to the city of Ku^inagara (Ku*shi). 
On the way they met a Erihman holding in his hands a 
divine flower, Kaiyapa^ addressing him, said, "Whence 

E^me you I Know you where our great teacher is at 
It?" The Br3,])man replied and said, '* I have but 
just come from yonder city of Ku^inagara, wiiere I aaw 
yonr great master jiist entered into Nirvdna. A vast 

^ Thb U the famoua SattapftnTii 

C»ve, tn which the " fimt Biiddhiat 

coiiAcil '^ wad held ^' At the an- 
, tz%nc% of tbi. Sattapa^i^acaTe in the 
t Ji»gftijhn town (compare «rnfe, n. 

45) Gtffbbiijft {L€,t Gitivraja or 

BJij»g|11i»} the ftrut coiindl w&tt 
^ fi&bhed ftfler Ktveti months " {Iftpa- 
f'Vaihia {Old^niniTg} V, 5), In con* 
^Iiect*oii with thid ejttrnct I would 

refer to the eentenoe preceding it 
VOL. U, 

(4), where we have named "tH« 
second beginning of the Vaasa sea'^ 
aotL,'* Thia eeeina to explain the 
conitant uae of th^ expreaaion, the 
*^ double Tf sting Heajscni," by Hiu*in 
THmrig. See Iwlow^ th 61. 

^ The ball apptntra to have boan 
fltrna^ural ■ the cuve at tho back WAi 
natiLral. See FergUBson, Cave TeM' 
jiUt of Indinj pi 4gb 


multitude of heavenly beings were around Itim offering 
tbtiir gifts in wursliipj and tins flower, whicli I liold^ 1 
brought thence.** 

Kuljapa having heaid these words said to liis followei-a, 
"Thti Sim of wisdom has qiiL^nchtjd his rays. The world 
is now ill darkness. The illustrious guide has left as and ! 
gone, and aU fleah must fall iota calamity," 

Tiien the careless Bhikshus said one to another with 
satisf action, " Tathiltgata has gone to r^t. This is good 
for U3, for iiowj if we transgresSi who is there to reprove 
or reatraiii us ? " 

Then KMyapa, having heard this, was deeply moved 
and afflicted, and he resolved to assemble {mlltct) the 
ti^easur© of tiie law {Dhanna'piiaka) and bring to pimish- 
ment tlie transgressors. Accordingly he proceeded to the 
two ireeSi and re;:arding liuddlia, he offered worship. 

And now tlie Xing of the Law having gone from the 
world, botli men and DGvas were left without a guide, and ] 
the great Arhats, nioroover, were cleaving to {the idea of 
ikmr) Airvdm. TJien the great Ki^yapa reflected thus : 
"To secure obnjience to the teaching of Buddha, we ought 
to colbct tlu> Dkamta'pi(alca.*' On this he ascended Mount 
Sttnieru and sounded the great gong ((jihan(d\ and spake 
thus; " Now then, in the town of EsLjagilha there is going 
to be a religious assembly*"* Let all those who have 
obtained the fmit {of arkaiship) hasten to the spot," 

In conneciiou with the soundinj^ of the gong the direc-i 
tiou of Kdlyapu spread far and wido thi-ougli the great 
chiliocosui, and aU those possessed of spiritual capa- 
bilities, hearing the instructious, assembled in convocation, j 
At this time Xu£yapa addressed the assembly and said^ 
*' TsthftgatH having died (atiuined to exiindion or Nirmna), 
the world is empty. We ought to cuUect the Dharmu^ 
-piliihi^ m token of our gratitude to Buddha. Now then, 
being about to accomphah this, tliere shonld be profound 
composure {^nid). How can this be done in tlie midst of 
*^ A buameaii ri'latlug to r^ligioQ ; * religion proceeding. 

0OOE IX.] 



sucli a vast multitude? Those wlio Lave acquired the 
three species of knowledge {trivithjd)^ who have obtained 
the six supernattii-al faculties {Bha4dbh%jnds\ who have 
kept the law witliout ftiihtre, whose powers of discrimiua- 
tion {dmledic) are clear, sucli superior persona as these 
may stop and form the cissembly* Those who are learners 
with only limited fruit, let such depart to their homes/* 

On this 999 men were left; but he excluded An an da. 
as being yet a learner. Then the great KMyapa, calling 
liim, addressed him thus: "You are not yet free from 
(lefecta ; you must leave the holy assembly/' He replied. 
''During many years I have followed TathElgata as his 
attendant ; every assembly that has been held for consider- 
ing the law, I have joined ; but. now, as you are [^'oing to 
hold an assembly after his death {wat), I find rnvself 
excluded; the King of the Law" having died^ I have lost 
my dependence and helper/' 

Kaijapa said, *' Do not cherish your sorrow \ You were 
a personal attendant on Buddha indeed, and you therefore 
heard muchj and so you loved (;tmich)^ and tli ere fore you 
are not free from all the ties that bind {the soul or affec- 

Aiianda, with words of submission, retired and came 
to a desert place, desiring to reach a condition " beyond 
learning;" he strove for this without intermission, but 
with no result At lengtJj, weaned out, he desired one 
day to lie down. Scarcely had his head reached the pillow •^ 
when lo I he obtained be condition of an Arbat 

He then went to the assembly, and knocking at the 
door» announced his arrival KMyapa then asked him, 
saying, " Have you got rid of all ties ? In that case exer- 
cise your spiritual power and enter without the door being 
opened!" Ananda, in compliance with the order, entert*ft 
through the keyhole,^ and having paid reverence to the 
priesthood, retired and sat down* 

** '^(ff tk filnjil^ir account of An- the whole account. 
tmdskB iUumi nation, et'ti AbMfaei of ^ la oth^r accauntfl it m stat«d 
Faitr Zcdvrcji, p. 72, and compare he entered thrungh the wait 


At this time fifteen days of the summer TBBt(Varshdva- 
sitna) bad elapsed* On this KSiyapa rising, said, *' Con- 
sider well and listen ! Let Ananda, who ever beard the 
^vords of Tathigata, collect by singing thvaiigh^ the 
SiltTa'pi(aJca. Let (Yeu-po-Ii), who clearly tmder- 
sLands the rules of discipline (Vina^a), and is well known 
to all wh(j know, collect the Vinai/a-pifaka ; and I, Kfii* 
yap a, will collect the Jhhidharma*pi{aka,'' The three i 
months of rain ^ being past, tlie collection of the TripifaJlea 
was finished. As the great KSIyapa Mas the president 
(Sthavira) among the priestSp it is called the SthaviTa 
( Chang- tso-pu) convocation," 

North-west of the place where the great K&iyapa held 
the convocation is a siHpa. This is where Auanda, being 
forbidden by the priests to take part in the assembly, 
came and sat down in silence and reached the fmit (posi- 
tion) of an ArhaL After this he joined the assetubly. 

Going M'est from tliis point 20 li or so, is a siHpa bnilt 
by A^flka-i &ja. This is the spot where the ** great assembly" 
{Mahdsangka) formed their collection of books {or, held 
their assembly). Those who had not been permitted to 
join X&4 japans assembly, whether learners or those above 
learning (w4rAafe), to the number of 1 00,000 men, came 
together to this spot and said, "Whilst Tath&gata was 
alive we all had a common master, but now the King of 
the Law is dead it is different. We too wish to show our 
gratitude to Buddha, and we also will hold an assembly 
for collecting the scriptures " On this the common folk 
with the holy disciples came to the assembly (cdl assenibied)^ 
the foolish and wise alke flocked to^^ether and collected 
the SiUra-pitaka, the Vina^a-^pitakaf the Abhidh^irma- 
pifaka, the miscellaneous Fitaka {KkuddakanHidya)^'^ and 

** Cbanling or rebearainp, <«iit^^ii 
•^ Or, the B€Cond "three nioatliK.** 
It 16 to be nrittid Xh^% the saason of 
Tr«)M was twofold, either the fir&t 
'Hhret' monthK/' or, tbe a^cond 
" three luoiitha," 

^ This b coDtTftiy to tbe mnal 
estplatiMtot), whkh mokes tlw StliA- 
vim i»^h1X1l date fn>ixi the neeaod 
cDtivocatiun at Yjusilli, 

^ Or perbujMi the ^annif^ta* 



ihe Dhdrant'pitahi, Thus they distinguished five Pifahas, 
And because in this assembly both common folk and holy 
ptfrsonnges were mixed together, it was called "the assembly 
of the great congregation " {Mahdsa7ijha)J^ 

To the noftb of the Vl^uvana Vihara about 2oo pacea 
we come lo the Karai?(Ja lake (Karan^ahrada), When 
TathSgata was in the world he preached often here. The 
tv-ater was pure and clear, and possessed of the eight 
qualities,^ After the Mrvdna of Buddha it dried up and 

To the north-weat of the Karan^ahrada, at a distance 
of 2 or 3 li, is a stdpa which was built by A^fika-rSja 
It is about 60 feet hi^h i by the side of it is a stone pillar 
on which is a record engraved relating to the founda- 
tion of the sidpa. It is about 50 feet high, and on the 
top has the figure of an elephant 

To the north-east of the stone pillar^ not far, we come 
to the town of Iiajagflha^* (Ho-lo-shi-ki-li-hi). The 
outer walls of this city have been destroyed, and there 
are no remnants of them left ; the inner city (walls),^'^ 
nlthough in a ruined state, still liave some elevation from 
the ground, and are about 20 li in circuit. In the 
iirat case, Bimbis^ra-i^^ja established his residence in 
Ku sugar a ; in this place the houses of the people, being 
close togetlier, were frequently burned with fire and 
destroyed. When one house was in Hames, it was im- 
possible to prevent the whole neighbourhood sharing in 
the calamity, and consequently the whole was burned 
up. Then the people made loud complaints^ and were 
unable to rest quietly in their dwellings, Tl)e king 

id, " By my demerit the lower people are afflicted ; 

Thm Accotstit^ ioi), differs from 
the cotDiDQii tradition, which mak^n 
thii school of thi! gr«al asaeuibly 
date from the tichism mX VaL^iUL 
The Rtatemt-nt, howeTer^ of Hiuen 
T«ymg} that thi? ttdditiuii&l pifahn 
urere c^nat^^d ut thiji asHc^uiUlj ta & 
lu^ul iiiid fitiggtfiitivu one^ 

** For the eight qualities ol water 
«ee J, Jt A, S., vol. ii, ]ip, j, 141, 

™ " The royai abodu " { Wait^ thr). 
Thie is what Fahian calls ^* the 
new city/' It ih'iu« to tbfj north uf 
thcr mouutainis. 

^^ That isf the walls of tbti itoyal 
|J^^^c:i^ct* or the citadei 


what deed of goodness ^mtrilorious vijiite) can T do in 
order to be exempt from such calamities?" His minis- 
ters saidj ** Ma}ii\rSja, your virtuous government spreads 
peace and harmony, yoiir righteous rule causes light and 
progress. It is by want of due attention on the part of 
the people that these calamities of fire occur. It is 
necessai-y to make a severe law to prevent sucb occur- 
rences hereafter* If a lire breaks out, the origin must be 
diligently sought for, and to punish the principal gnilty 
person, let him be driven into the cold forest. Now this 
cold forest (itiavana) is the place of corpses abandoned 
(cast mU) there. Every one esteems it an unUicky place, 
and the people of the laud avoid going there and passing 
through it. Let him be banished there as a cast-out 
corpse. From dread of this fate, the people will become 
careful and guard {againU the outbreak ofjircy* The king 
said, '* It is well; let this announcement be made, and let 
the people attend to it" 

And now it happened that the king's palace was the 
first to be burned with fire. Then he said to his minis- 
ters; "I myself must be banished;*' and he gave up the 
government to his eldest son in his own place. "I wish 
to maintain the laws of the country (A^ said) \ I therefore 
myself am going into exile.'' 

At this time the king of Yail&li hearing that Bim- 
bisira-rSja was dwelling alone in the " cold forest/* raised 
an army and put it in movement to invade (jnak^ a 
foray) when nothing was ready (to resist Min), ITie 
lords of the marches {/ro7itiers)f hearing of it, built a 
town^^ and as the king was the first to inhabit it, it 
was called ** the royal city " (liS-jagrtba)* Then tlie 
luinisters and the people all flocked there with their 

It is also said that Ajltalatru-rflja first founded this 

^ That i8« as it seems^ in the hftcl been belone utttd as & burial- 

ptftce where tfae king wan living, place for th€ people of ibe **e^d 

Krom this it would appear tUat the town.*' 
eiti: o/ the new town oi Kiljugylhaf 




city, and tlie heir-apparent of Aj&taSalru having come to 
the throne, he also appointed it to be the capital, and 
so it coiitiaued till the time of A^Ska-rfija, w'ho ch?*nged 
th€ capital to P4talipiitra, and gave the city of Eija* 
griba to the Brahmans, so that now in the city there are 
no common folk to be seen, but only Br^hmana to the 
number of a thousand faniib'es, 

At the soutli-Tvest angle of the royal precincts'' are 
two small mwjhdrdmm; the priests who come and go, 
jind are strangers in the place, lodge here. Here also 
Duddha, when alive, delivered the kw (preached). North- 
west from this is a dilpa; this is the site of an old vil- 
lage where the houseliolder JyStiahka'* (Ch'u-ti-se-lda) 
was born. 

Outside the south gate of the city, on the left of the 
roadj is a M4pa. Here TatbEigata preached and converted 
K^hula (Xo-hu4o)Jfi 

Going north from this 30 li or so. we come to Nfllanda 
miiffMrdjjm.''^ The old accounts of the country say that 
to the sonth of this mnyhdrdfrta^ in the middle of an 
Amra (^An-mo-lo) grove, there is a tank. The NAga of this 
tank is called Nalanda.'^ By the aide of it is built the 
mnQhdrdma^ which therefore takes the name {of the Ndgd), 
But the trutli is that TathS,gata in old days practised the 
life of a Bodhisattva here, and became the king of a great 
country, and egtablislied his capital in this laud. Moved 
by pity for living things, be delighted in continually 
relieving them. In remembrance of this virtue he was 
called ^ " charity without intermission j " and the sa^hg- 

^ /.«., of tbe inner dty of R&j»- 

74 In Clilttee^ Sing lih, "oonatel- 
latinn ** of " «tar crrlluetiot].'- 

^ If thii Lo-bii*lo be tho boh of 
Buddlu)^, blB coitverBion is gencmlly 
stated to have i^currrd at Kapila- 
vvatn (Jfanaol of BadJiitm, p, 206). 

^ N4lAiidft h(Wi been identified 
with the viiJftge of Eftragaun, which 
li^ii w^ven iiitlei ao?th ot Eiljglr 

^ Aco^rdlrtg to I-taing tb^ liamo 
NiUanda 11 derived from NJlga Nan* 
da {see J, IL A. S., NX, ^ui, xlii. p. 
570- ^^^ * deicription i>f thia 
templo of NiUanda see " Two Chin- 
ejo Buddhifit InM^riptioni* foiind at 
Buddha GftyA/^ X /L A. S,, N.S., 
vuL xiii. I. c. Se© idea Aitdt-a^ 0/ 
Foitr Lfctum^ p. J40. 

^ Bo I uuderatand the pMMf«L 


hdrdma was called in perpetuation of this name* Tlie 
site wa3 originally an Atiira garden. Five hundred 
merchants bought it for ten kStis of gold pieces and gave 
it to Baddlia. Buddha preached the law here during 
three mouths, and the merchants and others obtained the 
fruit of holiness. Not long after the NirvAim of Buddha, 
a former king of this country named Sakrdditya (Shi- 
kia-lo-*o-t*ie-to) respected and esteemed the (sj/aiem oftht) 
one Vehicle,^ and honoured very highly the three 
treasures.®^ Having selected hy augury a lucky spot, he 
huUt this mnghdnima. When he began the work he 
wounded, in digging, the body of the Mga At this time 
there was a distinguislied soothsayer belonging to the 
heretical sect of thtj Mrgranthas, He having seen the 
occurrence, left this record ; " This is a very superior site. 
If yoa build here a miighdi^dma^ it must of neci^^sity 
become highly renowned. Throughout the five Indies it 
will be a modeh For a period of a thousand years it will 
flourish still. Students of all degrees will here aasil}^ 
accomplish their studies. But many will spit blood 
because of this wound given to the Naga." 

His son, Buddhagupta-r3.ja {Fo-t*o-kio-tu}, who 
succeeded him, continued to labour at the excellent under- 
takiug of his father. To the south of this he buOt another 

Tatlifi-gatagupta* r£i j a (Ta-tha-kie-to-kio-lo) vigor- 
ously pmctised the former rules {of hu ancui&rs)^ and he 
built east from this another saiighdrdma, 

Bal&ditya-r^ja (P'odo-'o»tie-lo) succeeded to the 
empira On the north-east side he built a mnXghdrima, 


It haa no reference to the Nilg». The 
wurd Killniid^t ^-unld thus appear to 
be dtf rived frimi; «o + a^tiiji + da^ "nut 
giving enough,'* or ** not haviinj 
fcnouj^b to give." 

^ The **ontf Vehicle,^' According 
to tbe Buthuritj quiited bj Julicn 
{xL 2 %n Ukq) ii '* the vtliide of 
Buddbft, wbich h ci>iiiparfd to iv 

CTLT foniied of ieven pi^oiu snb- 
utanceB, and draivn by a wbit« g^*' 
But the expression, *'one VidiicJev'* i» 
a cc^nmon one in lAtt<r Bi^ddhlst 
books til denote the nntfttrif of 
Buddb^t to uhirh we aU b^loiig, 
and to "Hhich ^e aU i!f.hall rcturo* 
*^ TrxTQindni" Euddba, dhana% 




The work being done, he called together an assembly for 
GODgratuktiou. He respected equally the obscure and 
the renowned, and invited common folk and men of 
religion (^tolimss) without distinction. The priests of all 
India came together for the distance of li. After 
all were seated and at rest, two priests arrived. They led 
them up the tliree-storeyed pavilion, Then they asked 
them, saying, " The king, when about to call the assembly, 
first asked men of all degrees (cammon and holy). From 
what quarter do your reverences come so late?" They 
said, ** We are from the country of China. Our teacher ^^ 
was sick. Having nourished him^ we set out to accept the 
king s far*off invitation,®^ This is the reas^on why we 
have arrived so late." 

The assembly hearing this, were filled with astonisli- 
meot, and proceeded at once to inform the king* The 
king knowing that they were holy persons, went himself 
to interrogate tliem. He mounted the pavilion, but he 
knew not wliere they had gone,^ The king then was 
affected by a pmfound faith ; he gave up his country and 
became a recluse. Having done so, he placed himself as 
the lowest of the priests, but liis heart was always uneasy 
and ill at rest, ** Formerly {hs mid) I was a king, and the 
h^hest among the honourable ; but now I have become a 
recluse, I am degraded to the bottom of the priesthood." 
Forthwith he went to the priests, and said words to the 
above effect. On this the sanf^ha resolved that they who 
had not received the full orders should be classed accord* 
ing to their natural years of life.^ This saii^hdrdma is 
the only one in which this law exists. 

s^ It U true tbe fiymbol ihang 
in ihii^ phrwtf ia not ihe samD uti 
Ill»t forming th^ «GcoDd membcir of 
tine word hifthang (upAdbvftvii), but 
tli^jT mic the «&mi} in ft^undi atid 
fcfa<rsfore I think ho-thang m thu 
lesl flhnuld be tranalated **leaoherJ* 

^ That u> the iuvitation coming 
irom m long duitance. 

** Tbftt b, h« MCcndi^ the pa- 

vilion with tbre« stogea where tbe 
fltratigera from Cbipa had b&en re- 
oeivtd ; but wbeu ha arrived he 
found they bad dfpatteii 

** The lUfual tirdt^r wils tbut they 
lihould be chuaHxl according to tht» 
number of ye&ra they tmd been 
*' profesjsed disciples ; but in tho 
eonvfnt ui Bahufitya the order was 
that thf^jr shuuid be ckaised Aoc^rd* 


Tliifl king's sob, called Vajra (Fa-she-lo), came to the 
tbrone in succession, and was possessed of a heart firm in 
the faith. He again built on the west side of the convent 
a sanf^hdrdma. 

After tljis a king of Central India built to the north of 
this a *^T<i3X aafiffhdrdma. Moreover, he built round these 
edifices a high wall with one gate.*® Along succession of 
kings continued the work of building, using all tlie skill 
of the sculptor, till tlie whole is truly marvellous to be- 
hold. The king ^ said, '* In the hall of the monarcli who 
first began the san^hd7*dma I wiU place a figure of Bud- 
dha, and I will feed forty priests of the congregation every 
day to show^ my gratitude to the founder/' 

Tiio priest^ to the tuuuber of several tlionsands, ar« 
men of the highest ability and talent Their distinction 
13 very great at the pa^sent time, and there are many 
hundreds whose fame has rapidly spread through dis- 
tant regions. Their conduct is pure and unblamable^ 
They follow in sincerity the precepts of the moral law. 
The rules of this convent are severe, and all the priests 
are bound to observe them. The countries of India re- 
spect them and follow them. The day is not sufficient 
for asking and answering profound questions. From 
morning till night they engage in discussion; the old and 
the young mutually help one another. Those who cannot 
discuss questions out of the Tripi{alca are little esteemed, 
and are obliged to hide theniiielves for shame. Learned 
men from different cities, on tliis account, who desire to 
acquire quickly a renown in diaeussion, come here in 
multitudes to settle their doubts, and then the streams (0/ 
ilm^T m&dom) spread far and wide. For this reason some 
persons usurp the name {0/ NManda siudents\ and lit 
going to and fro reeeive honour in consequence. If men 

tng to their DaturiLl age, np to the 
time of theif full ordirmtioo. The 
king, a] through h« had beeome a 
diAcipte, wna not fully ordsiaed. 

^ TbAt in, to eater the whole 

^ But it Is not said what ki&jj;. 
The tytnbol, too, in ii^ not tfut^. 
In 8tlad]tjft refeit^d to? Hh vrat 
not to tuJce the name of trunf ot 
to \fUng (aee vol, L p, arj m 


«oo^ m J 



of other quarters desire to enter and take part in the 
discussions, the keeper of the gate proposes some hard 
questions ; raany are unable to answer, and retire. One 
mtist ha\'e stiuUed deeply both old and new (hooh) before 
getting admission. Those students, therefore, who come 
here aa strangers, have to show their ability by hard dis- 
cussion ; those who fail compared with those who succeed 
are as seven or eight to ten. Tlie other tw*o or three of 
moderate talent, when they come to diacuss in tnrn in the 

, assembly, are snre to be humbled, and to forfeit their 
renown. But with respect to those of conspicuous talent 

;of solid learnings great ability, illustrious virtue, distin- 
guished men, these connect (iheir high names) with the 
succession ((?f cdchrUies helongin^ to the college), ^\\q\\ as 

j Dharmapaia (Hn-fa)^ and ChandrapMa (Hu-yueh),^ wlio 
excited by their bequeatlied teaching the tlioughtless and 
worldly; Gunamati (Tih-hwui)^ and Sthiramati {Kin- 
hwui},^ the streams of whose superior teaching spread 
abroad even now; Prabhamitra (Kwang-yeu),®^ with his 
cleor discourses ; Jinamitm (Shing-yeu),®* with his ex- 

jiilted eloquence ; th(i pattern and f une {Maijings andd&ings) 
nf JfianachauiJra (Chi-yueh) ^ reflect his brilliant activity ; 
Srgrabnddha(?) (Ming-min), and Silabhadra (Kioi-hien),*^ 
and other eminent men whose names are lost Tliese illus- 
trious personages, known to all, excelled in their atLiin- 
ments (tirUic) all their distinguished predecessors, and 
passed the bounds of the ancients in their learning. Each 
of these composed some tens of treatises and commentaries 

*^ A tiative of EA&chipurii, author 
\--oi the *^ab(l(ividjfa-tamyvli^ S'dttra 
(Max Miillor, pp. joS n., 309-310 
And iL, 346, 348- J49. 36 r). 

«i See Yn^dlkf ; Max Hiiller, 
imdia^ pi 311, 

^ Max MiUIcrj India, pt 305 ami 
n.j PP- 309-310 n., p. 362, 

*^ PapU tit Arya AaaAga (Max 

Itidia, hy ciU!to a Kahattriyn* He 
retMjfatd China in A. p. 627, and died 
in 633 ttt the age of fi^ty-nine (Beal, 
A fjB. Four. /.«:*,, p. 2$ ; Max MiiUei*, 
Ind,, p. 3i2i. 

*^ muU p. 37- 

"" Max Miiller, /iwi, pp. 312^361 \ 
Eitel UjMjiatfhandTa. 

*^ The favutirite teacher of Hiuen 

Miiller, pp. ^5, 3 1 n., 318 D. ; VasKi- TsJatig^. FV*', pp* 144^ ^ 1 2, 2 1 5, 225 ; 

I lief, pp. 59 7^* 226-227, J05)* 

** Po-to-pbo'ini.tO'Jo of Otitral Eitelj *. v. 

Max Miilkr, Indta^ pp. 310, 343 j 


whicli were widely diffimed, and which fortliaii' p*arspicuity 
ai-^e passed duwn to the present time. 

The sacred relics on the fout aides of the convent are 
hundreds in number. For brevity's sake we will recount 
two or three. On the western side of the aaiighdrdma, 
at no great distance, is a vikdrcL Here Tath^gata ia old 
days stopped for three montlis and largely expounded Uie 
excellent law for the good of the D^vas, 

To the south lOO paces or so is a small dApcu This is the 
place where a Efiikshu from a distant region saw Buddha, 
Formerly there was a Bhikshu who came from a distant 
region. Arriving at this s|>ot, he met the multitude of 
disciples accompanying Buddha, and was affected inwardly 
with a feeling of reverence^ and so prostrated himself on 
the ground, at the same time uttering a strong desire that 
he might obtain the position of a Cbakmvartt! tnonatch, 
Tath&gata having seen him, spoke to his followera thus: 
" That Bhikshu ought much to be pitied* The powei' 
(charcLctcr) of his religious merit is deep and distant;* 
his faith is strong. If he were to seek the fruit of Buddha, 
not long hence he M'ould obtain it ; but now tliat he has 
earnestly prayed to become a Chakravartti king, he will in 
future ages receive this reward ; as many grains of dust 
as there are from the spot where he ha^ thi-own himself 
on the earth down to the very middle of the gold wheel,** 
so many Ghakravarttt kings will there be for reward;^ 
but having fixed his mind on earthly joys, the fruit of 
holiness ia far ofi'.^ 

On this soutliern side is a standing figure of Kwan* 
taz'-tsai (Avalokit^ivara) Bodhisattva. Sometimes heia 
seen holding a vessel of perfume going to the vihdra of 
Buddha and turning round to the ri*:;ht, 



^ Tlu« 11 the Uieml meiming at 
the nymbok. Julian tran^lAttffl, '^btf 
huH A profound virtue/^ It may 
me&n that his religioti^ m^rit, though 
deep, will bave but & dintant tt:* 

^ Le.f to the middb of the earth 
ivhere the gold ivheel l& 

^ Le.t m many timefl will bebt 
A ChaktAVarttl king. 

^ ThU seoms tn ^phiin the word* 
"d<!e|iaiid distant*'^ ^k<9 above il 95, 




To the south of this 8tatue is a siApaj in which are 
remains of Buddha's hair and naik cut during three 
months. Those persons afflicted with children's com- 
plaints,^ coming here aad turning round religiously, are 
mostly healifd. 

To the west of t!ii9, outside the wall, and by the side of 
& tankj is a $t4pa. This is where a hei-etic^ holding a 
sparrow in his liand^ asked Buddha questions relating to 
death and birth* 

To the south-east about 50 paces, within the walls, is 
an extraordinary tree, ahout eight or nine feet in height, 
of which the trunk is twofold. When TathS,gata of old 
time was in the world, he Hung his tooth-cleaner (danta- 
kdsh(ka) on the ground here, where it took root. Although 
many months and years have elapsed since then, Uxe tree 
neither decreases nor increases.^^ 

Next to the east tliere is a gi'eat vikdra about 200 feet 
in height* Here Tathigata, residing lor four months, 
©xplained various excellent laws. 

After this, to the north lOO paces or so, is a vUidra in 
which is a tigure of Kwan-taz'-tsai Bfldhisattva, Tiie dis- 
ciples of pure faith J who offer their religious gifts, do not 
all see the place he occupies alike; it is not fixed.^^^ 

metimes he (ie., ikcfyurt) seems to be standing by the 
of the door; sometimes he goes out in front of the 
Eeiigions people, both clerics and laics, from all 
parts come together in numbers to oflTer their gifts. 

To tile north of this vikdra is a great vikdra^ in height 
about 300 feet, which was built by Baliditya-r^ja (Po- 
lo-'o-tie-to-wang). With respect, to its niaguificence, 

*• Of it may be trdn»latect, '* thoM 
ftJBIcled vilb c^^inplicated diseanes. * 
Tha Avmbol yin^ meuiA eithec **» 
\mh& *' or " to »dd or increjue," 

*•■ After bAVlD^ mted the danta- 
k£«b| ha tor d«iuilitg the teeth, it wm 
uviUiJ to divide it into two part^p 
bence the double tmok of the tree 
i,ooEiipare Julien in loc^ D. t). The 

danialiishfka in the on\^nal is 
*' ohewing-wiUow-tWig/* The wood 
la^ed in India is tho Aa^tt eatechu; 
see af^Uj voL L pi 6S n. i and Ju- 
Heu'i note, tome L^ p. 55. 

^1 Or, *' da not &U a^& what they 
see fdike» *^h& placet he occupies li 
not fixed/* 


its dimensions, and tlte statoe of Buddlia placed in it, it 
resembles {k tJie mme as) the great viJidra built under 
the B&Uii tree.^^ 

To tlie noitli-east of this 15 a slilpa. Here Tathagata in 
days gone by explained the excellent law for seven days. 

To the north-west is a place where tlje four jmst Bud- 
dhas sat down. 

To tht! south of this is a vihttra of bia^s *^ built by 
6ilS.ditya*r4ja. Altliough it is not yet finished, yet its in- 
tended ineaaurementj when finished (to plan), will be 100 

Kext to the eastward 200 paces or so, outside the 
Mails, is a figure of Buddha standing upright and made of 
copper. Its height is about 80 feet A pavilion of six 
stages is required to cover it. It was formerly made by 
P ft r n a V a r m a - r a j a (Mwan-cbeu). 

To the north of this statue 2 or 3 li, in a vthdra 
constructed of brick, is a figure of TSra B6dbisattva (To- 
lo-p'u-sa)» This figure ia of great height, and its spiritual 
appeamnee very striking. Everj^ fast-day of the year 
large offerings are made to it The kings and ministers 
and great people of the neigbboming countries offer ex- 
quisite perfumes and flowers, holding gem-covered flags 

I** 1'tu* It the grtiM± fikdrm enp- 
poaed liO hftv« boen baUt bj Aniftra- 
iMvA. Wilb n^adb to thli mod the 
whol^ mahpstlt lb« eiiirt>«v«tsi«i and 
the^vrtes n^pectlu^ iU dale; see Dr. 

ill tiif* foimifcMe of IxMi^ (liadt- 

AHboqgh JuUeo renderi it ikeom db') 
h eipj«ln«d br M«dl»int (lub vocw 
ikA4) to be "famine sloue^ Mscd in 
the fofmaUott of bnas.*^ Tbe cala- 
MUie itoae ii the ouliitui of Pliny ^ 
" fit «t € lapidtf cpf«)flOf quttn vcxifrcit 
odmiun *" (vol ii. cap. lixir, g a), 
ddmudi U f^bblei to have dijaoiivered 
iU u« in llie cooipodtivii of braap^ 
masi. hiMcu the aanie. It may bo 
OilM ealunme from tU place r>f 

Hm «•• of the c^bcd> mm M sad 

CdliL Tho latuwt ii jfuJifunil hf «epartaJtlu«i, C^lamina, at tbe mouth 

edhm^t |«icht«el'Aoit)*'aBftkiBd «f tili I&duai hence the Chiiie#it9 

f T Hit T»«imMln| innlal, whSrh thu m^ it Gomt* fioio rv» »«e. Brmss 

tifvcNfftr. UafaiMdiM lhiFy»- mm ^^tH^ {iaUtm cm Dtdtk mtiai)^ 

twmtMm^aM, Oft sii;;h|«aiilyhe nacidia coir«riiig the 

i^mmUkmmmmmm «mlk of a bmldistf , Itwaatonnd 

MMfttamhkrit* pnhdb^ I7 liaid%& i& lh» osm 

Art yH ^(W|lkk«iMttl»bt Ift- wdM-DolSis. 

ImMI Ib Hm fMWC» i« th» iast, ^ ^^ m heights but in l^ugtK 


and canopies, whilst instmmetits of metal and stone 
resound in turns, niingled with the lianiiony of flutes and 
harps. These religious assemblies last Tor seven days. 

Within the sonthern gate of the wall ia a large welh 
Formerly, wlien Euddlia was alive, a great company of 
merchants parched with tldrst came here to the spot 
w^liere Buddha was. The Lord of the World, pointing to 
t)iiB place, said, "You will find wat^r tliere/' The chief 
of the merchants, piercing the earth with the end of the 
axle of his cart, immediately water rushed out from the 
ground. Having drunk aud heard the law, they all ob- 
tained the fruit of holiness. 

Going south-west 8 or 9 li from the aaiiffhdrdma, we 
come to the village of Kulika (Kiu-li-kiu), In it is a 
si^jia built by A^oka-raja, This is where the venerable 
Mudgalaputra (Mo-te-kia-lo-tsen) was born. By tlie side 
of the villa^^e is a si'&pa. This is where the Venerable One 
reached complete Nirvdiia^^^ and in it are placed tlie 
remains of his bequeathed body. The venerable (Mali^- 
mudgalaputra) was of a great Brahman family^ and was 
an intimate friend of ^^riputra wljen they were young. 
This Sanputra was renowned for the clearness of liis dia- 
lectic skill ; the other for his persevering and deep pene- 
tration. Their gifts and wisdom were alike, and moving 
or standing they were always togetlier,^*^ Their aims and 
desires from beginning to end were just the same. They 
had together left the world from distaste to its pleasures, 
and as hermits had followed Saiijaya (Shen-sho-ye) as 
their master.^*^^ Sflriputra having met A ^va jit a (Ma- 
shing) the Arhat, hearing the law^ understood its holy 
{mcanin^)}^ On returning he repeated what he had 

** Lit^Tiilly, Nirpdiut "withiHil gilfto in PAli, — ^H^rtiy, Manual of 

renmins ' (iinup^iftej»}. For the 
niieAUiug of thitt phrase cuneult ChQ- 
d«t«^ I'ali I.^kt.f Bvib vfic. Nibbd- 
iiciiA. JtUten renders it Parinir- 

*"• F<jr ail accmint of theBcr two 
i]i«^ipleHf BG« Fo-iJu}-kififif vargn ]7< 
Tbcjf »re coJled Strijnt and Mu- 

m '* There was at tliU time m 
KnjagftLfi a famous p^nbmjika 
calk'd Sttiiguk To him they {Serijut 
u.nd Mugalaii) w*-nt, mici tboj re* 
mained with him pomi^ tim^'*^ Ma- 
nual 6/ jBudhmrt, p. 1 9 5* 

^"o Or, undtfnttiHid the Lwl^ oat^ 
i.9^, Advajit^ 


heard for the sake of the venerable (Madgalaputra)* On 
this he understocMl tlie meaning of the law and reached 
the first fruit,*''* Then with 250 followers he went to the 
place where Buddha was. Tlie Lord of the World, seeing 
lam at a distance, pointing him out, said to bis disciples, 
" That one conung here will be the first among my fol- 
lowei-8 in the exercise of spiritual faculties (miraculous 
powers)" Having reached the place where Buddha was, 
he requested to enter the law (the SQcieiy), The Lord 
replying, said, " Welcome, Ehikshu ; cartifully practise 
a pure life, and you shall escape the limits of sorrow/* 
Hearing this his hair fell ofiF, and his common robes were 
tilianged into others. Observing in their purity the sec- 
tions of the rules of moral diampline, and being in his 
exterior behaviour faultless, after seven days, getting rid 
of all the bonds of sin, lie reached the condition of an 
Arhat and the supeniatunil powers. 

East of the old village of Mudgalaputra, going 3 or 4 
li, we come to a stUpa, This is the place where Bimbisira* 
iSja went to have an interview with Buddha When 
Tathlgata first obtained the fruit of a Buddha, knowing 
that the hearta of the paoplo of the Magadha were waiting 
for him athirst, he accepted the invitation of BimbisAra- 
ifija, and early in the morning, putting on his robes, he 
look his begging*disli, and with a thousand Bhiksbua 
around him, on the light hand and the left (lu advanctd). 
In front and behind these there were a number of aged 
Biabmaiia who went with twisted hair (jdlina), and being 
desirous of the law, wore their dyed garments {cMvara), 
Followed by such a throng, he entered the city of liflja- 

Then Lord 6akra (Ti-shih), king of Dfivas, changing Lis 
appearance into that of a MS^nava (Ma-na-p'o) yonth,^*^ 
with a crown upon his head and hia hair bound up, in 
his left hand holding a golden pitcher and in his right a 
precious stfiff, be walked above the earth four fingers 

^ /.&, became & iSrotipamia. ^^ TEut u> a yoting Bribnmnu 




high, leading Buddha along the roafl in front, in the midst 
of lite vast a5sembh% Then the king of the Magadha 
country, Bimbis^ra (Pin-pi -so-Io) by name, accompanied 
by ail the Brihman householJers within the land, and the 
merchants {ku-ssc), 100,000 myriads in all, going before 
and behind, lending and following, proceeded from the 
city of Raja-rliia to meet and escort the holy congrega- 

South-east from the spot where Bimbas&ra-rija met 

Buddha, at a distance of about 20 li, we come to the town 

of Kalapin^ka {Kia-l(hpi'7ia-kia), In this towui is a 

stilpa which was built by A^oka-rfija, This is the place 

where 64nputra, the venerable one, was born. The 

welP" of the place still exists. By the aide of the place ^^* 

is a Mpa, This is where the venerable one obtained 

JiTirvdfja; the relics of his body, therefore, are enshrined 

therein. He also was of a high Braliman family. His 

father was a man of great learning and erudition; he 

penetrated thoroughly the most intricate questions. There 

w^ere no hooks he had not thoroughly investigated. Hia 

wife had a dream and told it to her husband. "Last 

night," *^aid she, *' during my sleep my dreams were 

troubled by a strange man *^' whose body was covered with 

armour; in his hand he held a diamond mace with wlilch 

hi? broke the mountains j departing, he stood at the foot 

of one particular mountain," " This dream/* the husband 

said, " is extremely good. You will bear a son of deep 

learning; ho will be honoured in the w-orld, and will 

attack the treatises of all the masters and break down 

their teaching (sdiools)^^ Being led to consider, be wiU 

become the disciple of one who is more than huuian/' "* 

^'^ This may sklso tnt^au " the stonti 

^^^ Julien B»y8t **by the Bide of 
the weU," But refw to th** acc{>uiit 
of Mtidg»Uputm'ft birthpliM^e. The 
<3vigiziftl is **the weU of the viUiige/^ 
" ' t houjie.*' 

^** This i« an obsc\ire actitetice, 
but It a^eema to correi^potid with thet 
ikesm of the mail fitstuditig at the 
frxit of a ttjotititaiiii, Buddha is con* 
irtautly spoken of ^sk '^ a taountain of 
gold ; " and the cixpreBsioti puh jn 
yih jiit^ *^iiot aa OKe I3!jan/' steii 

^^^ By interocmtve with a etrange to allude to the guperhmnan chikr- 
m. acttif of BJlriputra'a future teacher^ 


And so io due course she coneeived a chilJ. All at 
once slie was greatly eulighteaed. She discoursed in 
high and powerful language, and her words were not to 
be oTertliKiwiL When the renerable one be^ii to be 
e%ht yeats old* his imputation was spread in every direc- 
tioQ. Hia natural disposition was pare and simple, his 
heait loving and compassionate. He broke through all 
impediments in his way, and perf^^cted Lis wisdom. Ho 
fotmed a fiiendship when young witli Mudgalaputra, and 
being deeply disgusted with the world, and having no 
system to adopt as a refnge, he went with Mudgalaputi^ 
to the heretic Safljaya's abode, and practised (his modk <?/ 
mlwoHm). Then they said together, "This is not the 
system of final deliverance,^" nor ia it able to rescue us 
tmm the trammels of sorrow. Let us each seek for an 
iUdstiioiis guida He who first obtains &im€i d€w^ kt 
him make the taste common to the other/' "^ 

At this time the great Arhat Aivajita, holding in his 
hand Ills proper measure bowl {pi^ni), was entering tlie 
city begging for food. 

S^riputra seeing his dignified exterior and liis quieL an J 
beconnng manner, forthwith asked him, ** Who is your 
master 1 ** He answered, *' The prince of the S4kya trib*?, 
disgusted with tbe worlJi becoming a herniii, has reached 
perfect wifldom. This one is my master/' Sariputra added, 
** And what doctrhie does he teach ? May I find a way 
to hear it ? *' He said, " I have but just received instruc- 
tioBj and have not yet penetrated the deep doctriua'* 
S&riputra said, "Pray tell ma {repmt) what you have 
heiird." Then Alvajita, so far as he could, explained it 
and spoke. J5ariputra having heard it, immediately 

Qd the other bimd^ Jullen trftiislatet 
\% *'ibera will not be a gre&ter 
boQOur for a man than to become 
bifi diadple;'^ or, *' nothing trill be 
oonudered «o grtsat an honour to a 
tnafi as to becmne his discipb/^ and 
ihb pei'hapB li tbe meiititU|^' of Xha 

"^ "The highest" or 

^^ Th&t JA, " the^ water of in* 
mortality ; *' the doctrine of Euddhx 

*^^ /.«:, let him commuaicat* lim 
knowledge of tbfti ijiteua of mlwm* 
tloQ (awcet dew). 




Teached the first fruit, and went forthwith with 250 of his 
followers, to the place where Buddha was dwelling. 

The Lord of the World, seeing him afar off, pointing to 
him and addressing Ids followers^ said, '* Yonder conies 
one who will b^raost distinguished for wisdom among my 
disciples" Having reached the place^ he bent his bead 
in worship and asked to be permitted to follow the teach* 
ing of Baddha, The Lord said to him, " Welcome, 

Having heard these words, he was fortViwith or- 
dained."^ Half a month after, hearing Buddha preach 
the law on account of a BrMima^ "* called " Long-nails ** 
(Dtrghanakha), together with other disc^urseSi^^ and 
uoderstanding them with a lively emotion, he obtained 
the fruit of an Arhat After this, Auanda hearing* 
Eoddlia apeak about his Nirvdna, it was noised abroad 
and talked about (bt/ ilte dlsci^le^). Each one was affected 
with griet 64riputra was doubly touched with sorrow, 
and could not endure the thought of seeing Buddha 
die. Accordingly, he asked the Lord that he miglrt die 
first- The lord said, *' Take advantage of your oppor- 

He then bade adieu to the disciples and came to his 
native village. His followers, the Srimaijfirag, spread 
the news everywhere through the towns and villages. 
Ajataiatru-raja and his people haj^tened together as the 
wind, and assembled in clouds to the assembly, whilst 
S&riputra repeated at large the teaching of the law. 
Having heard it, they went away. In the middle of the 
following night, with fixed {correct) thoughti and mind 
restrained, ho entered the Samddhi called ? final ex- 
tiDction*" After awliile, having risen out of it, he 

^^ Admitted to luidertakc thu Dtr^JtaiiaLha. paHiTdJaka paHpftch- 

duties of tba iDorul oode of diacip' ckka (JtiL nait* in It^^) 

lio**, *^ Or, tUe end of the dbcourai? ; 

1^ This Edlbman or BrahmA* but the symbol cktt geueraUj raeiui* 

diAria (di*M)g-chAfi-fan-chi) is well "theivftC** 
' Ijiawii, hi there u a work called 


Four or five li to the soutli-east of the town K§la- 
piiuika^^ is a gl^Apa, This is the spot wliere a disciple 
of Sari put m reached JV^in?eiiwi. It m otherwise said, 
"When Kai^yapa Buddha was in the world, then three 
lS(u o! great Arhats entered the condition of complete 
Nirrdna in this plac*." 

Going 30 li or so to the east of this last-named 
siilpa., we come to Indra^laguh^ mountain (Iti^tVlo-^ 
shi-lo-kia-ho-shan).*^ The precipices and valleys of this 
mountain are dark and gloomy. Flowering trees grow 
thickly together like forests. The summit has two peaks, 
which rise up sharply and by themselves. On tiie south 
side of the western peak ^^ between the crags is a great 
stone house/^ wide but not high. Here Tath&gata in old 
time was stopping when Sakra, king of Devas, wmte on 
llie stone mattei^ relating to forty-two doubts which he 
had, and asked Buddha respecting ihem»^*^ 

Then Buddha explained the matters* The traces of 
these figures still exist. Parsons now tty to imitate by 
comparison these ancient holy figures {Jl^rt /orms)^^ 

pttiftkA, see Fk-kiam vBcal'i i^iUou), 
|h, III, n. 2. 

t»i»" The "rocl^ hill sUwHiing bj 

pMk «r tl&i 1^ At MMkctm 

^ Hm y>lAtoi fluffy • ^MiM* 

IMwr 0f tin t«« i>a tk« m«i k 
ffiAvil a«t^ n«ft is Uw «m 1^ 

^ Kmt 

** Tl»t ifl, ftt it Becmu, he drew 
oertkia figiim w l«lt«f« on th« 
stooe, snd aoked Bnddba to <7ii- 
plaiD some diffienllles be b&d as to 
tbe SDUjed of tbew figmesv Tbri« 
fcittj-two diffiooliiei hftve tio i^ft^r- 
^loe to the ^tei^ (/ iW^wfi^ *S<e- 

^ * nk iTMHihtirm Rpfiean to 1 
IIm mih jmdSaye one Ju*' 

viicb ict^tthliji the aed 
it tibft ttiBi (Mi^ «f ttt BoddbaL'^ 
B«l if tfac ^T^hd ii'z iHrnl ^ 
tokB« for Ifae adTetfo *ber«^** th«1 
MiMiJ tiMMikliiM wo^ be i " Xtjw 
thaPi «» Va« figms b Imitotioii 
«f tibiat aacimt larcred i^vibolt 1 
Mfta * Tbi fij iliinbt ii 1 ' 
«^ M^p. *tbM mttb ar fig. 

IS «in«r lor * JWm^,* **tlw figwv 
te ii VimMmr wbkk own > tiiHe 







Those wlirr enter the cave to worship are seized with a 
son of religious trepidalLon. 

On tUe top of the mountaia ridge are traces where 
tlie four former Buddhas sat and walked, still remaming. 
On the top of the eastern peak is a miiglidrdma; the 
common account is this: when the priests who dwell 
here look across in the middle of the night at the wes- 
tern peak, where the stone chamber is, they see before 
the image of Buddha lamps and torches constantly 

Before the miigMrdma on the eastern peak of the 
Indralailaguha mountain is a stiipa which is called 
Hafisa (Keng-sha).^^ Formerly the priests of this 
mii^hdrdma studied the doctrine of the Little Vehicle, 
that is, the Little Vehicle of the "gradual doctrine "^^ 
They allowed therefore the use of the three pure articles 
of food, and they followed this rule without fail. Now 
afterwards, when it was not time to seek for the three 
pure articles of food, there was a Bhikshu who was 
walking up and down ; suddenly he saw a tlock of wild 
geese flying over him in the air. Then he said in a 
jocose way, ** To-day the congregation of priests has not 
food sufficient, Mahasattvaal now is your opportunity." 
No sooner had he finished, than a goose, stopping its 
flight, fell down before the priest and died. The 
Bhikshu having seen this, told it to the priests, who, 
hearing it, were affected with pity, and said one to the 
other, " Tathagata framed his law as a guide and en- 

^^ Keng-acNkia-kui, in Cbinese to the hot QpHngH on tht? tiorth-eant 
KiBtig-aha^ The lower jiemk on the «lope of the Boribhir hill there la 
ejitft is crowned with ft solid toivtr 
of brickwork, well known a» JAra- 

maoii^e foundation of a etone 
house Sj feet aquare, called Jftri* 
Madb;^ka-biLithak, or ** J /far&Handh&' a landhfi.' ka-ba tthak, or " JarAsandliA'ii 

Uirouei,'* Tbi» t4>wer, the rnins of 
which itill eat flit. U probably the 
jttfpa alluded to in the text (eomp. 
CunninghMQ, Arch. Surrtif, L 19). 
But I am at a loss hoM^ to explain 
General Cunmngham'ii remark 
{Areh. Surve^tiii. 141), that ''cluae 

throne/^ Thb ia explAlnod, how- 
ever, in Fepgnja&ou &Qd Burgeis^ Cawe 
Teiiipttt of India^ by the fitatemeot 
that there are two liteti &o nikDied* 

''* The advanced drictrine of the 
Little Vehicle (HiuaySna) ; compare 
Jiilicn*B noti^, tume L p. 3* 


coyragement {suiiahh to) the powers {^^ngs) of each 
person ; ^^ now we, following * the gradual doctrine/ 
are using a foolish guide. The Great Vehicle is the true 
doctrine* We ought to change out fonner pmctice, and 
follow more closely the sacred directions. This goose 
falling down is, in truth, a true lesaon for us, and we 
ought to make known its virtue \>j handing down the 
story to other ages^ the most distant/' On thia they 
built a 8ii)Lpa to hand down to future ages the action 
thev had witnessed, and they huried the dead goose 
beneath it. 

Going ISO or 160 li to the north-east of the Indra- 
lila-guh^ mountain, we come to the Kapotika {p\g€m} 
convent,^^ There are about 200 priests, who study 
the principles of the SarvastavELda school of Bud- 

To the east is a at' which was built by AI6ka-rftja, 
Formerly Buddha residing in this place, declared the 
law for one night to the great congregation. At this 
time there was a bird-catcher who was laying his snares 
for the feathered tribe in this wood. Having caught 
nothing for a whole day. he spoke thus, " My bad luck 
to-day ia owing to a trick aomewheiu" Therefore he 
came to the place %vhere Buddha was, and said io a high 
voice, '* Your speaking the law to-day, Tathigata, has 
caused me to catch nothing in all mj nets. My wife 
and my children at home are hungry; what expedient 
shall I tiy to help them ? " Then Tatiiagata replied, 
*'lf you will light a Ere, I will give you something ^> 
eat" ' 

Then Tath&gata made to appear a large dove, which 
fell in the fire and died. Then the bird-eatcher taking 
it, carried it to his wife and children, and thay ate it 




^ /(*., Buddhiip''a law was in» 
landed to W adapted to circum- 

v^itil is identified bj 0ener&l Cyn* 

xiingham with the viUag^ of PAr- 
bttti, just 10 mile« to thi? tiortb* 
east of i*iri)'ek< Thijs wtvuld m^uipr 
Hit in dijitig^ th« 150 or 160 !j td. 
Hiuen Tfliftn^ into 50 or 60^ 





together. Then he went back to the place where Buddha 
was, on which, by the use of expedients, he framed his 
discoutse so as to convert the bini-catcher. Having 
beard the discourse, he repented of his fault and was 
renewed in heart Then he loft his home, and practising 
wisdom, reached the holy fruit, and because of this the 
samjkdrdma waa called Kapotika, 

To the south of this 2 or 3 li we come to a solitary 
hill/^^ which is of great height, and covered witli forests 
and jungle. Celebrated flowers and pure fountains of 
water cover its sides and flow through its hollo wa. On 
this hill are many vihdrds and religious shrines, sculptured 
with the highest art. In the exact middle of the mhdra 
is a figure of Kwan-tsz'-tsai Bodljiaattva. Altltough it is 
of small size, yet its spiritual appearance is of an affect- 
iog character. In its hand it holds a lotus llower; on its 
head is a figure of Buddha. 

There are always a number of persons here who abstain 
from food desiring to obtain a view of the Bddhisattva, For 
Beven days, and fourteen days, and even for a whole month 
(ffo thiy fast]. Those wIjo are properly affected see tliis 
Kwan-tsz'-tsiii BoJlusattva with its beautifuP^^ marks, 
and thoroughly adorned with all its majesty and glory, 
1 1 comes fort li from the middle of the statue, and addresses 
kind words to these men. 

In old days the king of the Siiiihala country, in the 

™ This iiolitAry hiU ia BUpposed to 
be ** the hOL ftAnding by itaelf,'' 

JirporU, vdL xv. pu 7). Dr, Fwrgui- 
mem^ qh the other hmid, Identifies tho 
hllJ of Behar with tb&t sit^ (/. H, 
A* S. N.R, vol. ¥1. p, 329), and thia 
hill ^ttb the ShSkbpura rang** {tbid.f 

*** One form of the worship of 
Kw»ti-j!tt will pn>bably be found to 
bA¥e been derived fmm the Pertmu 
Ati«lti« or Ati^hita ; the dtitterip- 
il<»ii« ^Iven of i>ach are too simtL^r 
in l>e attributed to accident. K^w* 

cittUy *m thi» point of "beaaty" com- 
pare Sacred Booh$ of the Ea^, vol % xii L 
p, S3 i aJiio Bunym Nt^njio, Catidotjua 
of Jap. and Chin* Book* ittldif added 
U) the BixUeian, ooL 7, to ahuw that 
Kit'^m-yln is IdentiBed with "pure 
water *' Note also Ed kin's Chmete 
Bttddhujn^ p. 162^ *' Kwao-yin (torn 
beyond the trea.*' The deacriptiun 
of A(ilhita*s dress in thts Abdt^ 
Yaaht { S. B, K, vol xjti iL ) J§ 1 2 fj- 1 3 1, 
corresponds with the leppeseutatioua 
in the LHurgy i>f Krcan-tfhk, The 
atibj^ct ia too co| iuiu for a note. 


early morning reflecting Iiis face in a mirror, was not thl ^ 
to see liimself, but lie saw in the middle of a T&la wooi^^* 
on the top of a little mountain in the Magadha countr^^T 
of Jambudvfpa, ^ figure of this BSdhiaattva. The kiu^^^, 
deeply affbcted at the benevolent appearance of the figtir^^ ^e, 
diligently searched after it. Having come to this moun^^:iai- 
tain,^^ he fonnd in fact a fij^nre resembling the one he liai^^^d 
seen. On this he built a %4hdra and offered to it religiou_«i-»^ 
gifts. After this the king still recollecting the fame oc^^ of 
the circumstance, according to his example, built v{hdra^r^»~(i^ 
and spiritual shrines. Flowers and incense with tlL.K.^e 
sound of music are constantly offered here* 

Going south-east from this shrine on the solitary moun^:^^- 
tain about 40 li, we come to a convent with about fift^^^J 
priests,^** who study the teaching of the Little Vehicles -e. 
Before the san^hdrdma 18 a great &tit]i}a, where man^ -*y 
miracles are displayed. Here Buddha in former day""'^^^^ 
preached for Brahnm-dSva's sake and others during seve^ -^^ 
days* By the side of it are traces where tlie three Buddhu-^rni 
of the past age sat and walked* To the north-east of th — ^^^ 
sanghdrdma about 70 li, on tlie south side of the Gange^^^^ 
river, we come to a large village, thickly populated,^^^^^ 
There are many Deva temples here, all of them admimhl:,^ —IB 

Not far to the south-east is a great siiXpa. Here Bu(^^3' 
dha for a night preached the law, Guing east from tbi ^^^^ 
we enter the desert mountains ; and going 100 li or so, w^ ^ 
come to the convent of the village of Lo-in-ni-lo.^^ 

Before this is a great s^ripa which was built by A^ka -^ 

*^ The worship of Kwon-ym afl a 
mountain deity h»a been idluiied to 
in the X K A, 8., N.a, voL xv. pp. 
33; f. I would remark here tbftt it 
Bruins the worship of this deity wns 
partly oonnected with Ct?yIon. Tho 
argumeDt of the pfip<er iu the J, R, 
A, S. 18^ to thf} fi&nia purport. 

^^ General CunDingham suggesU 
the subiititutioii of /our li fuT/wtif. 
In tti&t II&M tlie place iodlcat^ii 

would be AphtAT (lee Arch, Survff-^ 
TOL XV. p. io)» 

^ Both distance «nd dipecttoc* 
potiit to die vicinity of Sbekhpurt^ 
{op. sit p. TJ). 

13(1 Idtjntified by Cunningham with 
Rajj^a. In Gladwin' » Ainti*Ak' 
bari it ia found undt^r th« form 
•* Rowbtmny/^ which closely re* 
sembteit the Cbinei}i;, Julien pi^ 
pf>^ei» E6hin!la difubtfully. Bi^ alM 


rija. Here Buddha formerly preached the law for three 
montlis. To the north of this 2 or 3 li is a large tank 
about 30 li round. During the four seasons of the year 
a lotus of each of the four colours opens its petals. 

Going east we enter a great forest wild, and after 200 
li or so we come to the country of I-lan-na-po-fa-to 

( 186 ) 


Omiains an nc'ouftt of ser^iteen rotmtTi&t^ viz,^ (i) I-lan~na*po~fa' 
to J* (2)Clien-pQ; (3) Kte-diU'hoh'kJU-lo ; {4} Fun^ha-fa-tun-na; 
{5) Kia-m&-lH-po ; (6) San'mi}4a^ha ; (7) Tan-mo-li-ti ; (S) 
Ku-lo-na-m-fa-la-fia; (9) U-cha; (io> Kong-wfo; (u) Kie^ 
Ung-kia ; ( 1 2) ^««>^ia-f« ; (13) 'An-ta4o ; (14) f o-Jia-Ke-e#*4r«i ; 
{15) Cku-li-ye/ (16) Ta-lo^'-fi/i'a ; ( 1 7) Jtf" o-Jo-lfi f*-rAa- 


This country is about 3000 H in circuit. The capital of 
the country 13 20 li or so round, aud is bounded 011 the 
north by the river Ganges,* It is regularly cultivated, 
and is rich in its produce. Flowers and fruits also are 
abundant. The climate is agreeable in its temperature. 
The manners of the people are simple and honest. There 
are ten saiiglvdrdnms, with about 4000 priests. Most of 
iheni study the Little Vehicle of the Sinumatlya (Chiiig- 
liang-pu) achooh There are some twelve Bfiva temples^ 
occupied l>y various sectaries. 

^ Hiranya-parvatar or Ihe Golden 
Mountain, ia iiltntitied by Ge literal 
CuEimttj^^bam with the hUl of Mon- 
gir. Thitt hiU (And the kingdom to 
wkleb it gav« its name) waa from 
early date of conaiderable import- 
ancc, ns it eoniiiianded the land 
route between the hilla nttd the 
river, af> well as the water route by 
the Ganges. It ia t^akl to have 
be«Q onginftUj c^Ied Ka^hfaharatia 
Farvata, aj it OTerlcxiked the f amot^ 
bathing- place on the Ganfeq called 
KaiihtahanLna Ghfl^ or *' thp pain- 
expelliog' bathing- pi ace/' be<caiiFie all 
people afflicted with either grief or 
bodily paiti were at ouce cur^d by 

bathing there. Cumunghaiii r^ 
luarku that " thu Dune of Haraiia 
Farvata la dearly the ori^al ot 
Hw'en Tbaan^B /^^<(n-na-/'a-/*ia*^ 
(ise<i the whole section, Ai^eh, Sun^^ m 
Imiia, vol XV. pp. i6^ 17), The hill 
was Ahtjt called Mndgicilag^H. Thin 
limy have originated the $tciry tif 
Mudgalftpntra and the bouaeholtf^r, 
S'rtUa I'lVftiti tikOtL 

^ There teemB to he a confiisiffii 
in the text. Literally It 19^ *'Tbf 
capital {hat) as a northern ri:ia4 tif 
way the river Ganget." There ia 
a note in the original saying tlut 
the order ia mbprinted. 




Lately the king of a l>order country deposed the niler 
of this country, and holds in his power the capital He 
|ia benevoleut to the priests, and has built in the city two 
ThgMrdmas, each liolding something less than looo 
'priests. Both of them are attached to the Sanr48tivfidiri 
school of the Little Vehicle. 

By the side of the capital and bordering on the Granges 
river is the Hirariya (Man-na) tnotintain, from which 
is belched forth masses of smoke and vapour which ob- 
scure the light of the sun and moon. From old time till 
now Elshis and saints have come ]iere in succt^ssion to 
repose their spirits, Now tliere is a DSva temple here, in 
wliich they still follow their rules handed down to them* 
In old days Tath3,gata also dwelt here, and for the sake of 
the D^vas preached at larfre the excellent law. 

To the south of the capital is a Bt'Apa. Here Tath^ata 
jireached for three months. By the side of it are traces 
of the three Buddhaa of the past age, who sat and walked 

To the west of this last-named spot, at no g^eat dia- 

Ltance, is a sii^pa. Tins denotes the spot where the Bhik- 

'feliu Sratuviiiilitikflti ^ (Shi-lu-to-pln-she-ti-ku-chi) was 

bom. Formerly there was in this town a rich house- 

, holder (rfr^h a pat{}f houonred and powerful. Late In life he 

lliad an heir born to his estate. Then ]ie pave as a reward 

the person who told him the news aoo lakhs of gold 

pieces. Hence the nan>e given to his son was Siltraviih- 

Ku^fkaniia^ which BiiddbiigK6aha 
estplfUtiB by saying that hia e&T'omft- 
tnents were worth a kO^i j Ijtit Rhys 
I>avida thmkn ihii m^hj he i;\p]&intMl 
by bia having poittUd tars (p, 13^ n. 
3^ 16 »eem» evident that tht? old 
fnnn In Ghinetei viz., t/ih nrft^ t,e., 
lakthakarnat refers to thLs Sotia, 
The symbol ^ik is frequently ii«ed 
for kfi^ir ^ri which owe the transla- 
]ion would be I'dfi karmt, OompAra 
Cunnlnghain'a remtLrks ahoMt rUja 
K&TDA {Arch. Surv., viA. xv, p. ib). 
Compare also JntteDt tome it. rtraldf 

' ThtB tmtishttcd into Cbinene m 
HVn urh pih yih^ that is, *^heiifmg- 
Iwo-bundrtrd liikba/' The note iidds 
fcfiD^rly it w*a tninflUted by 
httrA, thAt is, lakihij^hima. The 
efeninee in the »tory if! ti> Son a 
Cnlivid, who, according to the 
'Southern account^ lived at Cham}>^ 
(9^r iSiicr^ liool't f^f the Etu^^ vol, 
xvii. p. j). He ia «aid to have been 
wf^rth eighty cart-lopdt of gttld, 
a^Ui-mkiiftt'V^f^he AimftAaijn (<»p. c^L^ 
p. 15). But in the following section 
of the Mahdt^fjd {f*p. cU, ;2) ther« 
ia refet«Eiot< to another Bona Gttlldd 

en-urh-pih*yih). From the time of hk bin 

fcitikoti (^ 

till he grew up his feet never touched tlie ground. 
For this reason there grew on tiie bottom of his feet hairs 
a foot long, shining and soft, and of a yellow gold colour. 
He loved tliis child tenderly, and procured for him ob- 
jects of the rai'est heauty. From his house to the Snowy 
Mountains he had established a succession of rest-honses 
from which his servanis coiitinually went from one to the 
other. Whatever valuable medicines were wanted, they 
communicated the same to each other in order, and so pri> 
cured them without loss of time^ so rich was this fajuilv. 
The world-honoured one, knowing the root of piety in tliis 
man was about to develop, ordered Mud^alaputra to go 
there and to instruct him. Having arrived outside the 
gate, he had no way to introduce himself {to pass through). 
Now the householder's family (or simply the liouseholder) 
worshipped Sflrya-d§va. Every morning when the sun 
rose he turned towards it in adoration. At this lime 
Mudgalaputra, by his spiritual power, caused himself to 
appear in the disc of the sun and to come down thence 
and stand in the interior. The householder's sou took him 
to be Sdrya-d^va, and so offered him perfumed food (rim) 
and worshipped hinu* The scent of the ricfij so exquisite 
was it, reached even to Itajagrlha, At this time Bimbi* 
8ilra-rdja, astonished at the wonderful perfume, sent 
messengers to ask from door to door whence it came. 
At length he found that it came from the Venuvana- 
vihlra, where Mudgalaputra had just arrived from the 
abode of the {rich) householder. The king finding out 
that the son of the householder had such miraculous 
(food), seat for him to come to court The ho ase holder, 
receiving the order, considered with himself what was tlie 
easiest mode of transport; a galley {boat with hanks of 
oars) is liable to accidents from wind and waves; a 
chariot is liable to accident from the frightened elephants 


* The aymbol tivti^ "to return," 
Ib ^mbabl^ R mfsUke for bceit " to 

iG-orBlup/' The tranalfttlon I hmv^ 
giveti differi from the French, 



1 89 


ruiiuiaf^ away. On tliis he constructed from his own 
house to Tinjagrtha a canal basin, and filled it full of 
mustard seed.^ Then placing gently on it a lordly boat 
furnished with ropes with which to dmw it along, he 
went thus to Krijagriha, 

Firot going to pay his respecta to the Loi'd of the World, 
he (t>., Buddha) addressed liim and said, " Bimbas^ra-nlja 
has sent for vou» bo doubt desiring to see the hair beneath 
rour feet. When the king desires to see it, you must sit 
cross legijed with your feet turned up. If you stretch 
out your feet towards the king, the laws of the country 
exact death/' • 

The householder's son, having received the instruction 
of liuddlia, went. He was then led into the palace and 
presented (^0 iM hiny). The king desiring to see tlie hair^ 
he sat cro&s-leg^^^ed with his feet turned up. The king, 
approving of his politeness, fonned a great liking for him. 
Having paid his final respects, h© then returned to tlie 
place where Buddha was. 

TathUgaia at that time was preaching the law and 
teaching by parables. Hearing the discourse and being 
moved by it, Ids mind w^aa opened, and he forthwith be- 
came a disciple. Then he applied himself with all bis 
power to severe thought, with a view t^> obtain the fruit (0/ 
Arhai$hip). He walked incessantly up and down/ until 
his feet were blood-gtafned 

The Lord of the World addressed him, saying, " You, 
dear youth, when living as a layman, did you know how 
to play the lute ? "» He said, " I knew/* *' Well, then/' 

* In Ihs MaMtvugga it in aimplj 

Id. ''^aiid the J cariii-d SonA Roll- 

in u p:LUnqulii to K4jugf~ba ^* 

{B, B. /;,, jtvii 2). 

■ *thU fidvice m given him by his 
parents in tbe Southern nccfmiit 
i>n the other hand, tbe vmt ni the 
eighty thf^u«iyid oireneeni to Btiddhii 
and the mirtkoles of S&gttta reetilting 
id tlieircoBVerftiop, are quite omitted 

^ Walking up iLnddown, tb Inking, 
is represented aa a couHtant hahit 
of the tMiriy Buddhist JSramniias '* 
{3. B. £,, jt¥ii 17, n. 3). It i?* com* 
ktatitlj referred to iu Hiiien Thiang, 
{Ltid the }^E>ot« whero the BuildhM 
hski wHlkfd up AUrl down apiHiar to 
have been accioUDtcd bucred* 

» The vi^d, ta in the FAIL 


said Buddha, '* I will draw a comparison derived from tliia. 
The cords being too tight, then the soauda were not in 
cadence; when they were too loose, then the sounds bad 
neither harmony nor charm j but when not tight and not 
slack, then the sounds were harmonious. So in the prepara* 
tion for a religioua life, the case is the same ; too severe, 
tlien tlie body is wearied and the raiiid listless; too remiss, 
then the feelings are pampered and the will weakened/' • 

Having received this instruction from Buddha, he moved 
round him in a respectful way/* and by these means he 
shortly obtained the fruit of Arhatship- 

On the western frontier of the country, to the south of 
the river Ganges, we come to a smalt solitary mountain, 
with a double peak rising higL^^ Formerly Buddha in 
this place rested during the three months of rain, and 
subdued the Yaksha Yakula (Yo-c'ha Po-kbu-lo).'^ 

Below a corner of the south-east side of the mountain 
]& a great stone. On this are marks caused by Buddha 
sitting thereon. The marks are about an inch deep^ fivt* 
feet two inches long, and two feet one inch wide. Above 
them is built a si4pa. 

Again to the south is the impression on a stone where 
Buddha set down his kiun-chi-hia (lundil:d or water- 
vessel). In depth the lines are about an inch, and are like 
a flower with eight buds {or petals).^ 

Not far to tlie south-east of this spot are the foot*traoes 
of the Yaksha Vakula, They are about one foot live or 

" thcr^ ii A amaHl BoHtotj MH vrith 
EUeccBaivc cr^gia b^pvd up." For 
an account of the neigh bomdug bot 
springs see Omiamghftm {op, ««£. 

ii Yakula or VAkkuU wm^ i]m» 
the name of a Sthaviin^ oat of 
Buddha's diacipliffl. Burrjouf, /Mlr^pdL, 
p, ^t9 I iMuM, pp. 2, 126, 

** M&oj of these marks fir Ggum 
might probabl j be «xpUltif?d oj A 
knowledge of the character of the 
rock ffjcmAtion. Buch&niA desoribai 
the loek ol Mtth&dev* uM qu&rts m 
eiUciou5 homstono. 

* Tblfl oomparbon h found in the 
Sillra af FoH^-iwo Stcluim, No. 

^^ That 1% keeplu^ h]9 right 
BhouJder towards him f|>ra<^ii'- 

^< This mauDtaia ia identified by 
Cuutiiiighaiik with the hiU of MahA- 
deVD} whicl) is situated east from 
th<.^ great irrk?gtilar central ma^ of 
the Mongir hill* {Anh, Sure,^ vol iv. 
p, 1 9 ). Uiii^Q T^iatig di.%1} not appeur 
hijjiM^lf to h»ve vLait^ thl^ »put, aa 
tlie frjinbol UKtid u cAr, not hinff. 
The paffitge mi|{ht be tratihlatifd, 





19 1 

£ix iiiahes lon^^ seven or eigbt inches wide, and in depth 
less than two inches. Behind these traces of the Yaksha 
is a stone figure of Buddlia in sitting pasture, about six or 
seven feet high. 

Next, to the west, not for off, is a place where Buddha 
walked for exercise. 

Above this mountain top is the old residence of the 

Next, to the north is a foot-trace of Buddha, a foot 
and dght inches lotjg, and perhaps six inches wide, and 
half an inch deep. Above it is a si^dpa erected. For- 
merly when Buddba subdued the Yaksha, be commanded 
him not to kill men nor eat their flesh* Having re- 
spectfully received the law of Buddha, he was born in 

To tlie west of this are six or seven hot springs. The 
water is exceedingly hot,^* 

To the south the country is bounded by great monu- 
tain foreata in which are many wild elephants of great 

Leaving this kingdom, going down the river Ganges, on 
its south bank eastwards, after 300 li or so^ we come to 
the country of Chen-po (Champa.). 

Chen-po (Champa).*^ 

This country (Champfl.) is about 4000 li in circuit 
The capital is backed to the north by the river Ganges, 
it is about 40 li round. The soil is level and fertile (fat 

^ Th^i^ tprings fts described b> 
m reoeni ^UftOf in the PioneeTf 
17th August liiSa ^ttete Cuuning- 
bauit op» cit AppeudU) ; tb^j are 
^ili Ml hot M to tiU the vallBj 
with doudt of fltciAm *' Itkv a 

<' Chiynpd ftod Ctiamp^puri tn 
^|])« PnrdHoM ij the uiiiiie of the 
^pital of Anga or the country 
au% Ehdg^pur (WUaoo, Visknu- 

pt(r., vol ii p. 166 J voL iv, p. 125 ; 

/, i?, j4, 5,, vot V, p, 134; JJiwi- 
vafti,^ 1699 ; Miihdbh., iii. ^141, &c, J 
See LiW(«tn» L A,, voL i pp. 175, 
176. CfaiktiipiinagiiLr and £&mftgarh 
are cloae U> Bbigmlpur, M. Mar* 
tin. East India, voh iL pp. ;;9 f, 
(HuutLTs tSlatUUml Ae. vf Btngul^ 
vol, xiv. p, 82^ only copies the pre- 
ceding), Fa-hlaii, diap. xxxviL j 
Buruuu£, Inirod, {^^ ed), p. 13Z. 




or loamy) ; it is regularly cultivated and productive ; the 
temperature is mild and warm {nmderaUly koi) ; the 
manners of the people simple and honest There are 
several tens of saiiffhdrdmaa, mostly in ruinf, %vith ahoni 
200 priestSp They follow the teaching of the Little 
Vehicle, There are some twenty D@va temples, which 
sectaries of every kind frequent The walk of the 
capital are built of briok, and are several **tetia of feet 
high. The foundations of the wall are raised on a loftyj 
embankment, so that by their high escarpment, they can 
defy ($i&p) the attack of etiemies. In old times at the 
beginning of the kalpa, when things {men and things) 
first began, they (ic., people) inhabited dens and caves 
of the desert. There was no knowledge of dwelling- 
houses. After this, a Dfivt {divim wanmn) descending 
in consequence of her previous conduct, was locate<i 
amongst them. As she sported in the streams of the 
Ganges, she was affected by a spiiitual power^ and con- 
ceiving, she brought forth four sons, who divided between 
them the government of Jambudvipa, Each took 
possession of a district, founded a capital, built towns^ 
and marked out the limits of the frontiers. This was 
the capital of the country of one of them, and the first of 
all the cities of Jambudvlpa. 

To the east of the city 140 or 150 li, on the south of _ 
the river Ganges, is a solitary detached rock/* cragi^B 
and steepj and surrounded by water. On the top of tlie 
peak is a Dfiva temple; the divine spirits exhibit many 
miracles {spiriiual indwatiom) here. By piercing the 
rock, houses have been made \ by leading the streams 
{through eac/t), there is a continual flow of water. There 
are wonderful trees { f 07 filing) flowering woods ; the large 
rocks and dangerous precipices are the resort of men of 

" Either an ialet or a detached {Atrh. Sur^., vol ii,v. p. 34) vtalA, 

nick CaiLninghsitii identifies it ** Both bearing and diJ^tanoe pdal lo 

\tith thti picturf!8que nKky mUmd the rocky hiU of Kahftlgmon (Kdgoi^ 

oppmlU- PatharghA^a with Oh tem* oi the maps), which h juvt ; 

plv^cru^vtied »timmlt (Anc G^oy. tnilin to the eaM of BhftgMp 

of /ttdiftj p. 477). The isame writer (Cbamp4)»'* 




wisdom and virtue ; tliose wlio go there to see the place 

tare reluctant to return, 
la the midst of the desert wilds, that form the southern 
boundary of the Gountry^ are wild elephants and savage 
tensts that roam in herds. 
■ From this country going eastwards 400 li or so, we 
come to the kingdom of Kie-chn-hoh-khi-lo (Ka- 


Kii-CHU-HOn-KHi LO (KajCgktka oe Kajinghaba). 

This kingdom ^"^ is about 2000 li or so in circuits The 
soil is level aud loaiuy; it is regularly cultivated, and 
produces abundant crops ; the temperature is warm j the 
people are simple in their habits. They greatly esteem 
men of high talent, aod honour learning and the arts. 
There are six or seven Baiyjkdrdmm with about 300 
priests; and there are some ten Deva temples fi-equeuted 
by sectaries of all sorts. During the last few centuries 
the royal line has died out, and the country has been 
ruled by a neighbouring state, so that the towns are 
desolate, and most of the people are found scattered in 
▼mages aud hamlets. On this account, ^illditya-r^ja, 
when roaming through Eastern India, built a palace in 
this pkce, in which he arranged the affairs of his different 
states. It was built of branches and boughs for a tem- 
porary residence, and burnt on his departure* On the 
southern frontiers of the country are many wild ele- 

On the noriheru frontiers, not far from the Ganges 
river, is a high and large tower made of bricks and stone. 
Its foundation, wide and lofty, is ornamented with rare 

^ Ilk a DOte we mra told that 
the cOmmoD proDtiiicialioti of this 
cotmtry is *' Kii^rhinrt'}cit*lot'*^ M. 
V, de St. Martin {Mtmoire^ pi 3S7) 
th&t m tbe MaMbMmi^ 
m » coimtry KajiMi^ha 
KmtiDg tbe people oi Kxi^t- 

em India ; alio in tbe SichaluBe 
Chroniclea a town c&Ucd KajaA* 
ghet€-Niyan^'am6, in the eaaterti 
region ni Jatnbudvlpa. There ia 
abo a village caUtd Kajj^ri marked 
in Reniiell'« rnap, juat 92 milea (460 
li} from Champd, 




sculptures. On the four faces of the tower are sculptured 
figures of the saints, DSvas, and Buddhag io separate com* 

Going from this country eastward, and crossing the 
Ganges, after ahotit 6oo li we come to the kingdom of 
Pun-ns-fa-tan^na (Pundravarddbana). 


This country is about 4000 li in circuit Its capital is 
about 30 li round. It is thickly populated. The tanks 
and public offices and flowering woods are regularly con- 
nected at intervals.^ The soil is flat and loamy, and rich 
in all kinds of grain- produce. The Patiasa ^ (Pan-na'So) 
fruit, though plentiful, is highly esteemed. The fruit is as 
large as a punipkin.^^ Wlien it is ripe it is of a jeUowish- 
red colour. When divided, it has in the middle maoy 
tens of little fruits of the size of a pigeon's egg ; breaking 
these, there comes forth a juice of a yellowish-red cxiloor 
and of delicious flavour. The fruit sometimes collects on the 
tree-branches as other clustering fruits, but sometimes at 
the tree-roots, as in the case of the earth-growing ^ ?t?i^.^ 
The climate (of this cminU'y) is temperate; the people 

>* Prof. H, H. Wilson includes in 
tbe luicient Pundra the dLHtrictn of 
RAjuhAbit DtnAjpiir^ EaAgpur, Na- 
djj4, Bfrbhunij B&rdwiii, S^dodpuri 
Jftn^a Mftb&l^ BAmga^h, Pacbit, 
Pftluauiy uui pATt ol Chunftr. It is 
the ooantiT of *^ Eugar-cfui«/* p^- 
drot Bftogdili pta^H-akh. The Pati^* 
^m people &re frequent] j mentlotied 
ill Sunnkrit Uteraturef And Pundra* 
v&rddhana tr&5 evidently a portion 
of their country. Quari. Onnit 
Mwj.i voL ii- p> iSS ; Vishn\t^pm\^ 
voU li' pp- 1 3^^ ] 70. Mr, WestznacO'tt 
propoatid to identify Puridra-Tard' 
dbima with the adjacent paj^aniU or 
dktncts of PAfijam and Borddhtfu- 
k^ti (or Klii^ttlU) in Dinijpur^ about 
35 tnilea N*N*W. frora Ka^gpur; 
but alao fiuggested, &s an alternative, 
Pa^itluft or PoArowA, Eifterwardi 
FirKupuror TiniEfibild, 6 mile* north -^ 
ea«t i»r MAldA, and iS N.N.E. from 

Ga\i4&» Kr, Ferguflacm nosigaed it 
a ploc^ neur HoAf^ur. See 7iifiL 
Afti,t voL iii. p. 62; Hunter, SUiJL 

J€€. Beti^il^ voL viii pp* 59 f*, 449 ; 
/. M. A.S., N.S., vol vi.pp. 23S f. ; 
conf* RtSja-Tarangini, tnm, it. p. 
421 } MnhiibA^f iL 1^7^ GenenI 
Cunningham has more recently 
fix^ on MahAfithihiag&dha on tbe- 
l^aratoyAi 12 miles ftoutb of Bard- 
hunkiliti and 7 mUem nortb of 
Bagraha, n» the site of the capitAl 
(/f«JOr£, vyL XV, pp, V.^ 104, 110 Ij 

^ Thia pa&sage may &1h> be tmiir 
lated tbuH : "Mantime offioea (offioa 
eftnneoted witb the river navlpb* 
tion ?) with tbciir (surroundmg) 
flo^vcrs and groves oeenr At nsgular 

* Jaok or biead fruit. 

^ "A larife and coarie aquafth.** 
Williatus' 7'mk DiH., sub A <rtt** 

^ Tbe i^M? Ckinor^ aeoany&g to 




esteem learning. There are about twenty mil^hdrdmas^ 
with some 3000 priests ; they study both the Little and 
Great Vehicle. Then? are some hundred DSva temples, 
\^ljere sectaries of difTerent schools congregate. The 
Baked Nirgranthas are the most numerous. 

To the vve^t of the cajjital 20 li or so is the Pochi-p'o 
sangkdrdtnaP Its courts are light and roomy ; its towers 
and pavilions are very lofty* The priests are about 700 
io number; they study the law according to the Great 
Vehicle. Many renowned priests from Eastern India 
dwell here. 

Xot far from this is a st4pa built by A^ka-rilja. Herts 
Tatli^gata, in old dtiys, preached the law for three months 
for the sake of tlie Dfivas. Occasionally, on fast-days, 
there is a bright light Yisible around it 

By the side of this, again, is a place where the four 
post Buddhas walked for exercise and sat down. The be- 
queathed traces are still visible. 

Nut far from this there is a vihdra in which is a statue 
of Kwan-tsz'-tsai B6dhisaLt\a. Nothing is hid from its 
divine discernment ; its spiritual perception is most accu- 
rate ; men far and near consult {^thvt being) with fasting 
and prayers. 

From this going east goo li or so, crossing the great river, 
'w^ come to the country of Kia-mo-lu-po (Kaniarfipa). 


The country of Kfimariipa^* is about 10,000 li in cir- 
cuit. Tlie capital town is about 30 li Tlie land lies 

Ji&Een ; the jiothyma «0f^, aco<»rd- 
In^ Io Dotilittle's Yo(xlb\thlr^^ vi>L 
iL 41 J. MedhtiTst (eub voc Un*j) 
names "tli« China root'' which 
growm under old fir fej%e§, 

* Jalieii reetorei* tbiu (with a 
q;aeiy) to ViLiibhAiJiin^'hanliim, '* the 
eOQveiit which ha« the brightoei» of 

^ KinmriipA {itn capital is c^Utsd 
IP the PnrinuA^ Prilgjyfitiiha) ei- 

tended from the K&rjkiA?& river m 
lUiig^ur to th«j e&stwnrd {Sttil. Ace. 
Baujiily voL viL pp. i6S, 310 ; or 
iL Marti a, Ea^t Ind., vol ill p» 
403). Tht^ kingdom mdudjed Matit- 
puFj JajntiySt KAiehh^r^ West Aadm, 
jknd porta of M^tniio^ii'ighj and Sil- 
het (^rihat^a). The modern didtrSet 
exte&dfi from Goalp^ra to GauhA^fi. 
lAflften, /. A,, vol i, p. 87^ vol iL p. 
973; Wilson, V. P., vol V. p. SS; 


low, but is rich, and is regularly cultivated. They calti- 
vate the Famtm fruit and the Na-lo-ki-h (Nlrtkela) ^ 
fruit. I'hese trees, though numerous, ar^ ncvertlielesa 
iimcli valued and esteemed. Water led from the river or 
from baiiked-np lakes (reservoirs) flows round the towns. 
The climate is soft and temperate. The manners of the 
people simple and honest The men are of small stature, 
and their complexion a dark yellow. Their language 
differs a little from that of Mid- India, Their nature is 
very impetuous and wildj their memories are reteaiive, 
and they are earnest in study. Tliey adore and sacrifice 
to the D^vas, and have no faith in Buddha; hence from 
the time when Buddha appeared in the world even down 
to the present time there never as yet has been built one 
saiighdrdma m a place for the priests to asaemhle. Such 
disciples as there are are of a pure frdth, say their prayers 
(repeat the navie of Buddka) secretly, and that is aJK 
Tiiere are ag many as lOO Deva temples, and difierent 
sectaries to the number of several myriads* The present 
king belongs to the old line {tm yan) of Nflrayiina-d&va. 
He is of the Br&hmaij caste» His name is Bh^lkara^ 
varman,^ hi3 title KumS,ra (Keu-mo-lo). From the 
time that this family seized the land and assumed the 
f^overnment lill the present kirjg, there have elapsed a 
thousand successions {gcneraiiom). The king is fond of 
learninrr^ and the people are so likewise in imitation of 
him. Men of high talent from distant regions aspiring 
after office (?) visit his dominions as strangers. Though 
he has no faith in Buddha, yet he much respects ^rama^jias 
of learning. When he first heard that a Sramana from 
China ^ had come to Magadha to tlu^ Nalanda ^fi%A4- 
rdma from such a distance, to study with diUgeace the 


Jf, i?rt., vol adv, p, 421 ; lolUa Fii, 
p. 416* 

^* The breAd'fmit and the cocoa* 

* Fo-w-tie4o*fa-ino^ in Chinese, 

Y ih ' chen/' hpl me t of the mm , ** Sc* 
HaU's VSmi-ad<xUii^ p. 52. 

^ The French tranalayon is *'«y 
confusciL Juli^^ii fippeara to bave 
f^veijixtki^d the Kvnibnls Cki-fkM^ 0§ 
(the couutry of Chlm). 





profound law of Buddha, he sent a message of iuvitatioti 
by those wlio reported it as of tan as three times, but yet 
the Sriinuma (ic, Hiuen Tsiang) had not obeyed it. Thau 
Silabhadra (Shi-lo-po-t*o-lo), master of idstraSj said, 
*' Yau desire to show your gratitude to Buddha^ then you 
should propagate the tme law; this is your duty. You 
need not fear the long journey* Kumrira^rija's famil}^ 
respect the teaching of the heretics, and now he invites a 
Sramana to visit hinu This is good indeed I We judge 
from this that he is changing his principles, and desires to 
acquire merit {or, from merit ac<iuired) to benefit otliers. 
You formerly conceived a great heart, E^nd made a vow 
^\ith yourself to travel alone through different lands 
regardless of life, to seek for the law for the good of the 
i^'orkl^ Forgetful of your own country, you should be 
ready to meet death; indifferent to reiiow^n or failure, 
you should labour to open the door for the spread of the 
liuly doctrine, to lead onwards the crow^ds who are de* 
ctiived by false teacliing, to consider others first, yourself 
afterwards ; forgetful of renown, to think only of reHgion 
(ejUarge the law)" 

On tlm, with no further excuses, he hastened in com* 
pany wiih the messengers to present himself to tbe king, 
Kamira-r4ja said, " Although I ara without talents my- 
self, I have always been fond of men of conspicuous 
learning. Hearing, then, of your lame and distinction, I 
ventured to ask you here to visit me/' 

He replied, *' I have only moderate wisdom, and I am 
confused to tliink that you should have heard of my poor 

Kumara-raja said, " Well, indeed I from regard for the 
law and love of learning to regard oneself as of no account, 
find to travel abroad regardless of so great dangers, to 
wander through strau^^e countries S This is the result of 
the transforniing power of the king's government, and the 
as is reported, of the couiitiy. Now, 

To saire an creniuree (Jul.) 

exceeding learnin; 



througli the kingdoms of India there are many persons 
Mho sing about the victories of the Tsin king of the 
Mahichina conatrj. I have long heard of this. And is it 
true that this is vour honourahle birthplace ? " 

He said, " It is so. These songs celebrate the virtues 
of my sovereign." 

He replied, " I could not think that your worthy self 
was of this country. I have ever Ijad an esteem for ita 
manners and laws* Long have I looked towards the east, 
but the intervening mountains and rivers have prevented 
me from persoually visiting it." 

In answer I said, ** My great sovereign's holy qualities 
are far reuowneJ, and the transforming power of bis %inue 
reaches to remote districts. People from strange countries 
pay respect at the door of his palace, and call themselves 
his servants,*' 

Kumftra'ra.ja said, " If lua dominion is so great {covering 
thus his suhjcds)t my heart strongly desires to bear my 
tribute to liis court. But now Sil^ditya-r^ja is in the 
country of Kajfigliira (ICie-chu-hoh-khi-lo), about to dis- 
tribute large alms and to plant deeply the root of merit 
and wisdom. The ^ramans and Br&hmaxis of the five 
Indies, renowned for their learning, must needs come 
together. He has now sent for me. I pray you go with 

On this they went together. 

On the east this country is bounded by a line of hilla. 
so that there is no great city {capital) to the kingdom. 
Their frontiers, therefore, are contiguous to the barbarians 
of the soutli-wtfst (f/ China). These tribes are, in fact^ 
akin to those of the M a n ^ people in their custom^v Oa 
inquiry I ascertained that after a two months* jourmiy 
we reach the south-western frontiei'S of the province of 
Sz'chueu (Slmh)* But the mountains and rivers present 
obstacles, and the pestilential air, the poisonous vapoura, 

^ The * Man petjple ' (man lo) are the Boulh-w^t birbAHana im> luuDcd 
by the Chinese}. 




BOOE t] SA MA TA TA . 199 

the fatal simkes, the destructive vegetation, all ttiese 
causes of death prevail. 

On the south-east of this country herds of wild ele- 
phants roam about in nuinbers ; therefore, in this diatrict 
they use them principally in war 

Going from this I2CND or 1300 li to the south, we come 
to the country of San-mo <ta-c ha (Samatata). 

San-mo-ta-cha (Samatata). 

This country ^ is about 3000 li in circuit and borders on 
the great sea* The land lies low and is rich. The capital 
is about 20 li round. It 13 regularly cultivated, and is 
rich in crops, and the flowers and fruits grow everywhere. 
The climate is soft and the habits of the people agreeable. 
The men are hardy by nature, small of stature, and of 
black complexion ; they are fond of learning, and exer- 
cise themselves diligently in tlie acquirement of it. There 
are professors (bdkvcrs) both of false and true doctrines. 
There are thirty or so sanfjhdrdmas with about 2000 
priests. They are all of the Sthavira (Shang-tso-pu) 
schooh There are sorno hundred DSva temples, in which 
sectari^ of all kinds live. The naked ascetics called 
Nii^ranthas (Ni-kien) are most numerous, 

Kot far out of the city is a sttijia which was built by 
Aloka-r^ja, In this place TathS.gata in former days 
preached tlie deep and mysterious law for seven days for 
the gord of the D^vas. By the aide of it are tmces 
where the four Buddhas sat and walked for exercise* 

Not far from this, in a sa'fighdrdma, is a figure of 
Buddha of green jade* It is eigiit feet high, with tlie 
marks on its person perfectly shown , and with a spiritual 
power which is exercised from time to time. 

Coins north-east from this to the borders of the 

" Eafltem B«fig&t ? B&mdtatik or 
SamstMf^ meatiK **ihf* ^hore ei^uii- 

uioug with MithJl4 imd On«sa» 


ocean, we come to tlie kingdom of ^rikshetra (Siii-li- 

Farther on to tlie eoath-east, on the borders of tae 
ocean, we come to the country of K&malaBk& (Kia- 
mo-laiag-kia);®^ still to the east is tlie kingdom of D viira- 
pati (To-lo-pc-ti) ;^^ still to the east is the country of 
llinapura (I-shang-na-pu-lo) ; still to the east is the 
country of Mahiichampi (Mo-ho-cheri-po), which is the 
same as Liti-i. Next to the south-west is the country 
called Yam anadv ipa**(Yavanadvipa — Yen-uio-na*cheu}. 
These six countries are so hemmed m by mountains and 
rivers that they are inaccessible;*^ but their limits and 
the character of the people and country could be learned 
by inquiry. 

From Sam a tat a going west 900 li or so, we reach the 
country of Tan-mo-li-ti (Tamralipti). 

Tah-mo-li-ti (Tamraupti) * 

This country is 1400 or 1500 li in circuit, the capital 
about 10 li It borders on the sea* The ground is low 
and rich ; it is regularly cultivated, aod produces flowers 
and fruits in abundance. The temperature is hot. The 
niauners of the people ore quick and hasty. The men 
are hardy and braYe, There are both heretics and be- 
lievers. There are about ten sah^hdrdjnas, with about 
1000 priests. The Deva temples are fifty io number, m 

qf Burma, p. 32^ 

ttoned in the i'dpi-purdna, but pTO- 
hah\j fabnlmia. 

** Le,j the pilgrini did nq| ester 

^ TatitLMTTjs m PtoL, lib. viL es. 
I, 7 j. TiUnjilitU or T iiraliptl, tlie 
modt^m Tttmhik, on thi^ Selm^ jiut 
iibi>ve its junction with ttm Hu^KlL. 
Jmtr IL A, S. vol v. p. I35 ; WU- 
Boii» ViihnU'-pur^^ vol. iL p» 177 ; 
lavsseii, /, ji., vol, i p. 177 ; VarAtw 
Mih,. Br. 5., x. 14 ; Turoaur, Jfo- 
hai^HtQf pp. 70^ 1 15. 

'1 Srik^ltraorTbarekhettari i» 
the iiAma of aji ancient Burmese 
kingdom, whose capital tity of the 
Biime name neat- Prome. on the Irfl- 
wMi ; but thiH ia iouth-tant, wbiht 
norUi-eaJli^ towards Srihatta or Silhet^ 
df)e8 not lead to "the boniera of the 

>' K&mftlaJkkA : Pegu (Hansi- 
w&di) &nd the delta of tb^ Ira^ftdi* 
called Hamaiiya, &nd earlier A 1 aSTiaiia 

^ Dwjlnkvati is the classic uame 
for the town and dbtrict nf San- 
dow^, bnt in Burmese hbtory it la 
aifio applied to Sijua (Pha^ re, Hiat. 

DOUK 1.] 



^'hicli various sectaries dwell mixed together. The coast 
of this country is foimed by (or in) a recess of tlie sea; 
the water and the laud embracinj;^ each other.^^ Won- 
derful articles of value and gema are collected here in 
abundance^ and therefore the people of the country are in 
general very rich. 

By the side of the city is a sMpa which was built by 
A<dka-raja; by the side of it are traces ^vhere the four 
past Btiddhas sat and walked* 

Going from this north*west 700 li or so, we come to the 
country Kie-lo-na-su-fa-la-na (ICarnasuvnrna). 


This kingdom is about 1400 or 1500 li in circuit ; tbe 
capital is about 20 ii. It ia thickly populated- The 
householders are very (rich mid in icist). The land lies 
low and is loamy- It is regularly cultivated, and pro- 
duces an abundance of Howers, with valuables numerous 
and various. The climaLe is agreealile; the manners of 
the people honest and amiable, Tliey love learning 
exceedingly, and apply themselves to it with eaniustness. 
There are believers and heretics alike amongst them. 
There are ten mnghdrdTnas or so, with about zooo priests. 
They study the Little Vehicle of the Sanxnmtiya {Ching- 
iiang-pu) scliooh There are fifty DSva temples* Tim 
heretics are very numerous. Besides tliese there are 
three mmghdrdmas in which tliey do not use thickened 
milk {il lok), folio wiug the directions of Dfivadatta (Ti- 

By the side of the capital is the miighdrdTtia called 

"' /e,, the coast of tbe oountry ts 
that r»f ft large b&y. 

^ KftrnA WAS the kiug of Ai^ga, 
wliOtO capiltbt \& pluc4,'d at Kama- 
gft|^ new Bh&galptir (M, Ma-rtin, 
£. Ind., vol iL pp, 31, 38 f,, 46, 

** DtfVAdiLtta appe^rn to have ha<i 
M bodj of disdpUs ; m GonBei|uence 

of big LnftinoHty in point of iol!u- 
ent^ to Buddha, btt became hi^ 
eui3m3% One of the rules of hii 
Beet wa4 not to ii£e butter. A nect 
rtivering him as a Buddha existed 
up to AD. 400 (Eitel, i, n,) For an 
account of his uiore Hgoroiu atfcvtio 
praxis, ase Oldciibergi Buddha^ pp. 
1601, 161. 


Lo-to-wei-clii (Raktaviti),*** the balls of wliicb am liglit 
and spacious, tlie storeyed towers very lofty* la this 
establishment congregate all the most dtstinguisliei 
learned, and celebrated men of the kingdom. They 
strive to promote each oiher'a advaucemeat by exhor- 
tations, and to perfect their character.*^ At first the 
people of thiB country did not believe in Buddha; aL 
this time*^ there was a heretic of Southern India who 
wore over his belly copper-plates and on his head ^ 
lighted torch. With lofty steps, staff in hand* he came 
to this country. Sounding aloud the drum of diaeussiont 
he sought an adversary in controversy. Then a m&a. 
said to him, "Why are your head and your body so 
strangely (arrayed) 1 '* He said, " My wisdom is so greats 
I fear my belly will burst, and because I am moved with 
pity for tlie ignorant multitude who live in darkness, 
therefore I cany this light on my head " 

After ten days, no one was found to question him. 
Among all tlie learned and professed scholars there was 
not a single person to diacusa with him* The kiug 
said, "Alas! what iguomnce** prevails in my territories, 
that no one should be able to challenge the difficult 
propositions ** of tliis stranger. What a disgrace to the 
country! We must scheme and seek through the most 
obscure retreats." 

Then one said to him^ " In the forest there is a stnm^ 
man who names himself a Sramana, he is most diligent 
in study. He is now living apart in silence and obscurity, 
and so he has lived for a long time ; who so well able 

** Meftoing " red tnud." I adopt 
the SniLflkHt resjtoratiun (rt>m Julien, 

*^ Literany, *'to promote their 
tnutunl perfect inn by »hapin^ And 
FinnothiDg {in t^te 9tn§e of polisAing} 
their reawm and virtue** 

^ Julieti refers this exprewlon to 
the timtj when Hiuen Taiang^ was 
there (p. 85, n. 3) ; in thii case, it 
is pcwaible th^t the fdlmtoii id vol. 

L p. 4, D, 23^ b to th!)i eaooQiitor. 

But Aj» the ^n^ffA^rdma wm« alpsiilr I 
hulk when Hiueo IHug viiitea 
the capiUl, it U difficult to tmim^ 
fitand how th« event decuir^dfilthat 

** It may ai^ mean "the diffi- 
enlty *' fvsulting from the atnuigw'i 

' lOOE ^] 




by his imited virtue to controvert this irreligious man 

The king hearing this, went himself to invite him to 
come. The ^ramana replying, said, " I am a man of 
Soutli India; I stop here on my travels merely as a 
stranger. My abilities are small and commonplace ; I 
fear lest you should not know it, hut yet I will come 
according to your wish, though I am by no means certain 
as to the character of the discussion. If, however, I am 
not defeated J 1 will ask you to ereci a san^hdnhna, and 
summon the fraternity to glorify and extol the law of 
Euddha." Tbe king said, " 1 accept your terms, nor could 
I dare to forget your virtue."** 

Then tlie Sraniana, having accepted the king's invita- 
tion, proceeded to the arena of controversy, Theu the 
heretic went throogh (chanted) some 30,000 words of 
his school. His arguments were profound, his illustra' 
tions {figiiTCB or wriling) ample j hb whole discourse, both 
as to names and quail lies, was captivating to sight and 

The Sramaija, after listening, at once fathomed his 
meaning; no word or argument deceived him. With a 
few hundred words he discriminated and explained every 
difficulty, and then he asked {ike kerctw) as to the 
teaching {the prmdpies) of his school. The words of the 
heretic were confused and his arguments devoid of force, 
and 50 his lips were closed and he could not reply. 
Thus he lost his reputation, and, covered with confusion, 

The king, deeply reverencing the priest, founded this 

* JuUeD tmnjtlaten this passage 
thui % ^' Could he conduct himsf^lf 
tht2M if he was not attftebed to the 
law and devoted to virtue ? ** The 
pfti«Age h difficult ; liter^Uy it runs 
ibm; '* With thJB no-maatef, who i« 
AbJQ BO weU AB thia (^ramaiia) bo 
embody th« Iaw, to unite virtue 7 " 

~ embody tbe kw '^ meuia "to 

Tcpresent, or, vindicftte, religioTi ; " 
and " t*> unite virtue " meana *' 90 
virtuoiialj i>r fully." 

** The symbol ^tA (virtue J flome- 
time§ atanda for bhadanta, Le*, ** yont 
reverence ^* or " your excellency*" I* 
inay oka refer to the prEe^tbrxnd 
^^merii^lly' It ia applied in inBcrip- 
tiomi to Sthavira^ or prittHtik 



convent ; and from tliat time and afterwards the teaching 
of the law widely extended {through the kingd&m)}'^ 

By the side of the miyjhdrdma, and not far off, is a 
stupa which was built by Aioka-rS-ja. Wliea Taihiigata 
was alive in the world he preached here for seven drtvs, 
explaining {}h^law) and guiding {nizn). By the aide of 
it 13 a vihdra ; here there are traces where the four pa^t 
Buddhas sat down and walked. There are several ouitr 
Mt4pa2 in places where Buddha explained the excellent 
law.** These were bnilt by A^oka-r&ja. 

Going from this 700 li ov so in a south-westerly direc- 
tion, we come to the country of TJ*cha, 

U-CHA (UL)Ua). 

This country ** is 7000 li or so in circuit ; the capital 
city ^ is about 20 li round. The soil is rich and fertile, 
and it produces abundance of grain, and every kind of 
f I'uit is grown more than in other countries. It would be 
ditBcult to name the strange shrubs and the fanteJ 
flowers that grow here. The climate is hot ; the people 
are uncivilised, tall of stature, and of a yellowiBh black 
complexion, Their words and language {pronundation) 
differ from Central India, They love learniag and apply 
themselves to it without intermission* ilosfc of them be- 
lieve in the law of Buddha, There are some hundred 
miighdrdvias, with 10.000 priests. They all study tbe 
Great Vehicle. There are fifty Diva temples in which 
sectaries of all sorts malce tlieir abodes. The stdpos. 

^ Or, be widely extended the 
teaching of the law^. 

^ The ori^anJ hAs hin^ fd^ the 
law of ihax^tt'os ; perhnpa Jtiny ifi a 
miatiike for miu>, '*exce]ieDt/' 

<» Udrm or Odra is Omaa {Ma- 
hdhh^t 1l, 1 174, ill 19SS); also caUed 
Utkal* (Makilbh., vii. 123J Viikau. 
ptii\, vol. ii- p. 160)* 

^ This capital is gcneraUy identi- 
fied with Jajipum oii the Bmitani ; 
Mr* FergujdAon suggeiita Midmlpnr 

(/, JL A. S.f N.S.t vu!. vL p* ±49); hi* 
rembrki) ( io this paivr) on thtr whdi! 
of this part of the pil^rim^s TOUt« ant 
of great iotereat. He first noticed 
that the jonrpey of Hlaea Tsiwif to 
KAuiar(lp» w&H made from NAJjindi 
mi his rt'tum to tkiil tDooadterjr 
irmu South Indin ; he also pcnnti 
out the errora iiitLde by his pt^sdv* 
ccQsora iii the siLDie iot^uiry ooa &tt^ 
recta them. 







to the number of ten or so, point out spots where Buddha 
preached. They were all founded by Aioka-rSrja* 

lu a great mountain on the south-west frontiers ^^ of 
the cotintry is a mnghdrdma called Pushpagiri (Pu-se- 
po-k*i4t)* the stone sl-Apa belonging to it exhibits very 
many spiritual wonders (miracl^my On fast-days it emits 
a briglit light. For this cause belie%^ers from far and near 
flock togetlier liere and present as offerings beautifully 
embroidered (Jtotcer) canopies {ufnhreUas) ; they place 
these underneath the vase ^* at the top of the cupola,''^ 
and let them stand there fixed a^ needles in the stone. 
To ihe north-west of this, in a convent on the mountain, 
is a M'Apa where the same wonders occur as in the former 
case. These two shljmg were built by the demons,^ and 
hence are derived the extmordiuaiy miracles. 

On the South-east frontiers of the country, on the 
borders of the ocean, is the town Oharitra (Che-li-ta-lo),^ 
about 20 li round. Here it is merchants depart for 
distant countries, and strangers come and go and stop 
here on their way. The walls of the city are strong and 
lofty. Here are found all sorts of rare and precious 

^ Remain!, probably of a tt^pa, 
hȴe been found near AtkA (/. M. A. 
S.^ voL XX. p. 105). 

** Iiitttrftlly, *' underneath the 
dew-Te«iel or VA»&J* Htre we have 
Anoiber inatftuce of the cut^tom of 
Qrcnmuig the M^pa with a dt;w- 
Vftae» or " Teaael of imRiortaJlty " 
(amnra kfirlu'\* The cu&tom would 
iipp«ar to have orif^nnateil in the 
idea that '* sweet tUw " thuu col- 
lected in & %'eff»el had mtraculouia 
ijUftiitiea as ** the water of life** 
Dr* Burgefl!* remarks that thcpt' fla^n 
were probably fixod ^' on the unpital 
of th«; H^pa, on which was placed 
the reKc-ca»ket (when nut tnahrined 
iiuide thtt CMiit&l over the garbim 
of the sfd/ia).'^ 

^ It is aatiAfacti>ry to 6nd that 
Jolien in thle pasii>a^e tranalatns 
the ^* mveitied fue oir aJm^^dieh '^ b^ 

ctipoUL It ahould hAve been ao 
rendered throughout. 

** The expression §Mn kwti does 
not mean demon a in tk bad #&iib«^ 
but Fpi ritual or divjtie beingH. It 
might also be rtudcred **8pirrta 
and demona/' Cunnioi^hani anp- 
pOfseB the two hULa naumd in the 
tijJtt to be Udajagift and Khanda- 
giri, in which many Bnddhiflt cavern 
and inscriptiuna have beon dia.- 
covered* These hilk are 20 inile^ 
to the south uf Ka^ak and 5 miles 
to the we«i.t of the gi'and group of 
tettipteH at Bhuvonei^wara {Anc, 
Gtoff. 0/ India, p, 5 1 2). 

^ In Chinepe^ Fa-hin^^ " city off 
departure/' Tbb h eicftctly Pto- 
lemy 'e t6 d^fTT^/HOF TW*' th T^T^V 

XptiV^p ifiir\f6¥Tiijv (libr vii, c. '» 'S)* 
Comp. Laftnent /. A^, vd. L p, 205, 
And voL lit p. 203. It in plain 



Outside tlie city there are five convents " one after tlie 
other; tbeir storeyed towers are very high, and carved 
with figures of saints exquisitely done. 

Going south 11 or so is the country of Siiiiliala 
(Seng-kia-lo). In ihe still night, looking far off, we see 
the surmounting precious stone of the tooth-stftpa of 
Buddha brilliantly shining and sciutillating as a bright 
torch huraing in the air. 

From this going south-west about 1200 li through 
great forests, we come to the kingdom of Kong-u-t*o 

Kong-u-t'o (K6nv6dha ?). 

This kingdom ^^ is about 1000 li in circuit ; the capital 
is 20 li round. It borders on a bay (angle 0/ the sm). 
The ranges of mountains are high and precipitous. The 
ground is low and moist It is regularly cultivated and 
productive. The temperature is hot, the disposition of the 
people brave and impulsive, llie men are tall of stature 
and black complexioned and dirty. They have Rome 
degree of politeness and are tolerably honest. With 
respect to tbeir written characters, they are the same as 
those of Mid- India, but their language and mode of pro- 
nunciation are quite different They greatly respect the 
teaching of heretics and do not believe in the law of 
Buddha, There ai'e some hundred Dgva temples, and 
there are perhaps 10,000 unbelievers of different sects. 

sticceBifnl expedition sgmuut tht 
Mng of GrftDJam. Chin»in^iAai 
thi^ki tlwt Gftnjam wmi tben ao- 
Dexed to the provinn^ of Orioft 
(Robert Sewell. lAMa, vol T. pt a). 
Mjc. FergusBonr^tnarka that '* Kbnrti'^ 
hagar in the o^iighboiirhood ol Bbii^ 
vanciwiLT ia just J70 mll^ soiitb- 
west from Mtdn&purj and It is tm* 
possible to mistake the Obilk* 
Lftke tkM the great bay and the two 
«eft4 of the text. P«rb«Lpi HlUieii 
Tsbtig stopped here to vijiit the 
cavejiin the Khaudugiri and Udij- 


(frotQ HiueCL Tsiang^a rcmafk^ that 
thw pruoiotia fitop^ could Ue Been at 
A distance of 20^000 U) that he U 
confuting tkit Charitmpura with the 
one f (U'ther ctouthi two days' sail from 

*" M. Jiilien Tondefm it *^fivc 
M^jitix ^* by mistake. 

^ Sm* /. M A. S, N,S., ToL vi, 
p. 350. CunninghaDi Eupposes this 
place to be Ganiam. 1h^ otigin of 
the zuime Ganmm b not known. 
When HtUGD llaiatig retiuned to 
Magiiilha he found thftt Hftrsha* 
vardhana htul jtut ntmued from a 

BnOK K.] 






"Within the limits of this country there are several tf^u^ 
of small towns which border on the mouiUaliis and are 
built contiguous to the sea.*® The citiaa themselves are 
strong and high ; the soldiers are brave and dai'ing ; they 
rule by force the neighbouring provinces, so that no one 
can resist them. This country, bordering on the sea, 
abounds in many rare and valuable articles. They use 
cowrie si tells and pearls in commercial transactions* The 
great greenish-blue ^ elephant comes from tliis country. 
They harness it to their conveyances and make very long 

From this going south-west, we enter a vast desert^ 
jungle, and forests, the trees of which mount to heaven 
and hide the snn. Going 1400 or 1500 li, we corae to the 
country of Kie-Iing-kia (KaliAga). 


This country^ is 5000 li or so in circuit; its capital k 
20 li or so round. It is regularly cultivated and is pro- 
ductive, Flowers and fruits are very abundant. The 
forests and jungle are continuous for many hundred li* 
It produces the great tawny ^'^ wild elephant, which are 
much prized by neighbouring provinces. The climate is 


* Thi! phrase hai Itau tloea not 
oe^K&iirily impjly " the confluence of 
two aeML U «eoinJt to me&ti that 
tha towuj wei^ built ne&rthf:fmoun< 
l&iiiM (the M&hf<ndra ^f&It^?), but 
in ootumuuicfttion with the; sf^u-coiuit. 
So ftbug thii west GoikBt of South 
iy&«lloft the towiifl buiit At the f ml of 
tiM M^ Aro in conunuuioatiou witli 
Hie ie4k bj ports of einbarcifttioii {em- 

•• It may it^e&n nimbly " dark 
©doureci ; '* but lji*tnff geiiti rally 
meAH!} " the cokmr of natiirtS;, A4 the 
»zur^ of thf; sky or the green ol 
ETowmg plants'' (Wtflk WilliatOB}, 
The pbrofie fur hiatk Id un U'i'iUj. 

*^ The frontier line of KaliAga 
c&tmot have extended beyond the 
G6*lAiriLrt river oti the »wuth-weHtt 
Utid the Gu^liy4 brangh of the Iw 

drftvjiti river on the north weak 
(Cui^umghau]), Tot an rvceonnt of 
the Kaliiiga d(iiia, see Sewcll, op. mt., 
p. 19. The chii:f towti wj^ proba^ 
bly^ Rijiiniaht'iidri, wheTB the 
Chalukyas perhapa e^t&bliAbml 
liah«d their c<ipitAi. Either %hm 
place or KoHaga, on the Bern'oovst) 
ihgreeB with the be&rtn^ knd diHftnoe 
given jji the text. If, howeTer^ wo 
Accept Mr, Ferguaaon'B hypotheain 
that the capital of Ktmyoilhtt wni 
neiir Ka^k, &nd cal€ulii.t]tig the U 
to be one seventh of a mile, we 
Bh&Il have to seek for the capitat of 
KaiiAga near VijayanagraTu. For a 
notice reapectiug Kiljaiuiihiyndri see 
Sewoll, Liatt^ Ac,, voL i, p, 22, 

^^ The aame word iit ua«d in tha 
previoufl a^^tioa ; vso IL 6a 


burning; ibe disposition of the people vehement ami 
itupetuoiis. Though the men are mostly rough and un- 
ci vilised, they still keep their word and are trustworthy. 
Tba language is light and tiipping,'^ and their pronuncia- 
tion distinct and correct Bat in lx>th particulars, that is, m 
to wortls and sounds, tliey are very different from Mid-India. 
There are a few who helieve in the true law, but most of 
them are*attaclu!d to heresy. There are ten 8a7i^h4rdmas, 
with ahout 5CX) prie^tg, wlio study the Great Vehicle acconl- 
ing to the teach: nj^ of the Sthavira school. There are nom^ 
100 D4va temples with very many unhelievers of differt*t^ 
sorts, the most numerous being the Kirgranthas*'^ [Xi-kin 

In old days the kingdom of Knlifiga had a very dense 
population. Their slioulders rubbed one with the other, 
and the axles of their chariot wheels gi'ided togt?ther, aud 
when they raised their arm-sleeves a perfect tent wm 
iunned,*** There was a Elslii possessed of the five super- 
nutural powers,*^ who lived (percktd) oo a liigh precipice* 
clierishing his pur© {(IwugkU), Heing ptit to shame (iB 
suited) because he had gradually lost his nmgic powers, 1 
cursed the people with a wicked imprecation, and caoii 
all dwellitig in the country, buth young and old, to perisb 
wise and ignorant alike died, and the population dis- 
appeared, After many ages the country Wits giadually m^ 
peopled by enjigrants, hut yet it is not properly inhabit 
This is why at the present time there ate so few 
dwell here. 

Kot far from the south of the capital there is a i 
ttbont a hundred feet high ; this was built by AiSka-j^'aT 
By the side of it there are traces where the four 
Huddhas sat down and walked. 

•■ TbU description of theif lao- 

%Ih> h«re bmii kling buvs about tbem« 

^ Blg&uiban^ Jamiut, anu^ vi>L i 
^ Uf, n, 74- 

^ /y.» bvJi'trt^tchmgcjuttbeirfli'iDH 
^^ |\) luutti^r, &Q dotie wi^rt; tbej, 

ft contiaiicMu 



lly r^ 



there wotald be 

formed. ^ 

■* Explained bjf Julleti at rrf«^ 
rmg tti thff ^4tTt€h4^ijfi4t*M 

** Julieii Li-aD»late8 ^n bj *"c^ 
vem ; " but it nitiacu ** a tuckjr or 
precipttoiiB nii>untaii|.'^ 

B00& X.J 



Near the northern frontier of this country is a great 
znouotain precipice,*^ on the top of which ia a stone st&pa 
about a hundred feet hi^^h. Here, at the beginning of the 
kalpa, when the years of men's lives were boundless, a 
Pratygka*^ Buddha reached Nirvdna. 

From this going north-west through forests find moun- 
tains about 1800 li, we come to the country of Kiao-sa-lo 
(Kosala). • 


This country** is about 5000 U in circuit; the frontiers 
consist of encircling mountain crags; forests and jungle 
are found together in succession. The capital ^^ is about 
40 U round ; the soil is rich and fertile, aud yields abun- 
dant crops. Tiie towns and villages are close together. 
The population is %^ery dense. The men are tall and black 
oompkxioned. The disposition of the people is hard and 
Tiolent ; they are brave and impetuous. There ate both 
heretics and believers here. They are earnest in study 
ind of a high intelligence. The king is of the Kshattriya 
race J he greatly honours tlie law of Buddha, and his 
virtue and love are far renowned. There are about one 
hundred Bangkdrdmm, and somewhat less than 10,000 

^ perhaps M abdndrvgiri 

* A Prftty^kifc Buddha im one who 
bM reached etilighteiimeni "for him- 
wtU ftlone ; ^ th^t i^ h^ it not «ble 
to enligHten others by pruachitig or 

tah AtflX, *'» solitary Btiddha,** forth© 
aftBie reaeoii. 

• To be diitJuguEihed frora Sr4* 
twtt or Ajddhjl, which diatdct wns 
ahi4i cidled Kdaak or KAtuOa. S«« 
Wils4iD, Vlik^u-pur.f vol, li. p^ 172; 
Xd&Mflen, /, A.i voL i, p» t6o, voL fv. p. 
702. it \ny to the «outh-west of 
Ories^ and iti the distrfcl Watered 
bv tlie upper f«tdtfra of the MahA- 
nadt and G6d&varl 

^ Them lA wtmm xmoertaiiiiy is tn 
the capital of thli eountry. Geni^ral 
Camuflgliajiit who ideiitiiee tb€ ati- 
detit KdMlft with the muderu pro- 
VijL, IL 

vinae of Ber&r or Gondwfltia, plaeei 
it at ChAndi, a w^ed io^m 390 
nult;ii to the north -weat of liiljama* 
h^ttdri, with NLigptir, AmanVvati, or 
Ilitihpur lu alii^rnat] ve4 i the three 
Wt-nutued towna appear to be too 
far frutQ the eapiul of RaHngui, 
But if we aUow five li to the niil^ 
the diitanoe either of N&gpur of 
AmaHlva.ttfromBJljatnnh6n£t would 
aj^r^ti with the i ^oo or 1 900 li of 
Hiuen Ttiiang. There U much men* 
tlon in I-t«ing'a memoira of priesti 
vUiting and remaining at a plMiw 
colled Amar&vatL ; itma^ reefer to Kd^ 
ftaln, Mr, FerunniMm, caioiilati n ^ th e /i 
at Ode isixth of a mile, auggtatd cither 
Wairagaph or BhindoJCt bath of them 
Bitti9 of old citiei, as the capit&L H0 
prefers the formt^r for rcuiEona stated 
\J. ILA. i&'.j K,S., vol. vi. p, 260), 



priests: they all alike study the teacliiiig of the G rent 
Vehicle. There are about seventy Deva temples, fre- 
quented by herpetics of dilTerent persuasions, 

Not far to the south of the city is an old mii^hdrdma, 
hy the side of which is a sliipa that was built by Abi»ka- 
rija. In this place Tathigata^ of old, calling an assembly, 
exhibited ids supernatural power and subdued the uube- 
lievei^. Afterwards Uftg&rjuua BSdhisattva (Lmf 
mtntj-pu-m) dwelt in the mn^hdrdma. The Idiig of the 
country was then called Sadvaha,^* He greatly priced 
and esteemed N%irjuua, and provided him with a city- 
gale hut^* 

At this time Ti-p'o (Deva) Bfidhisativa coming from 
the country of Chi-sse-tseu (Ceylon), sought to hoMa 
djaeuaaieii with him- Addressing the gate-keeper be 
mUt '•Be good enough to announce me." Accordingly 
the gate-keeper entered and told KngdrjumL He, recog- 
liibig bifi reputation, filled up a jiii/m with water and 
tflttliiaiided his disciple to hold the water before this 
Kvu, Dfwa, seeing ihe water, was sOent, and dropped a 
medle into iU The disciple held ihe jidtra, and with some 
lUbty and doubt returned to Nag^rjuna. " What diJ ho 
^i^,"^ be nsked The disciple n^plied, '* He was silent and 
iikM nothing; he only dropped a needle into the w^ater," 

SJ^g^rjuna said, "What wisdom! Who like this ujan! 
'' 'iuow the springs of action {moHvcs), this is the privilege 
^Itiigod; to penetrate subtle principles is the privOege of 
^a iifeti^r saint.^ Such full wisdom as this entitles him 
%^ W allowed to enter forthwith/' He (the disciple) 
H^Vii *" What a saying is this ! is this then the sublime 

water" he (Nfigdrjuna) went on to say, "ia 
jiccoa^ug to the form of the vessel that holds it; 



^ An mfeHor £&]□£ {y^ ubingl m 
An ejLp»t6iD& applied ta Mondiu 
compu^ with Cuufudus (Jtaikali 
routid his hut In IhiA pauage the title Ia iBfetred 
U* V^v^ m campmnmM with Buddb&^ 





a is pure or dirty according to the character of things (in it) ; 
it fills up every jiiterstice; hi point of clearness and com* 
jnehensiveness '* he, on beholding the water^ compared it 
to the wisdom which I have acquired by study* Dropping 
into it a needle, he pierced it, as it were, to tlie bottom. 
Show this extraordinary man ia here at oace, and let him 
lie presented." 

Now the maimer and appearance of N&garjuna were 
imposing, and inspired all with respect. In discussion all 
,were awed by it, and submitted (bowed the Iwad). Deva 
Jbeing aware of his excellent characteristics, had long 
desired to consult him, and he wished to become hia 
disciple. But now as he approached he felt troubled in 
mind, and he was abashed and tiniii Moiiniing the 
^aU, he £at down awkwardly and talked darkly ; but at 
the end of the day his words were clear and lofty, 
IT&glrjnna said, "Your learning exceeds that of the 
iworld and your fine distinctions shine brighter than the 
lormer (kachers), I am but an old and infirm man; 
but having met with one so learned and distinguished, 
Burely it is for the purpose of spread lug the truth and for 
transmitting without interruption the torch of the law, 
mod propagatiDg the teaching of religion. Truly this is 
one who may sit on the upper seat to expound dark say- 
ings and discourse with precision," 

Deva hearing these words^ liis heart conceived a degree 
pf self-confidence, and being about to open the storehouse 
of wisdom, he first began to loam through the garden 
of dialectic and handle fine gentenccs; then having 
fJooked up for some indication of approval (confif^^Tnalio ji 
iff his argument) t he encountered the imposing look of the 
iSDAster; his words escaped him; his mouth was closed; 
and leaving his seat, he made soma excuse^ and asked to 
te instructed. 

Nigarjuna said^ *' Sit down again ; I will communicate 

^* I b^ve transUtcd k thue ; Ittcr- of unF&thomAbli; fulneaa, ha yoa 
aHj it fuas "dtiiu- imd Hmpid and ahuwed it to him,*' 


to jou the truest and most profound prmcipks T-vliich the 
king of the law himself verily handed down (tau^fdfor 
imnsmissi^" Deva tlien prostrated Limself on the 
<(rontid, and adored with all his heart, and said, ** Botli 
now and for ever I will dare to listen to your instructions.'* 

Nftgdrjuna Bddhisattva was well practised in the art 
of compounJing medicines ; by taking a preparation {pill 
or eaJc4^), he nourished the yeara of life for many hnndredi 
of yearsj* so that neither the mind nor appearance decayed. 
Sadvaha-rftja had partaken of this mysterious medicine, 
and his years were already several hundred in number. 
The king had a young son who one day addr^sed his 
mother thus, " When shall I succeed to the royal estate ?" 
His mother said, *' Tliere seems to me to be no chance 
of that yet ; your father the king is now several hundred 
years old, his sons and grandsons are many of them dead 
and gone through old age» This is the result of the 
religious power of Mg4rjuna,and the intimate knowledge 
he has of compounding medicines. The day the Bodhls- 
attva dies the kiug will also succumb. Now the wisdom 
of tliis Nilg3.rjuna is great and extensive, and lib love and 
compassion very deep ; he would give up for the benefit 
of living creatnres his body and lifa You ought, there- 
fore, to go, and when you meet him, ask him to give you 
his liead If you do this, then you will get your desire**' 

The king's son, obedient to Ins mother's instructions, 
went to the gate of the convent. The doorkeeper, alarmed, 
ran away^^^ and so he entered at once* Then K&giijuna 
Bodhisattva was chanting as he walked up and down. 
Seeing the kitig*a son he stopped, and said, " It is evening 
time now ; why do you at such a time come so hastily to 
the priests* quarters ? has some accident happened, or are 

^ Some &UHbutti 6oa y^&m to 
HAg&rjunn aa tiia term of lif& ( Toj- 
^a^f btmttd iamc, p. 7 6 ), This w titer 
«iliys, " In ijiy ttjiiuion the 400 or 600 
yejira of lif^ given to NAglrjuila re- 
Lr to the derdopment of the system 

of the Great Vehicle " {^ e»t,p. yf, 
n. I J. 

^ To announese the nm vkI of tbt 
kii]g*4 son (JuUen). But it would 
neem to me&n he ran ai^-a^v tbnjdgb 


'ou afraid of some calamity that you have hastened here 
sacli a time ? *' 

He answered, ** I was consiJeriDg with my dear mother 
wgrds of different Sd^traa, and the examples {ihercin 
vtn) of sages who had forsaken {f^ivai up) the world, 
and I was led to remark 011 the great value set on life by 
'all creatures, and that the scriptures, in their examples 
given of sacrifice, had not enforced thia duty of giving 
ap life readily for tlie aake of tlioae who desired it Then 
mj dear mother said, ' Not so; the Sugatas (shcn ski) of 
the ten regions, the Tathftgatas of the three ages, whilst 
jiving iu the world and giving their hearts to the object, 
bave obtained the frnir. They diligently sought the way 
pf Buddha; practising the precepts, exercising patience, 
Biey gave up their bodies to feed wild beasts, out their 
Hesh to deliver the dove. Thus Eaja Chandraprabha"" 
(Ybeh-kwang) gave up his head to tlie Bruhmai? ; Maitri- 
itala (Ts'e li) raja fed the hungry Yaksha with his blood. 
To recite every similar example would be difficult, but in 
learchiDg through the history of previous sages, what age 
13 there that affords not examples I And soN^gArjuna 
Bddhisattva is now actuated by similar high principles ; 
%B for myself, I have sought a man who for my advantage 
would give me his head, but have never yet found such a 
person for years. If I had wished to act with violence 
and take the life of a man (coTnmit miirdeT\ the crime 
would have been great and entailed dreadful conae- 
quencea. To have taken the life of au innocent chOd 
would have been infamous and disgraced my character. 
"But the B6dhisattva diligently practises the holy way 
and aspires after a while to the fruit of Buddha. His 
love extends to all beings and his goodness knows no 
•bounds. He esteems life as a bubble, hia body us decay- 
ing wood He would not contradict his purpo&e in refus- 
ing such a gift, if requested/* 

' "For th« atory of Chandra- dhid Tit, p, 510; ft>t M*itrib4l», 
e It Mitra'i NcpaUu Bud- ibid., p. 5^. 


Niglijuiia said, "Your coraparisona and jour words are 
tnie I seek tlie holy fruit of a Buddha. I have leantt 
lltti a Bttddha U able to give up all things, regarding the 
body as an echo, a buhble, passing through the four fonns 
of Ufe,^ coil tin ually comiug and going in Uie sijc wap.^ 
My constant vo^^ has been not to oppose the desires of 
liTiijg things. But there is one difficulty in the iray of 
ihe king's son, and what is that? KI were to give up 
iny life your father also would dia Think well of tlus, 
for who could then deliver him ?** 

Kigirjuna, irresoUite, walked to and fro, seeking for 
something lo end his life with ; tlien taking a dry reed 
leftf, he cut his neck as if iv iih a sword, and his head fell 
from his body. 

Having seen this, he (tks royal prince) fled precipitately t 
and returned. The guardian of the gate informed the 
Wug of the event from first to last, who whilst listerifeg 
wms 80 affected that he died. 

To the sonth-west about 300 li we came to the Po-lo- 
M0*lo-ki-li (Brahmaragiri) mountain,^ Tim aolit^iry 
ytftk of this mountain towers above the rest, and stands out 
wiHh its mighty precipices as a solid mass of rock without 
t|pft<0«clie^ or intervening valleys. The king, Sadvaba^for 
itii mke of Nag&rjuna Bfiuhisattva, tunnelled out this 
Mck thtougb the middle, and built aud fixed therein (i^ 

^ t^ iotae iMide« of life are dc- 
«iitKJbv4 Ml ct«*ttire« ovi|>ftroii% vivi- 
MrriM^ ktrnm from »p«WTi or by tniriH- 

riiijiiat^rii SmmVairachhidiku^ctkp.Z. 

^ TV* *i\ w*y* Kit Ufth are (I.) tan 

*« ineo, (3.) Afl Aflums, (4- ) 

,^j ft* b«A«ta, (G,) in 

', wtidil mtm. thai this la the 

^« rti nt^^TT Tilt* Cbincae ex- 

^f--^^ U " Ibe blnck iH-^i^K' but 

^^ A^M^ "•i'*^," is probably a 

, **» bft," Brah- 

h*t of Diirg^ or 

Bbltidak to 

li ol Ki^ala, 

i)tiw4l^ HiUa, 

with the fotitprint of BhiPii, <** 
Biva ior, if BhlmA, thtu Imi^i 
would anawet to the hill of Sjuiif»*ii 
It 18 toler&b]y certain that ili4> t'(^ 
It*-yu of Fa-hian in inteoded for Fir; 
vatt (hia intemretatiuu i>f "pigip^ 
(Pilrivata) bemg^ derived inm ^f^^' 
tai/ at BAndrau), mxid this eiMTe»p^"* 
with « Brahmara.** AItoget^ier I* 
s^ema pr<)habl© that the wqJiSihip ^ 
Durgdj or Chandfl, or Bbfrnl^ * 
Parv&tt, yviM affect^ in this ^ ^ 
ludiAi Mid probably gave rite- Vi, <^ 
at any rate fot^tered, the wunbjp ^"^ 
AtalokiteiSvaTa or Kwoji-yin. \^3 
the question dl^cu^aed^ J* R, A i 
N,B.t vol, XV"* p* 344.) 

^fc middh) a sanghdrdma ; at a distance of some 10 li, by 
tiunnellin^% he opened a covered \7ay {an approach), Tims 
by standing? under the rock tjwi knowing the wajj m) we 
iee the cliff excavated throughout^ and in the midst of 
long galleries (corridorB) with eaves for walking under 
Rud high towers (turrets), the storeyed building reachiag 
to the height of five stages, each &tH^e with foirr halls 
with vihdras enclosed (united).^ In each vihdra was a 
ptatue of Buddha cast in gold, of the size of life, wrought 
[cad) with consummate art and singwlarly adorned' and 
ipecially ornamented with gold and j^recious stonea From 
Ihe high peak of the mountain descending streamlets, like 
ftmall cascades, flow through the different storeys, winding 
toxni*\ the side galleries, and then discharging themselves 
irithout. Scattered light-holes illumine the intserior (inner 

When first Sadvaha-rija excavated this saii^kdrdma, 
the men (engaged in it) were exhausted and the king*s 
■treasures emptied. His nndertaking being only half 
accomplished, his heart was heavily oppressei NS-t^dr- 
[una addressing him saitl, ** For wliat reason is the king so 
Bad of countenance?" The king replied, *'I had formed 
in the course of reflection a great purpose*^ I ventured 
%o undertake a meritorions work of exceeding excellence 
wrhich might endure firm till the coming of Maitreya, hut 
now before it is completed my means are exhausted^ So 
I sit disconsolate day by day awaiting the dawn, east 
down at heart." 

Naglrjnna said, *' Afflict not yourself thus; the returns 

Bsqueut on the high aims o( a lofty religious purpose 

i Ee^tns to mra^ti that f n each 

thert; were fimr balls, and 

of these halla bad » vihdf^ 

hicb were connected. 

'■^ Tbij deactiptltm of tbi§ rock- 

tooiuLottfrj in the text nhows tbat 

El U the uMiw aa that de»^ribed by 

l^a^hiiLn (pp. 139, 1 40^ BenrB edition K 

peniotinUy visited ths spot. It would 
s&etn to have been vittcrly deserted 
and wnste even in Fa-hian^a time. 
Thli favours* the record uf jt» early 
construction in the time of N&g4r- 
juiift (about the first eetitury B.o«) 

^ On '*&« »iy great J^art was 
revolving in cbance thought^*' 


are Dot to hQ foiled : jour great resolve shall wtihout fail 
be accomplislied Betum then to your palace; you shall 
have abundanee of joy. To-morrow, after you have gone 
fortli to roam through and observe the wild country round 
{ihc mountain uHlds), then return to me and quietly dis- 
cuss about the buildings/* The king having received these 
instructions left him after proper salutation {turning (a tkf 

Tlien Xilgarjuna Bodhisattva, by moistening all the great 
stones with a divine and superior decoction {metficine or 
mixture), changed them into gold. The king goiug forth 
and seeing ihe gold, his heart and his mouth mutually 
congratulated each other,^ Returning, he went to XagSr- 
juna and said, "To-day as I roamed abroad, by the ioflu- 
ence of the divine spirits (genii) in the desert, I beheld 
piles of gold/* Kag3,TJuna said, " It was not by the influ- 
ence of the genii, but by the power of your great sincerity; 
as you have this gold, uje it therefore for your present 
necessities, and fulfil your excellent work," So the king 
acted and finished his undertaking, and still he had a 
surplus. On this he placed in each of the five stages four 
great golden figures. The surplus still remaining he de- 
voted to replenish the necessitous (deficient) branches of 
the exchequer. 

Then he summoned looo priests to dwell (im the build- 
ing he had constructed}^ and there to worship and pray. 
Nlgarjuna Bodhisattva placed in it all the authoritative 
works of instruction spoken by Sakya Buddha, and all the 
explanatory compilations (commentaries) of the Bddhi- 
sattvas, and the exceptional collection of the miscellaneous 
school.®* Therefore in the first (uppermost) storey they 

^ That ii, hh wordi wete in 
&gi%4iiiiE'nt with the hAppy thoughts 
eiiterlauitxi in Kin heart, 

** If Ibis be tha right rffudering 
of tba paaavge, then the "miscel- 
itihiM)i " win refer to the 
claAs of btiokjf. If, hnw. 
tVOIF,Ve ftdopt M. Julit;D*« render^ 

ing, tbfi puaage will dmpTy m«aii, 

*'b« collect^ these buuk.4 ivix.« the 
sHiras and idttrat\ ftnd divided them 
into iectiimH.'* But if w« exiicniiie 
the entire pftjuagcp it mtmm to iiDbly 
that NAgnrJnnft onUect«d (t.) Th« 
bnokn clMitjilug the aivtbuiity of 
Buddha i utteranoe ; {Z.i Uui %rrit- 




placed o&ly tlie figure of Buddha, aod tlie sdtras and 
idstras; in the fifth stage from the top (ic*, in th& huxd), 
the}' i>laced the Brahnm^s {pure men) to dwell, with all 
necessary things provided f^r them ; in the three middle 
storeys they placed the priests and their disciples, Th« 
eld records state that when Sadvaha-rSLja had finished, he 
calculated that the salt consumed by ilie workmen cost 
nine kofis of gold pieces. Afterwards the priestJi having 
got angry and quarrelled, they went to the klug to get the 
question settled. Then the Brahma 99 said amoogst them- 
ielves, "The Buddhist priests have mised a quarrel on 
some question of words," Then tlieae wicked men con- 
sulting together, waiting for the occasion, destroyed the 
mii^MrdfHa, and afterwards strongly barricaded the place 
in order to keep the priests out. 

From that time no priests of Buddha have lived there. 
Looking at the mountain caves (or heights) from a dis- 
tance, it is impossible to find the way into them (the cav^). 
In these times, when they (tJw Brdhvmij^) introduce a 
physician into their abodes to treat ai^y sickness, they 
put a veil over his face on going in and coming out, so that 
he may not know the way. 

From this, going through a great forest south, after 900 
li or Bo, we come to the country of 'An-ta-lo (Andhra). 

'An-ta-lo (Aicdhra), 

This country is about 3000 li in circuit ; the capital is 
about 20 li round- It is called P'ing-k*i-lo (Vingila ?) ^ 
The soil is rich and fertile ; it ia regularly cultivated, and 
produces abundance of cereals. The temperature is hot, 
and the manners of the people fierce and impulsive. The 
language and avrangemeut of sentences differ from Mid- 
India, but with reference to the shapes of the letters, they 

inp of tbe Bf)dhbativu ; (3,) the rivers, which was ctsrtainlj in the 

other iniiicullaiic"^u» bookie earl^ Andbra dotniniona. In the 

" Thi» h probably the n\4 ctty af Aeighbtmrhcod ara aAid tu be ruck 

Ve^gi, north' weat uf Elur lak«, be- t«lBpks &tid other rexnalnG. 
Iffcen lb« GOd^varl antt KfistmA 


are nearly the same* There are twenty mnghdrumnn witli 
about 3000 priests. There are also thirty D^va temples 
with many heretics, 

Not far from Viagila(?) is a great mnghdr&ma with 
stoi-eyed towers and balconies beautifully carved and 
ornamented. Tliera is here a figure of Buddha, the sacred 
features of which have been portrayed ^'ith the utraost 
power of the artist. Before this convent u a stone &i^pa 
which is several hundred feet high i both the one and the 
other were built by the Arhat '0-che-lo (Achala),^ 

To the south-west of the mnjhdrdnm of the Arhat 
'0-cbe-lo not a great way is a &t^pa whicli was built by 
Aloka-rdja. Here Tathagata in old days preached the 
law, and exhibited his great spiritual powers, and converted 
numberless persons. 

Going 20 li or so to the south -west of the samjhdrdma 
built by Achala (So-hifi^), we reach a solitary inountain 
on the top of which is a stone slilpa. Here Jina®^ Bdd* 
liisattva composed the In-ming-lun (Ni/dtfodrdra-idraha 
Sddva or HMiLvid^d ^dsti-a!).^ This Bodhisattva, after 
Buddha had left the world, leceived the doctriue and 
assumed the vestments {qfa disciple). His wisdom and 
his desires {prayers or votvs) were vast The power of his 
grefit wiadoui was deep and solid. Pitying the world, which 
Avas without any support {rdianee), lie designed to spread 
the sacred doctrine. Having weighed*' the character of 

^ The Chiaesti translation i»f the 
Arhat'^B name is ^^ he who Acta," it 
i»hoiild therefore be restored to Acb- 
Ara^ Tlie rest*>r»tion otherwLse 
nughi be Achalu, who b mentioned 
in tm Inscription a% Aja ta. ^f^ ^ 

*^ The phonetic ttytnbob for Jina 
are VlCitt-na ; it is truns^l^ted by 
Cong jfheiL, "youths-received,^' which 
Jiilien restores to KuttiHral&bdha. 
But thus Jifm emmot bo tnLDnUtetl 
by tither of tUest? phmses, (For d.n 
account of th^ wurk^ of thin Bod his- 
attvAi eee Bunyiu Nnnjiot CatnU^ffuf^ 
Appendix L No, to). In H\viii>li 

(iv; foL 5, h.) the 
Ch'tn-na is simply jr/ieuu 

^ There is itiuch canftisiou bere. 
The text ^ves only fn-mtM^^lmm^ 
which Djtist be restofeil tfi ^H^- 
ndyd S'iUirtt; but Julieii, in hli llil 
of mnato, jl ^t^^ correeu* iht! teit, 
and supplies the titl^ of th<3 workt 
In-mifig*ehin'f-li-menJl»nf i.e,^ ^^tt^ 
f^drdm-tdralu ^S'iUl t a. Tli i a may be 
sOj but this work i^ nut n^imed id 
Kunyiu Nan]ii»'j* ViSkU^j%te auRiDf 
thorie written by Jina, 

^ I do not jiee in the teitt Ehat h& 
C(>tDpu(sed this ^^h^^ but tHiiMider- 
ing its character (t fcvi\ he, Jt& 






the Jffitmidi/d ^dstra, its words so deep, its reasonings 
so wide, and {havimj considered) tliat students vainly 
endeavoured to overcome its difficulties in their course 
of study, lie retired into tlie lonely mountains and gave 
himself to meditation to investigate it so as to compose a 
useful compendium, that might overcome the difficulties 
(pbsciirUies) of the work, its abstruse doctrines and com- 
plicated sentences. At this time t3ie mountains and 
valleys shook and reverberated; the vapour and clouds 
changed their appearance, and tlie spirit of the mountain, 
carrying the Bodhisaitva to a height of several hundred 
feet, theu repeated (dianled) these words^ *' In former daya 
the Lord of the ^yorld virtuously controlled and led the 
people ; prompted by his compassionate heart, he delivered 
the Hiiimdya ^dstra?^ and arranged in due order its 
exact reasonings and its extremely deep and refined words. 
But after the Nirmt^a of Tathagata its great piinciples 
became obscured ; but now Jina JJodliisattva, whose merit 
and wisdom are so extensive, understanding to the bottom 
ihe sacred well, ^vill cause the HMuvidifd Sdstra to spread 
abroad its power {to add its tmight) durin^^ the present 

Then the BSdhisattva caused a bright light to shine and 
illumine tire dark places {0/ the tmrid), on which the king 
of the country conceived a deep reverence as he saw the 
sign of this brilliancy, and being in doubt wliether he (ie., 
B6dhis(dim) had not entered the Vojrasaraddki (or, dia- 
mond Sa7nddht) ; then he asked the liodliisattva to obttiin 
the fruit of " no further birth/' ^ 

Jina said, "I have entered Samddhi from a desire to 
explain a profound mitra ,* my heart awidts perfect en- 
h'ghtenment (samT^ak mnihddhi)^ but has no desire for this 
fruit that admits of no rebirth/ 

The kinjj said, "Tlie fruit of * no- birth* is the aim of 

•■ It doe* not neceB«*Hly mKnn 
tbat Buddha c<:>nipoeed thk woiIe, 
bat driver ^ (aAira) or s>pake it. 

^ TbAtia, ta aoquire the privUege 
of ao Arhftt 


all the saiota. To ctit yourself off from the three worlds, 

and to plunge into the knowledge of the 'three vidyas; 
how grand such an aim!^ May you soon attain it I" 

Tlien Jina Badhisattva^ pleased at the request of the 
kiijg, conceived t]\e desire to reach the holy fruit which 
"exempts from learning."** 

At this time Maiijulrt Bodhisattva (Miu-ki-ta'iang- 
p'u-sa), knowing hh purpose, was moved with pity. Wish- 
ing to arouse tim to the truth and to awaken him in a 
moment, he came and said, "Alas I how have jou given 
up your great pui-pose, and only fixed your mind on your 
own personal profit, with narrow aims, giving up the pur- 
pose of having all! If you would really do good^ you 
ought to transmit and explain the rules of the Yu-kia*s^- 
U-lun{Yogachd'}^a-lhxlTm idstra) of Maitr^ya Bodhiaattva, 
By that you may lead and direct students, and cause them 
to receive great advantage " 

Jina E6dhisattva receiving these directions, respectfully 
assented and saluted the saint Then having given him* 
self to profound study, he developed the teachiiig of the 
BUuviiiyit odstra; but still fearing that the students 
thereof would drend its subtle retisonings aud its precise 
stylej he composed the Hiiuvidyd bdatra^ exemplifying 
the great principles and explaining the subtle language^ in 
order to guide the learners, After that he explained fully 
the Y6ga discipline. 

From this going through the desert forest south ^ looo 
li or so, we come to To-na-kie-tse-kia (Dhanakataka),^ 

irj II rj^^g jg |]j0 chief, or ^oi|»lete| 

"* This ^Bo Ls a phni#B to deaote 
the condition of Arhaiahip, 

■* The title i^ defective. It pro- 
l»bly refer* to the NydyadvUra^ 
tdi'uk^ ^iidra ; but^ on the other 
band, thiit work wa» ctmiposed by 
N%iirjuiia (ae« B, Nannu> (Ma- 
hjue, 1323^ The whole of the 
pASftjige ill the te^t referring to Jina 
i» ubftcure:, and probablj corrupt. 

^ tu the traoHUtfon ttt HvQl4fK 
Jiilien givei* "vers le Bud," wlikib 
ezpressiot) U quoted hy Fi rgiiiMOii 
(/, IL A. &, N,a, vol. tL p, 262^ I 
bat it b mmply ** going nouth** in 
Ihe origitml 

^ Called alao the Great Audita 
country. J ul ien has Dhaiuhkachlkii ; 
the PAU inscriptions at AmAj^vatt 
And Nasik give DhAwl^aka^afc^ for 
which the Smntkrit would be Dban- 
yakataka or Dbi^iiyaka|aJca ; wad m 

BOOK 1.] 




This country is about 6000 li in circuit, and the 
capital *« some 40 H round. The soil is rich and fertile, 
and 13 regnlarly cultivated, affording abundant barvesta. 
There is much desert country, and the towns are thinly 
populated The climate is hot The complexion of the 
X^eople is a yellowish black, and they are by nature fierce 
and impulsive. They greatly esteem learning. The con- 
vents {mnfjhdntmas) are numerous, but are mostly deserted 
and ruined; of those preserved there ai*** about twenty^ 
with 1000 or so priests. They all study the law of the 
Great Vehicle. There are 1 00 D8va temples^, and the 
people who frequent them are numerous and of different 

To the east of the capital {tki citt/) bordering on (lean- 
ing against} ^ a mountain is a convent called the Pilrva* 
£M {Fo-p*o-slii-lo'Sm0)}^ To the west of the city lean- 
ing against {mainiaijud hp) a mountain is a convent 
called Avara^ilil.**^ These ivere (or, this vvas) built by 
a former king to do honour to (for the sake of) Buddha. 

AH in^erfptioa of i}6[ a.d, we have 
DhiiiyftvAtlpura, iwid tin^ao wrmlci 
identify thu city of Dhamftak^nka 
with Dhi^miiikutA clofl« to AiEmri- 
v&tt {ImL inl., vol. xi. pp, 95 t) 
Ttiti NyiiitK4 tst h et[Uivftk^iit to the 
Satiftkrit fa. 

*• Mr* FergussoTi Cf^neludeafrom & 
rtepoTt 4Jdm»»ed to Govenim«»tit by 
the^ l&tti J. A. C. Bo«wcII, iMid a1a(> 
from *ome photo^i^phv by Captain 
HcM Tbctmptfoii, tnat alm^^t beycind 
the ibi^uw of 1 doubt Bej wAdJl U the 
eity described by Hiucn Tsiat^g {^p. 
ftiLpp.26j). Butsee/mf. ^fil.f utclt 

* The word U ktn^ to hold, to 
rolyott In the AttaJUcu (vtl 6, a) 
|h«f<i !i tbtJ expreaiion An* yu Wt^ 
wlildi Dr. Lt^g^ge trai];ilAt«!a, "let 
^\Mty Attninrnt^nt in wh%i U good b« 
jirmiif ^nujJtd.'' I ahould tmppo«e, 
ihei^fortfT tb3 lext laeana that the 
f6r\'a^0A coti^ent wm supported by 

or enclosed by a moimtdn on the 
east of the elty. 

*" The pyiiibol h appt^^rs to be 
omitted, Fa-lftpo would b& eqU3>l to 

iw *0.fa*h-thi'ht AparalUa or 
West Mount. Fergnsson identifiea 
tbia with the AjDart\vat] tope. The 
tojie Ib r7 miles west of B^jwAdJI, 
It standi to the sooth of tho town 
of Amivrflvatl, which ngain ies 20 
mjleu north' north -west ftf Gunt^r. 
The old fort eaU«K! L>hiLriiikd^a 
(which AppeoiiA nt otm tioie to have 
been the name of the dinttnct) is 
jtwt one mUe west of AmAr&TAtt, 
^'Thifl celebrated Buddhfat tope 
was firat discovered by RAja Veft- 
ka|ddri N&yaciu^s aer^onta In A.D. 
1796: it Wfti visited by Ci^lonel 
Mckenzie and his e\irvey frtnfF In 
1 797 ; it wm greatly ikmolished by 
the RAjo, whoutiliaedtheaciilptured 


He Itollowed the valley, made a road, opened tlie moun- 
tain crags, constructed pavilions and long {&r, lateral) 
galleries ; wide cliainbers supported lite lieiglits and con- 
nected the caverns.^^ The divine spiiils respectfully 
defended (this place); both saints and sages wandered 
here and re^^sed. During the thousand years following 
the Nlrtdna of Euddha, every year there were a thousand 
laymen*^ and priests who dwelt here together during 
the rainy season. When the time was expiied, all who 
had^*^ reached the condition of Avhats mounted into 
the air and fled away. After the tliousand yearn the lay- 

inArblti for building materiftU up 
ta tbe y«?Ar iSi6. \x wm agAin 
viRited by Co load Maekenzle, whci 
made large txcavitionit, in jSi6« 
Further i^xcAv»t»oiii in iSjSCt); exa- 
mined by Sir Walter EHi')t» whu 
unuartbed the riiiufl of the i,ve*ttfrii 
gttteway in 1840. EiCHVaiious re- 
commen ct d ( by M r. R* St? w tl 1 ) i u May 
1S77. Furtbtjr tfxcavatiotiii |by Dr, 
janieif Burgeta) iii tS82-Sj. Stsweir^ 
List of Antiquarian Rtutait^t in Ma* 
drtis, vol. i. p. 63. For a full and 
valuable aactmtit of iha eiculptiires 
of tilt* ti>|j*? sft: Fergtiiaon* Tree and 
Strptnt Wiir»hif\ ftl«f» Burg eta, Re- 
port QH iht AmatdtijUi StQpa. An 
iriBcriptiou diacos^ertd by Dr. Bar^^«£ 
anumgtb^atoUi'.'iof the tttlpapTovin* 
" beyond doubt that the AniorAvatl 
UujMi vt»M L'itliuir alr^odi^ built or woja 
biding built in the i^et^ond oaatury 
A. ri.» if not earlier*' (Bmgeti, op. 

^"■- Thi» W'tjuld appear to refer to 
hh work In eouHtTucling a tiort of 
** aacrt-d uay "' leudin^ to the tope. 
But the text docsa not Hupply any 
inlonuation b«youd the fact of the 
excaratlonM in couii^^ctiou with tbi» 
western mni/hardma. But werts 
ihiit,e e!iU4vat[trnrt c<.hi fined to *' the 
high mnuntihb ou tb? w^at of the 
loWQi full of ca%'t5, abutting oD the 
rivcr?*' Perhapij au explanatoin 
lixay be found by supposing thtkt thQ 
lixcAVation ai the mouutaiu, &a^ 
WM iud(?{>cpdent of tbe building of 

the mnifhdrdma. In Hwat4ih th«r« 
h nothing said about tlie euverni, 
galUriee, and tunntsla ; he simply 
Mtatf a that '' the eastern and weptvrti 
taHtjhdnlfiiat wt^re built by a fiirm^r 
kjng uf the cuijRtry , and he thoroughly 
•eafched thrt>iigb all Ihe examples 
(Xtc ui Mhih^ rulei and patternt) [of 
Hitiiilar buildings] to be f{ptmd in Ta* 
bia/* Hiuen T^iang isays that ** thir 
t astern and wuBiern q<»nveTiU wero 
built [the ayiTibi»] crA'a in tbe teal 
is lih in Hwui4ih ; I regard it aa a 
misprint] by a former kinjg,^" mud 
thc^n be giiie;i on to «ay that " fat? 
moreover bored through tbe riTer 
valley, hul lowed out a r«ad, divided 
tbe crags, raised pariliona (turret«d 
chambers) with lateral goUeriea, 
whiliit wide chain btTw supported 
(pillowed) the heights and con- 
nected the cavea/' Thk ia all in- 
dependent of build log the $aMgk4- 
rdmm. I muift eoufeaa^ however, 
thut the position of the jdiipfif 
eeventeen mile» west of the fe^Wti, 
and on the other aide of the river, 
iMsema to be a ditheulty. With 
refei^nce to Ta-hia, it U gieaefftlljf 
translated Baktria (Bretorlmftider, 

p. [97). The rules and patternt 
of buildingH m Baktrta would, I 
should suppose, be thu«e of the 

^^ Fanfu^ cMmmoa dbctples, 
'^^ Or, it may medu all of them 
Attained the cuudition of Arbfttab 





inen and saiuts dwelt together ; but for the l«st hundre 1 
years there have been no priests {dwdling here) m caij- 
sequeuce of the spirit of the mouutain chauguig his shape, 
and appearing sometimes a3 a wolf, sometimes ns a mon- 
key, find frightening the disciples ; for this reason the 
place has become deserted and wild, with no priests to 
dwell there. 

To the south ^^ of tlie city a little way is a great 
mountain cavern. It is here the master of iddrm P*o- 
pi-fei-kia (Bhivavi^'lka;^^ remains in the palace of 
the Aauras ('O*ssu-lo). awaiting the arrival of Maitrlya 
Bfidhisattva as perfect Buddha. ^*^ This master of ids- 
irm was widely renowned for his elegant scholarship and 
tot the depth of his vast attainments {viTlue). Exturnally 
he was a disciple of Kapila**'® (Sflfikhya), but inwardly 
he was fully possessed of the learning of Ndgirjuna, Hav- 
ing heard th^t Dharmapala (Hu-fa-p'u-sB) of Magadha 
was spreading abroad the teaching of tlia law, and was 
laakin*^ many thousand disciples, he desired to discuss 
vnX\i him. He took his religious staff in hand and went^ 
Coining to Pltaliputra {Po-ch*a-ii) he ascertained that 
Dharmapala Bodbisattva was dwelling at the B6dhi tree. 
Then the master of Mstras ordered his disciples thus : 
"Go you to the place where DharmapHIa resides near the 
Bodhi tree, and say to him in my name, * Bddhisattva 
{i.t.^ iJiiarinapala) publishes abroad the doctrine (of Bud- 
tUm) bequeathed to the world : he leads and directs the 

^ Acco^ng to the toport quoted 
bj Mr. Ferf uwoa iop. HL» p. 265), 
** linmediAtf^j zouth of the ii>wo 
[LiL, or "B&jwhjda) in a singular 
bolated ruck or bilU lUobg whui^e 
bMii KD(I mldtm there ai^ the retuains 

of » cQiuldtfrmhlti DiuDbt-r of rock* 
eftvoa, &&" 

"• In Cbineae Tsing piiij " Iwi 
who discuttHfS with ckftraeea *' 
(JiiL)l but m Wotig-Pdh {% 193) 
hb Ia ctiltd Ming-pint which m^tuB 
more accurate. For the &|oiy of thU 
<k«tcir M« WoBg-POh [ivc. dl.) 
K ^^ Id thU piifeage, u in th« one 

routing to K&^vrv[ia in thts Kukku- 
tapAda-giH^ Juhcn has ijuUe luisifted 
thtf «e[i$tc? ; be traiislnteij aa though 
Bh4vavivtika had becou^e a Buddhi^ 
*** la thti t^xt it h ** external I jf 
be wore thti ctothee or contum^ Jf 
theSMkhja {8iln*j-k*U), that ia, he 
waa a followi^r of Kapila by out- 
ward prof^N^lou. JuIIl^u h%» tnma* 
b^ted Lt ua though t^uftg-k^it were 
en^uivaletit to ^mg-kiathi^ but the 
eymbok are quite ditferieiit, »iid be 
bitDs^lf give^ Sdnihytt »m the @quU 
valent of Sdii^-k'it (pp. 470^ $2^)* 


ignorant. His followers look up to him with respect and 
humility, and so it has been for many days ; nevertheless 
Ins vow and past determination have botne no fruit 1 
Vain is it to worship and visit the BSdki tree. Swear to 
accompUsh your object, and then you will be in the end 
guide of gods and men/ " ^^ 

Dharmapflla Bodhisattva answered the messenger thus: 
'*The lives of men (or, generations of men) are like a 
phantom; the body is as a bubble. The whole day I 
exert myself; I have no time for controversy ; you may 
therefore depart — there can be no meeting," 

The master of iddrm liaving returned to hia own 
country, led a pure {quiet) life and reflected thus: "In the 
absence of^^ MaitrSya as a Buddha, who is there that 
can satisfy my doubts ? " Then in front of the figure of 
the Bfidhisattva Kwan-tsz'-tsai,^^! he recited in order 
the Sin-td'-ia-ni {Hftdaya-dhdrajii)}'^ abstaining from 
food and drink. After three years Kwan-tsz -tsai B6dhi- 
eattva apj eared to him with a very beautiful ^^ body, and 


^^ Tlib pnunge is ob«<mr«, nj^d I 
off«r my tmtialatioM only as tetitn- 
tive. It n^pptaffl to tim that tlie 
mefisngtt V\ the B^KlhiAattva won 
couched irrjiiit^ally, BhuLvaviviika 
chill lengei DhArmap&liih on the 
ground that his aim hai not yet 
been acci^iiijlltheti, and to go to the 
B^dhi tree to wornhip is fo-fjlUh uid 
iinii|Mfmth'e* "Vow to aix'omptiah 
yf^inr puqKige, and it sbiU be nccom* 
ptished irrespective of wurship or 
humility*^* Thifl iw-ould s^mn to 
have btien the tendency of Nigflf> 
jiina^a teach tng^ imd Bh^vavivakik, 
thodgh autw&rdJv a foUuwer of Ka- 
y\\^f was jet full uf N&gir junk's 

^1" Th«t U. uatil Maitr^ja be- 
cximctt BuddhJS who k tber« that 
can answer my doubts? It ia not 
that Moitr^ya km become Btiddha^ 
but tintil he does ih> become, 

^** This is indirectly a Jno«l im- 
portant paAsage, It ftbciwi thai Bb&- 
vavivekA) who was imbood "wfththt; 

spirit of Nilgdrjuaiii" altbo'ii^ pKK 
f easily n foUuwer of Eikpil% ex- 
hibited hb faith by going- to ATald-- 
kitMvara* Thi«, joined with the 
Mtory of Sodvob^ excavattn^ the 
BrahmjLra {Dui^} eon Tent for Ni- 

ffirjuna, ihowa that the worabip ei 
*urgi (ths manif-armtd arvd t&€ hit/k) 
wan the chief feature in the »Lptrit of 
KAgdrjnna'ji teach ing ; in other 
wordftj that tb^ fusion between Bnd- 
dhbna and the native wtvrihtp of luJl 
godft dates fTom Nftg&rjuna c tlm^ 
and was brought about by bis in* 

uj This fa a well-known w^tm or 
mantra^ bas been translated In tli« 
Joum^ of the if. A. S,, 1875, p. tj ; 
aee aldo Bendall, Catal^ae if M^^ 
&eL, p, 117, add, 14S5. The oora- 
position of tb)8 i^irti may, J tbiak 
be attnbated to NAgArjnnjir u tht 
founder of the Mahlvilna dcctrine. 
1^^ Thii *' beautiful body ** of Av^ 
l6kit^Tara eeama to be dt^rivvd fnM 
foieigu fomooi. The chamcfc^if 





aildressGd tlie master of Sdsiras tlms : "What h your pur- 
pose (wUr) 1 " He said, '' May I keep my body till Mai- 
trtya coraes" Kwan-t3z-tsai BSdhisattva said, "Man's 
life is subject to many accidenta The world is as a 
bubble or a phantom. You should aim at the highest 
resolve to be born in the Toshita heaven, and there, eveo 
now.ii* to see bim face to face and worship^" 

Tlie master of id^tras said, "My purpose ia fixed; ray 
mind cannot be changed." ^^^ Bodbisattva said, " II it is 
so, you must go to the country of Dhauakataka, to the 
south of the city, %vhere in a mountain cavern a diamond- 
holding {Vajrapdnt) spirit dwells, and there with the 
utmost sincerity reciting the Chi-Mngf-kanff'i'o^lo-ni 
^VkjmpdiiiJkdrant), you ought to obtain your wish," 

On this the master of ddstras \^*ent and recitt?d (the 
dhdrant). After three years the spirit said to him, " What 
is your desire, exhibiting such earnest diligence?*' The 
master of iddras said, '' I desire that my body may endure 
till Mafti^va comes, and AvalSkit^^^vara Bfidhiaattva 
directed me to come here to request the fulfdinent {cff 
my deMre)^ Does this rest with you, divine being ? " 

The spirit then revealed to him a formula and said, 
** There is an As lira's palace in this mountain ■ if you ask 
according to the rule given you, the walls will open, and 
then you may enter and wait there till you see (Main 
triyay^ "But " said the master of Mstras^ " dwelling in the 
dark, how shall I be able to see or know when the Buddha 

t>h« befttitj mtij be seen fmm the 
p|^A«« imppUed by Mr. B. UodgHon 
in tbtf J. K A. k, YoL vi. p. 276. 
There cao he little doubt that we 
tutive here} a link connecting thig 
worship with th^t of Ardhvi^nra- 
AttAhitij the Persian representAtive 
of the be*mttfiil goddefli of '*pure 
WAter. '* Ocrtnpare An&ItiB u Ventii!, 
ftrid the Venutt-niountainB in Eumiw 
(Fpii«ber^)t the survival nf the wor- 
ship of hill-gcKlfl^ {B^G Knrl Blind 
f*n ** wntcr-g*ids,'* tc, in the Con- 


*** ThU is the aim of the tmo 
Buddhist convert, to be bom In thi^ 
hoavea of Msiitrgja after de&th^ and 
there to hear hia doctrine, so ^ to 
be able at hia ad\rent U> receive hiii 
instruction and reach Nirittna. Op- 
pmed to this ill the foreign theory of 
a Wenteni paradise. 

^ Thin exhibit* the character of 
BhAviivivi'kaj who had cha^rged 
DharmapAla with want of & itnm|f 
detenninAtioD [oath). See onfe, u. 



appears?*^ Vajrapa^i said, " Wben Maitr^ya comes into 
the world, I will Uien advertise you of it " Tiie master 
of Sdsiras haviDg received his instructionsj applied liim- 
self with earnestness to repeat the sentences, and for three 
years, without any change of mind, he repeated the worda 
to a nicety {mu$tard-sced)}^^ Then knocking at the rock- 
cavern, it opened out lia deep and vast recesses. Then an 
imnmierable multitude appeared before him looking aboat 
them, but forgetful of the way to return. The master of 
iddras passed through the door, and addressing the multi- 
tude said^ " Long have I prayed and worshipped with a 
view^ to obtain an opportunity to see MaitrSya, Now, 
thanks to the aid of a spiritual being, my vow is accooi* 
plished. Let us therefore enter here^ and together await 
the revelation of this Buddha " 

Those who heard tliis were stupified, and dared not 
pass the threshold. They said, "This is a den of sei^ 
peuts; we shall all be killed." Thrice he addressed 
them, and then only six persons were content to enter 
with him. The master of iddras turning himself and 
advancing, then all the multitude followed him with their 
gaze as he entered* After doing so the stone walls closed 

^** Julien tnuislatos tlxia " trnr un 
pBjne d€ ttdwevd^'* Rf^reiriiig to 
my iraael&ihm m Wotag-Ftlh, S I93i 
1 havi thG hoiiDur to cnrreNpcmd with 
M. Julioi] on the subj^t, he only 
allowed tbot iht! point wa^ worthy 
of oonaidtrotion. Hia worcL* arc 
tbeae : " II m€ lemble wm oontmire 
uue ckAa tf igrufi& que la puuwftQce dea 
dhdrant ru^itfa sur une grune de 
B^nevL' fut tcllt] i\ui6 oeHe graicG, 
umlgTi^ Ait liigGTitS e^ctrdme^ put, 
titsmt projobde hut Iel pi&rre. Ia faira 
fi^eutruuvtir comme hi tille avait ^t^ 
frAppdt^ nvec UD iajtrument d'une 
farce, d*un poidB extrftOfdlDairt;/' 
But there ia aomething to ha sud on 
thti other bide. To repeat a formula 
" to a mustard -sfod^** ia to repeat It 
perfectly {ad unfjucm) ; heiice the 
name of Siddh^ha, "the pt^rfect^^ 

iyih'tttti-i-^inf^\ the son of Bu 
d^oiia, the promised Buddha^ 
ji^bt thia, *^ the wbit^ muatardn 
tSlddbirtba^t because he ir&B 
ieddy endowed/' Whether 
phrase, **faithniiagrikim of 0til#tard- 
seed " (j£; k6kkqv Siyd-rciiis) do^fS tiot 
mean ^' perfect JaitA'* {Mi Orteatai* 
Um introduced into Falestine, i^i 
iwed for imtt or itp6t) h a ptjint I 
ahftU not ujrge ; but proLablj thiB 
fatniliar story *.tf *'Opeii 8?#We" 
]sdc5r]vedfn:im the legend of BbAva- 
\'ivt-kiL and the " mustard - aeetL^ 
Both AK Baba and the taaatcr of 
iddnu fOGoeedi^ In opening the 
caveru gate bj a ^^muatatd-eeed^ 
f {xntiula, Cxtnni ti gham oomieGta r 
name of the place, I>hftr»m*j 
with Ihm l^ad {Amc Omg,^ p^ 




tehind them, and then those left without chided thsni- 
selves for neglectiug Ms words addressed to thenu 

From this going south-west lOOO li or so, we come to 
the kingdom of Cbu-U-ye (Chulya). 



Chu-li-ye (Ceulta or ChOla), 

The country of Chulya (Cbola) 13 about 2400 or 2500 li 
in circuit i the capital is about 10 li round* It 13 deserted 
aod wild, a successiou of marshes and jungle* The popu- 
lation is very small, and troops of brigands go tlirough tbe 
country openly* The climate is hot ; the manners of the 
people dissolute and cruel Tbe disposition of the men 
is naturally fierce ; they are attached to heretical teaching. 
The sdhghdrdmas are mined and dirty as well as the 
priests. There are some tens of Deva temples, and many 
2sirgiantba hei^tica. 

At a little distance south-east of tbe city is a st^pa 
built by AiSka-rtja. Here Tathigata in old time dwelt, 
and exhibited his spiritual power, and preached the sublime 
law, and defeated the heretics, delivering both men and 

Kot far to the west of the city there ia an old sanglid- 
frdma. This was the place where Ti-p'o (D^va) Eodbi- 
sattva discussed with an A that, In the first instance, 
I>e%^a Efidhisattva beard that in this convent there was an 
Arhat called Uttara (Wu-ta-lo) who possessed tbe six 
supernatural powers (skadUibkijflds), and the eight vimdl'- 
shas (mea?t3 of ddivtrance)] forth with be caine from a 
distance to observe bis manner as a modeL Having 
arrived at tbe convent, he asked the Arhat for a night's 
lodging. Now in the place where tiie Arhat lived {in his 
€£U) there was only one bed. Having entered, in the 
absence of a mat, he spread some rushes on the ground, 
and showing it to himi begged him to be seated* Having 
taken the seat, the Arhat entered into sainddkij and came 
out of it after midnight Then Dgva proposed to him his 


doubts, and prayed him to answer tliem. The Arhat toofc 
up each difficulty and explained it D5va, closely exa — - 
itiiniBg each word, pressed liis diffieultiea in the way o :^ 
croaa-examinatioB, till after the seventh round of discussiocr* 
tte Arhat closed his mouth and declined (wm muthlt) tc 
reply, Then using secretly his divine faculties, he passec 
into the Tushita heaven, and there questioned MaitrSja 
Maitrgja gave the required explanations, but because c^- f 
their character he added, "This ia the celebrated D^ir-^^a. 
who for a succession of kalpas has practised religion, an ^ti 
in the middle of the Ebadra-kalpa ought to attain tl^^^ e 
condition of Buddha. You do not know this*"^ Yt^- ii J 
should greally honour him and pny him reverence." ■ 

In a moment he returned to his seat, and once mo^^re 
entered on a clear explanation (0/ the diJicuUics), wliicr^sli 
he expressed in great precision and language* Ufi^^^a 
addressing him said, '* This is the explanation of the holBD| 
wisdom of MaitrSya Bodhisattva, It is not possible f*» ^^ 
you, reverend sir, to have discovered such profouc^r^^^ 
answers/* Then ihe Arhat said, " It is so, in truth ; tt^B^^ 
will of Tatb&gata" On this, rising from liis mat^ h-^ie 
offered him worship and profound reverence and praisa 

Going from this south, we enter a wEd forest distBC^^*^ 
anrl passing 1500 or 1600 li, we come to the country ^^ 
Ta-lo-pi-ch'a (Diavi^a). 

TA'LO-pi-ch'a (Dravida), 

I This country is about 6cxx> H in circuit; the capife 
/of the country is called Kifichipnra (Kin-chi-pu-lo),^'^ 
and is about 30 li round. The soil is fertile and regularly 
cultivated, and produces abundance of grain » There ar^ 

"^ Or, do you not know this ! 

^^ Thia must be Cotiji%erfttn. 
I do not think the te^t in Hwui-Uh 
C]kn ht constmed ^ J u lien takei it 
** the town of Kin-chi U situated Ait 
a port or the 8e A. ^* The ori^ n a I runs 
thus 1 *' Tbe iown of JCm-chi ia tbi: 

opening (mouth) of tin? Bf»uthen» 
ma of India, and m thtf dinctii>ti 
of Sinbftla the water jonnif-y h thr(?e 
dayi/' It Kerns to imply that Cuin* 
jiveram wu the central Uiwu {torn, 
which the traffic to Cpylt)n was ( 

130OE X,] 



■dlso many flowers and fruits. It produces precious gems 
'and other articles. Tlie climate is hut, the character ol 
t:Iie people courageous. They are deeply attached to the 
jjrinciples of honesty aud truth, and highly esteem learning; \ 
in respect of their language and wnttea characters, t hey \ 
ciiflTer but little from those of Mid- India* There are some 
liandred of sanffJtdj'djnas and 10,000 prie3ts» Tiiey all 
study the teaching of the Sthavira {ChQ7ig4so^pu^ school 
belonging to the Great Vehicle. There are some elglity 
Deva temples, and many heretics called Nirgranthas. 
TTatlidgsita in olden days, when living in the worlds fre- 
cjuented this country much ; he preached the law here aud 
cron verted men, and therefore A^ka-r4ja built fi^4pa5 over 
ill the sacred spots where these traces exist. The city 
if KMchipura is the native place of Dharmap^la BoJhis- 
ittva,^^ He wag the eldest son of a great minister of the 
ioaiitry. From his childhood he exhibited mucli cleverness, 
und as he grew up it increased and extended. When he 
became a young man,^^^ the king and queen condescended 
%o entertain him at a (marriage) feast. On the evening 
of the day his heart was oppressed with sorrow, and being 
exceedingly afflicted, he placed himself before a statue of 
Buddha and engaged in earnest prayer (mpplication). 
Moved by his extreme smcerity, the spirits removed him 
lo a distance, and there he hid liimself. After going many 
hundred li from this spot he came to a mountain convent, 
B and 8at down in the hall of Buddha, A priest happening 
to open the door, and seeing this youth^ was in doubt 
whether he was a robber or not. After interrogating 
him on the pointy the Bodhisattva completely unbosomed 
himself and told him the cause ; moreover he asked per- 
mission to become a disciple* The priests were much 
astonished at the wonderful event, and forthwith granted 
his request. The king order ed search to be made for him 
in every direction, and at length finding out that Bfidhi- 

*^ T4-mo-po-lt>-p*U'Ba, in Gbinne Hu-fa, " defender of the Uw.** 
^^ Assumed the cap, iii^a vifUu. 


aattva had removed to a diatance from the world, driven^^ 
by tbe spirit {or, spirits), then he redoubled hia deep 
reverence and admiratiou for him. From the time that 
DharmapAla assumed the robes of a recluse, he applied 
liimself with unflagging earnestness to learning. Con* 
cerning hia brilliant reputation we have spoken in the 
previous records,^ 

To the south of the city not a great way is a large 
miighdrd7na^ in which men of tlie same sort, renowned for 
talent and learning, assemble and stop. There is a bH 
about lOO feet high which was built by Aloka-rlija, Her 
Tath^gata, dwelling in old days, repeated tbe la\v and' 
subdued the heretics, and converted both men and DSvas 
in great number. 

Going 3000 li or so south from this, we come to th© 
country of Mo-lo-kiu-ch^a (Malakfita), 

Mo-LO-KIU'CH*A (MaLAeOta), 

This country ^^ is about 5cxx^ li io circuit ; the capit 
is about 40 li* The laud and fields are impregnated with 

^^ Both here uid m the preced- 
log portion of the narrivtive the 
ptirsM ua«d ia Mhin /u, which maj 
either meftO "carried by npirita 
(in the lenie of divina npirit^) or 
** driTMl hj Mi o vm iiplrit, ' Jul Lett 
adopt* llw iormcr rcndetiti^. We 
ftheuld la thiia c&He have expected 
to find tbe phrase kicti thin, iuatead 
tif i^in, Hwui4ih| however, telb ub 
that it wna *' a great king of the 
fpidtd ^' lone of tho Muhddt'VA-riLjaa) 
tbtti eurled bim &way. 

*^ See unfe, vol. L p- 238, Fw 
tome ao^tiQt of hia writings, esom- 
pftre Mw^i-UK book iv. p^ 191 ( J11L;; 
see alfto note 87, bxik it., 

^^* The distance given (3000 Ji or 
Ko) seuth from Conjiverom v«eiiii 
to be excessive. But noue of the 
dUt&nees given by Hiuen l^iaag 
from Aoirnfl^ are t^j bo depeadtid on. 
Ckiuipare* fur exoinplei tne dist»Doe 
iriven from CharitriL, in Orissai to 

Cejloit, vLl, nbout 201OO0 IL T1]U 
part of Ihe pilgrim*e itiu^^rarj ia be< 
set witb diffictdtie^ In tb« texl 
before u^^ tbe Udo of the aynib 
king would denote that he wen 
peraonally to the Malak^^a king- 
dom | but in Hwui-lih wo wne to^d 
that be heard only of tbii coQntryf 
and hia intention wft» evidently to 
enibarkf probably at the mouth of 
tlie Conjivermm river, for Ceyloi^ 
when he hea^rd from the prieaU who . 
came from that country to Kin-du ^ 
of the death of the king Raja BuuA ' 
Mugaldn and the famine, Mr, Fer- 
giisaoD,. assuming Nellore to Ixave 
been the capital of Cb6iai (I may 
hero ueticef \>y the way, that the 
evmbalA uacKl for tbia co^mtry are 
the nme both in HmiiMh and the 
Suyu^ na that tbe ^^Djourya*' 
adapted by Julii^u in the Life of 
Hiuen - Tsiang U the aame a« 
'*TchoQlya** in the ^i-yu-Jh'), It 





salt, and the produce of the earth is not abundant. All 
the valuables that are collected in the neighbouring islets 
are brought to this country and annljsed. The tempera- 
ture is very hot The men are dark complexioued. They 
axe firm and impetuous in disposition. Some follow the 
true doctrinei others are given to heresy. They do not 
esteem learning much, but are wholly given to commercial 
gain- There are the ruins of many old convents, but only 
the walls are preserved, and there are few religious fol* 
lowers. There are many hundred Deva temples, and a 
multitude of heretics, mostly belonging to the Kirgranthas. 

Not far to the east of this city is an old mtujhdrdma 
of which the vestibule and court are covered with wild 
shmbs; the foundation walls only survive. This was 
built by MahSndra, the younger brother of Asoka-rfija. 

To the east of this is a stilpat the lofty wails of which 
are buried in the earth, and only the crowning part of the 
cupola remains. This was built by As&ka-rfija. Here 


diflpoaed to ref^r Kin-chi-pu-lo to 
NilcaLpnt1[anaiii, and so get over tht: 
difficulty wbich miseE from Hwui- 
iih*B reuuLrk tbji.t ^' the town of Kin* 
cM is at tbc eea^ mouth on tho 
wmler-roftd to Oylon," and also the 
dulftDGe from Nellore of 1500 or 
tfioolL But tb in would involve tii» 
In siibtteqTiezit ditficultiea ; the nauie 
of K&fiQhlptim, moreover, is tho 
well " known equivalent for Conji- 
fetikOl, ftud it ia impossible to die* 
lepwd iAm. M. V. de Ht. Martin, 
relying on Hwnilih, Raya {Mt^moirtt 
p- j99) that Hiuen-Tj*iang did not 
go farther aonth than Kfiiiohlpun^ 
but, oD the iither hand, Dn Btimrll 
fi of optnion that Hiuen-Tsifiniir 
returned from Malakiita to KAJiichS- 
pim [Ind. AtU.^ \U. p. 39)^ It m 
certain thai on his way to tho KoA^- 
kun ho started from DrUvida j I am 
diiipo«ed, tberefoKr to think that he 
did not go farther voiitb than Kiti- 
dal. In this case the t^uhAetpi^nt 
ftocotmt he gives ua of Mc^lakiltaT 
Mount Malay a^ and Fotaraka, is 
ded^^ from hearsay. With regard 

to MaJakflfaT Dr« Bumoll haa shown 
{lifC. cit.] that "thi» kingdom wan 
compriflt*d roughly in the delta of 
the KilviM/* Thia would i«ad ua 
to suppose that the capital woa 
somewhere near Kiimbhaghdnam or 
Av^r ; but how then Hball we ac- 
count for the 3000 U of Hiuen- 
Tftiang ? the actual dktance smnth 
from Conjlverain to this neigh- 
bourhood being only 150 mtiee^ or^ 
at most, 1000 U, For an account 
of Kumbhaghdiiam^ see Be well, Liitti 
of Antiq. licniaint in Madras, 
vol i. p, 374. l>r. Burnell givta 
the natijo ^falaik^ln'^m aa pos- 
sibly that by which KiimbhaghSnam 
wa« known in the itt^venth century 
{ibid,} In a note the Chinc§e editor 
reniarkH that MalakO^a ie aJiio call^ 
Chi-mo'Io ; JuHiin reHtorca this to 
Tchimnr (p, 121^ n^\ and also to 
Tchimala "the Sim our of M. Hein- 
aud** (Jul, iu. 530). I have i^ven 
reaMon^ for thinking that Chi-mo<lo 
h the e^jmvalent fur KtlmAr (/. M> 
A. B., vol. IV. p, 3 j7). 


Tatliagata in old days preached the law and exhibiceti his 
miraculous powers, and converted endless people. Ta 
preserve the traces of tMs event, this memorial tower waj 
built For years past it lias exhibited spiritual signs, and 
^*bat is wished for iu its presence is sometimes obtained. 
On the south of this country, bordering the sea^ are tlie 
Mo -la- ye (Malaya) mountains?,^** remarkable for their 
high peaks and precipices, their deep valleys and mountaia 
torrents. Here is found the \\'liiLe sandal- wood tree and 
the Chan-i*aii^ni-p'o (CkancIatUva) ^^ tree. These two are 
much alike, and the latter can only be distinguished by 
going in the height of summer to the top of soDie hiU, 
and then leoking at a distance great serpents may be seen 
entwining it: tlms it is known. Its wood is naturally cold, 
and therefore serpents twine round it After having noted 
the tree, they shoot an arrow into it to mark it.^** In the 
winter, after the snakes have gone, the tree is cut down. 
The tree from which Kit-pu-lo (Karpira) scent is pro- 
cured,^^^ is in trunk like the pine, but different leaves and 
flowers and fruit. When the tree is first cut down and 
sappy, it has no smell ; but when the wood gets dry, it 
forms into veins and splits; then in the middle is the 
scent, in appearance like mica, of the colour of frozen 
snow. This is what is called (in Cliinese) long-na^hian^^ 
the drafjon-brtdn scent 

'** These mountafns, or thin nanuti- 
taia, bordering on the ^% idjij either 
repreeetit the Malabar Gh&ta gene- 
ral l^'* or, more probably, the detached 
masi of theGhJk|)i south of the Kotm- 
batur gap, apparently the tra© Ma- 
laya of the Pauranik liAts. Sea 
IndL Ani.j vol jciil p* 3!^ ; SeiveU, 
op- cf^.p. 353. The term Ma-lai/o 
\k also applied to ii mrmntainnufl 
district in Cejlon^ of \^'hich AiJam'H 
Peak ifl the centre ^Cbiltltra^ i^uU 
iHct,, «ub voc.); ci:»ropare /. R, A. j>\, 
N.S., vol. XV. p. i2J^, It would seemt 
At Any rAte, if thlfidiHtrict of MalAy^t 
"bordering on the Be&«*' wu a part 
of th« kingdom qI MaUk^lm* that 

the latter cimnot be confined la Um 
delta of the KavM, but mutt b* 
extended to the fiouthem a«&*coA#t. 
This voulii ffx plain the AlteruAtive 
n Ain V t>iChi m n-lo (KumiLr )l MaUm 
meuns any ** mountainuuii rogitin* 

'^ ThAt is, a tree "tiix the lAndAl- 
Wood^MJtil-. «^ iK 

13« C'>mpare JuHeTi, note z {im 
ItiTo), and Burnouf, Inttvit io Bud'^ 
tiftUifit p. 62Q. The MaJaya motm* 
lain h called Chandaiuigm, part 
nf thv ftauthem rotige of the Ohit^ 
because of the «And^-vrood fmmd 
there (Mrmier Williams, &fi«e. Dkt, 
n. V. Chamiaua). 

A-7 That ia, camj'hor. 



To the eaat of the Malaya mountains is Mount Po-ta- 
lo-kia (Pfltalaka),^^ The passes of this mountain are very 
dangerous ; its sides are precipitous, and its valleys ragged^ 
Ou the top of the inouutaia is a lake; its waters are clear 
as a min'or From a hollow proceeds a great river which 
encircles the mountain as it flows down twenty times and 
then enters the southern sea. By the side of the lake is a 
rock-palace of the Ufivas. Here Avalokite^vara ^^ in coming 
and going takes his abode, Tliose who strongly desire to 
see this Eodhisattva do not regard tlieir lives, hut, cross- 
ing the water {/ording the streams), climb the mountain 
; f oigetful of its difficulties and dangers ; of those who 
make the attempt tliere are very few who reach the 
anmmitp But even of those who dwtill below the uioua- 
tain, if they earnestly pray and beg to behold the god, 
sometimes he appears as Tm'-iBui-t*ien {llvam-deva), some- 
times under the furm of a \ ogi (a Pdmiupaia) ; lie ad- 
dresses them with benevolent words and then they obtain 
their wislies according to their desires. 

Going north-east from this mountainp on the border ^'^ 
of the sea, is a town j^^ this is the pkce from which they 

^^ The situation of thin moudtain 
i^MA be«n di^uA&pd (i/> R- A, S,^ N^S-j 
-VoL XT, p, 339 ff, 

^* See YoL i. p. 60, n, 210. 

^* The Bjmbol used unplieft "a 
divisirm of the ms^^' aa though it 
Yvrere ftt a point wheru the aea 
divided Into on eAAteiti mid we«tern 

^'^ There Is no name given ; it is 
simply slated there is a town from 
'Which they go to Ceylon* If it 
were intended to give the name 
Chantrapuni to it, there would be 
no ^mbol between the word for 
" Cfity or town " and the word ** go/' 
BdL Jnlien'fl pareutheaia baa niia.lfKi 
I>r Bum ell and others* Dr. Eur^ 
nell has also argued on a mistaken 
traDalatloa a« to the poHitioii of 
this tovn^ which he identiies with 
Ki¥£ilpa|^imt|i [Ind* dnU, vol* viL 

p* 40>. Julien aajSt "Going from 
MalakOta in a riiiirth -eastern dir^t;^ 
tion, on the bordera of the »ea ia 
a town (called Gheli-ta-to, Chari* 
trapumL'* Conf* aide, p. 05, n. 
55. But, in fact, the original 
tttates, '^ (ioing from this mountain^ 
Le.t Mount Malaya^ in a north- 
eastern direction, there ia a town at 
the aea'dividin]*." S<j that Dr. Eur- 
nell^s conclusii^))^, m fur an thiii part 
of his argumtjit goe?, are not eup' 
ported by the tejrt* On the other 
hand, it Is stated by I-tj>^ing that 
"going west thirty days from Que- 
dAh^ merchants used to arrive at 
KAj^vadana, whence ftfter two 
daya' voyage they reuoh CSoylon" 
U- J(^ ^. S., N.S., vol jfiii. p. 5<5z). 
Thia lrH>k» as though N^af^uttapani 
were the Utwtk r^iferred to by Hiuen 


I start for the southern sea and the country of Sng-kia- 

j lo (Ceylon). It is said commonly by the people that 

I embarking from this port and going south-east about 

I 3CXX) li we come to the country of Siihhala. 




( *3S ) 



Ctmtaim an account ^ twenty-ihret kingdmu, viz,, (i) 8^ng*kt^h; 
(2) Kong-Mcn-na-pu-lo ; (3) Mo-ho-la^^ha; (4) Po-lu-kit-ckf'p^oy 
(5) Mo-Ia-p'oy (6) 0-</ha'U/ (7) iTt^-cft^a; (8) Fa-la-pi; (g) 
'0*n<in-tf>-pM-?a; (10) Sn-k-cMi/ (11) Kiu-chs-loy (12) f/*«fcr- 
j^fji-na y ( 1 3) Sfti-fcw- f u / (14) M')-hi-ch %-fa 40^0-10 / (15) Sin-t4) ; 
(16) Afo-fo-<on-jm-/oy {17) Po-/a-fo/ (18) 0-ewn-pWM"-^)/ (19) 
L<mg*kie'h; (20} Po-la-sse; {21) Pt-i«N*^t-to/ (22) O-Jan-t^haj 
(23) F<*-fa-na* 

SAng-kia-lo (Simhala).^ 

Tbe kingdom of Siifihala is about 7000 li in cipcuit;* 
the capital ia about 40 li round. The soil is rich and 
fertile ; the climate is hot * the ground is regularly culti- 
vated; flowers and fruits are produced in abundance* 
The population is numeroua ; their family possessions are 
rich in revenues. The stature of the men is emalL They 
are black complexioned ' and fierce by nature. They love 
learning and esteem virtue* They greatly honour religious 
excellence, and labour in the acquisition of religious merit. 

^ Sirohalft or Cfjylon was not 
fMttd by Hinen Tfltang, for reftBonA 
fiveo In the la*t book. Fa-hian, 
h«wev«r, rf«ided m Ihe lEikiid for 
Iwu jean (cap, 40), For the vcri- 
ooi nsiaeH bj which thia l^IaTid h^a 
been known, we may r^fer to Vin- 
oest {Nm^aikft 0/ tht A ncienit^ &c. } 
Colunei Tulc doubtit whether we 
onr«' the name Deylon or SeUan to 
{Mar^f Pol*\ iL p. 254» 
\ I). Child er« tmce« the deriva- 
tion of the word KJq to thb n&me 
Slhala {Ntfies <^ ^^^ Siit/mleie Lan* 
pta^). S«e Indt AnL, vol, xiii. pp. 

^ For the eitaggcmtpd reports 
concerning the eIz^ of this inland, 
wo may refer to TeTineutfl Cft/loiit 
cap. i., ftnd Yule, Marco PoIq (vol. 
iL p. 254f n. l)* The clrnilt of the 
ii^iatid i9 really under 700 unlet. 
We niu^t therefore allow 10 11 to 
the mik if Htuen Tainng^a state- 
jneot is to bo recfiived, Fa>hmti U 
much more ocfarly correct in hifl 
iigures, but in hia acoonnt we iDUat 
iubstitute Unglk for Lrmdlh (cap. 

* Thia must refer to the Tamil 
pjpulatian. The Sliihalejie are tttll 
and comparatively fair. 



This country was originally (valUd) Vko-chu* (Ratna- 

dvlpa), because of the precious gems found iliere. It was 

occupied by eyil spirits.* | 

Aft«r this til ere was a king of a country of SoutheTO 
India, whose daughter was affianced in a neigbboining 
country. On a fortunate day, having paid a eompU- 
mentary visit, she was returning when a lion met her on 
the way. The servants of the guard left lier and fled from 
the danger. Besting alone in her car, her heart was 
resigned to death. At this time the Hon king, taking the 
woman on his hack, went away and entered a lone valley 
in the deep mountains.^ Ht! caught the deer and giiihercd 
tim fruits according to their season, with which to uouriah 
her. In the course of time she brought into the world a 
boy and a girt In form and features they reaembled 
human beings, hut in disposition they were like the beas&j 

The youth gradually grew up, and was possessed of 
great bodily strength, so that he could subdue the wildest 

* That is, the ^' IsIb or mXet of 
mm^" So il waa called by the 
Afiib* ol the ninth ceutury (Yule, 
tp, eikt p* 2|s). Th*i JftVHttese 
void lor pfCGious litone h tdot and 
fniiii tliK some think, c^mes thu 
ward SiuUn or C«ylon (ibid,) In 
Miy CAie th(j iiamu it^clff **getn^ 
llMdf " WM an old one ; the regular 
forayitiaii wcmld give us Ratim- 

* TbA ^onstTticttou of the text 
tmi. mmhpxi in w little unuaual It 

to Imply that becmuae the 
ftbufidautly ixkaseaeed g«ma 
i^i^idau8 Btou««, it was & resbliig- 
for demons suid spiiittt, or 
Of Qoume it refers to the 
or Yakkhinis. Gotnp. 
Mimi^fm^ p. 25 (Boyd a 

^ 9^ ttOtSOM of thiM I^nd Bee 
|^«|.l?SMOWO»llo*AbrtfU, Acumen. 
iira de Esittdo ^o^ia#- 
I Poriu*fu^a (LiaboAt 
[ ji»^j5 ; or Ind. Ani,^ voL 
3t| ft ; JHiMvathMf ch. 

241 n. ^ Buruouf, Inlrad., pp, 19S L 
It owea Ita origin j^robAblj to tlie 
T^m of a womiftn durt&g m seabottrd 
mtd. Some of the itorthera tnbm 
(iuvadera oi India) aifecieil tllQ 
iijune of lion (simbaorli}. Oatnpat^ 
Fo-thot V, ljS$. There are tkte^ 
events (ohscnra In tbeiMMhci^ jei 
perhaps connected) which ~ 
in India about the tame of 
(i.| The invftAjcm of north 
India by the Vfijjis ; {2.} the In- 
curiion of Yavaua« into Oriaia; (5.) 
the invasion and oimcinesfe of Cejlnii 
by Vi jaya. These eventi mmj haw 
had a uiutual rt^Utiouahip ; the 
pressure of the Vp^jiis from tbt 
north -we-st would dri\e the istsT' 
mediate tribes on Orijaa^ and frma 
Ori^sa ijome of the adventarvct 
would start fi>r frenh Donquealt by 
sea Precisely flimUar events oc- 
curred in the wtmt A few oentunai 
afterwards, Conipai>e FergiSMoa. 
Cave TempU* of India, p. 5S ; Bed, 
Ahttrad of Fmir Leeiurm, latrodoc^ 
tion, ix., X., XL, and &]«o tbe aoaLp^ 
tm-es in the Ga^^ Gumptift 1^ 






is. When he came to man*3 estate^ the wisdom of 

kliis manhood also came, and he asked his mother, saying, 
" What am I to be called ? My father is a savage beaafe, 
and my mother is a human creature* But as you differ 
in kind, how can yon have lived together ? " Then the 
mother related the old story, atjd told it to her son. Her 
son, replying, said, "Men and beasts are of different 
kinds. We ought to hasten away from this,'^ The mother 
H replied, " I shonid have fled long ago, bnt I cannot help 
myself/' Then the sou from that time forth stopped at 
home vrhenever his father, the lion, roamud forth through 
the mountain passes, with a view to escape the difficult 
(^position in which they lO^re placed). And now on a cer- 
tain occasion, his father having gone forth, he proceeded 
to carry away his mother and sister to a village inhabited 

I by men. The mother then said, " You ought, both of yon, 
to keep this matter secret, and say iiothiug about the first 
transaction, for if people were to come to hear of it, they 
would lightly esteem us," 
On thia she returned to her father's country, hut it no 
longer belonged to lier family, and the sacrifices of her 
ancestors had all died out. Having taken refuge in the 
t43wn, all the men addressed her, saying, " From wliat 
kingdom do yon come ? " She said, " I belong to this 
country. Having \7andered through strange places, %ve 
have come back, motlier and son together (to mtr 

■ Then the village people were moved with pity, and pro- 
vided lliem with neeessary food. And now the lion king 
returning to his place, saw no one there. Thinking with 
affection of Ina son and daughter, he was moved with 
rage, and went away through the mountains and valleys, 
and roamed through the towns and villages, roaring 
frightfully and destroying the people, slauglitering and 
mangUng every living thing. The town-folk went forth, 

' Reached the 

&g6 of twenty 


therefore, to pursue and capture him, in order to kill hiiiL 
Itey beat the drums, eounded the conchy aod with their 
bows and speara formed a large company* but 3'et thej 
lagged behinii (ildar/cd) in order to escape danger. Then 
the king, fearing that their courage was little,* ori^ised 
a band of hunters to capture the Uoil He himself went 
with an army consisting of the four kinds of troops* 
amouritiijg to tens of thousands, and beat through th« 
woods and jungle, and traversed the mountains and vaUeyi 
(in search of their prey). The lion raising his terrible roar, 
men and beasts flee in consternation* 

Not being captured in the hunt, the king again made a 
proclamation, and promised that whoever captured the 
lion and freed the country from the afflicttoo should be 
lar*fely rewarded and his reputation widely published. 

The son, hearing the royal decree, spake to his motbi 
and said, ** We have suffered much from hunger and col 
1 certainly will answer to the appeal Perhaps we ma; 
thus get enough to support us." 

The motlxer said, "You ought not to think of it; fi 
though he is a beast, yet he is still your father. Whi 
though we be wretched through want ? this ia no reasoi 
why you should encourage a wicked and murderous 
thought " ^ 

The son said, " Men and beasts are of a difierent kind 
What room is there for the question of propriety ia b 
a matter as this? Why should such a thought interfe 
with my plan?" So seizing a knife and concealing it 
his sleeve, he went forth to answer to the appeal On this 
a thousand people and len tbouaand horsemen assembled^ 
in crowds {iili^e the douik and vapour). The lion ky hiifl 
in the forest, and no one dared to approach hinu On this 
the son forthwith advanced to him, and the father, taii&fi 
forgot in his sense of loving affection aU 



* The virtue (viz,, of manUneBa) 
which influenced them did not pre- 
vail {imr). 




his previous hate. Tlien he (the son) plungeil the knife 
into the middle of his bowels, but he still exhibited the 
same love and tenderness, and was free from all anger or 
revengeful feeling even when his belly was ripped up, 
and he died in agony. ^** 

The king then said, "Who is this man who has done 
such a wonderful deed ? " Alluxed by promises of re- 
T^ard on the one hand, and alarmed by fear of punish- 
ment on the other, if he kept back anything, he at last 
revealed the whole from beginning to end, and told the 
touching story without reserve* The kbg said^ "Thou 
wretch ! if thou wouldest kill thy father^ how much niore 
those not related to thee ! Your deserts indeed are great 
for delivering my people from the savage cruelty of a 
beast whose (pa33rhns) it is difficult to assuage, and whose 
hateful tempers are easily aroused ; but to kill your own 
father, this is a rebellious (■tmnahivai) disposition* I will 
reward your good deed largely, but you shall be banished 
from the country as the punishment of your crime. 
Thus the laws will ' not be infringed and the king's 
words not violated/' On this he prepared two large 
ships {hoais} in which he stored much provision (cimd 
rue or other grain). The mother he detained in the 
kingdom, and provided her with all necessary things as 
the reward of the service done. The son and daughter 
each were placed in a separate boat, and abemdoned to 
the chance of the waves and the wind. The boat in 
which the son was embarked, driven over the sea, came 
to this Eatnadvipa. Seeing it abounded in precious 
gems, he took up his abode here. 

Afterwards merchants seeking for gems frequently 
came to the island* He then killed the merchant chief 
and detainetl his children. Thus he extended his race. 
His sons and grandsons becoming numerous, they pro* 

* The cave pictures froni Aj&ii^ the hi&torj of Vijay* and the *'li*»«i" 
giren ia Mn. Hpeit'ii. Life in Ancktd le^'end ; see abfi Eurgeas, Cusf 
Judia, pp. 300 i^. atem to refer to Templet^ &c.^ pp. 312 f. 


ceeded to elect a king and mimsters and to divide the 
people into classes, Tl^ey then biiilt a city and erected 
lowna, and seized on the territory by force * and because 
their original founder got hia name by catching a lionj*' 
they called the coimtry {a/ier hu 7ianie) Sirtihala- 

The boat in which the girl was embarked was driven 
over the sea till it reached Persia (Po-la-sse). the abode 
of the western dennons, who by intercourse with her 
engendered a clan of women-children, and therefore the 
country is now called the Country of the Western 
Women; — this is the renson. 

The men of the Siihha kingdom are small in stature 
and black-complexion ed; they have square chins and 
high forelieads ; they are naturally fierce and impetuous, 
and cruelly savage without hesitation* This is from their 
inherited disposition as descended from a beast ; but 
nnother version of the story is that they are very brmve 
and courageous. 

The records of the Buddhist religion say ; In the 
middle of a great, iron city of this Eatnadvlpa (P*ao-chu) 
was the dwelling of the Kllkshasl women (Lo-t'sa). On 
the towers of this city they erected two lugh flagstaffs 
with lucky or unlucky signals, which they exhibited 
according to circumstances ^^ {io aiiure marifiers}, when 
merchants came to the island {Ratnndvipa), Then they 
changed themselves into beautiful women, Iiolding 
ilowers and scents, and with the sound of music ** they 
went forth to meet them, and caressingly invited them 

^^ CAtft> ue-£tei^ lion -catching ; 
ibis 8eeEn» ftlao to be the meanii;^ 
(if dff^hiihi^ wheru la roeonB to catch 
Di* take. The i^ipatotftirt brings 
Viif^yat ^^^ ^^° ^^ Siiiiba, fruin 
BimoApura^ in IJL\». (GnjiirAt). 

^ *' If cb*cujaiBtancc3 were pro- 
jiitiousi, they agitated the lucky 
flftg or draptrj j if thc^y wtjra iiii- 
fortnna-te or unlucky, they luoved 
the unpropitiouB ^]gnaL" Jt would 
tteum tu uie^n thnt if a ship dr^w 
mar the nhor^ aji if to anehorj tbea 

the favottmble 6«g tar idgatd tfm» 
fihown; but if eh*? kept awHy on bcr 
voyjigf, then the uafjwounibk 
sign 111 w&s dlapljiyed. Or it iii«j 
mmn that the £i^;iiAl wa^ to oJluiv 

'^ The c^riouj* paraHel b^ireeii 
the ways of the^e R&kaluM9B Mwl 
tbe Sirtna b»s tittritcted fr«?queBt , 
notice. Compaie Pau^aniaj;^ book 

dartQv, vLz,, of tboae wbo b*d lift- I 
t«ned to iheir aosgi^ Hiimer, Odyz^ i 



to enter the iron city ; then having shared with them all 
sorts of pleastire, tbey aliut them up in an iron prison, 
and devoured them at their leisure. 

At this time there wag a gi^at merchant of Jamhu- 
dvipa called bfiu^-kia (Siiiiha) whose son was called Sang- 
kia-Ia (Siihhala), His father having grown old, he was 
deputed to take charge of the Iiouse (/«r?t%); he em- 
barked, therefore^ with 500 merchants to seek for pre- 
cious stones ; driven by the winds and waves^ tliey came 
to Eatnadvtpa* 

Then the Kakshasts, displaying the lucky signal^ began 
to wave it, and went forth with scents and flowers and 
the sound of music to meet them, and invite them to 
enter the iron city. The priiice of the merchants ac- 
cordingly, matched with the queen of the R^ikshaslSj 
gave himself up to pleasure and indulgence. The other 
merchants also selected each one a companion, and so, 
in the course of time, a son was born to each. After 
this, the ESkshasls, feeling tired of their old partners' 

llove» {u-crc 2}Tcparlng to) shut them up in the iron prison, 
and to seek new companions among other merchatits. 

At this time^ Sang-kia-la, moved in the night by an 
evil dream, and impressed with a sense of its bad augury, 
sought some mode of escape, and coming to the iron 
sironghold, he heard the sounds of piteous cries within. 
Forthwith he climbed a great tree, and questioned them, 

I saying, "Who are you thus bound, and why these miser- 

' able cries ? " They replied, *' Do you not know then 
that the women who occupy this place are all Klk- 
shasis? In former days, they allured us to enter the 
city with festive sounds of music, but when you arrived, 
they shut us np in this prison^ and are gradually devour- 

. ing our flesh. Now %ve are half eaten up ; your turn too 

'"Will soon come." 

wmL 17% h^., with the account in Jnd^ Antiq^, T^U x, p» 29 1 p and the 

the leitt &nJ m the RematUie Aeadtmyt Aug. 13, iS8t| pp« 120^ 

£t^^d of BuddhcL^ p. 3 J9< B«o also 121. 

VOL tL ij 


Thea S5ug-kia-la (Siihbala) said, *'By what device 
then may we escape this danger?" Tiiey replied, and 
said, '* We hear that on the sea-hoard there i^ a divine 
horse, ^* and whoever pray^ wiih supreme faith he will 
safely cany hiin across/' 

Siifahala having h^ard this, secretly told the merchants 
]ii3 CGmpuniona to assemble alto^^eiher on the sea-shore 
and there to ofier up fervent prayers for deliverance. Theu 
the divine horse came and addressed the men and said, 
'* Each one of you grasp my hairy coat and look not 
hehiud; then will I deliver you and transport you across 
the aea out of danger's way* I will conduct yoa Lack to 
Jainbudvlpa, to your happy homes {counttyy* 

Then the merchants, oheyiug his directions, did each 
one implicitly as commanded. They seiied the hairy coat 
(of the divine horse). Then lie moimted aloft, traversed 
through the clouds, and passed the sea to the other side. 

Then the E^kshasia, perceiving all at once their lius* 
bands had escaped, spake one to another ia surprise, 
and asked where they had gone. Then, taking each 
her child, they traversed to and fro the ain Perceiving, 
then, that the raorchants had just left the shore, they 
issued a general order to unite in their flight to follow 
them. Not an hour had passed but they encountered 
tiiem, and then, with mingled joy and tears, they came, 
and for a time restraining their grief they said, " We 
tJiought ourselves happy when first we met you, and made 
it our care to provide you homes, and for long have 
loved and cherished you, but now you are departing 
and deserting your wives and children, leaving them 
desolate. Who can bear the terrible grief that afflicts us I 
We pray y-ou stay your departure and turn again with us 
to the city," 

^* The huT^ £9 caUed KM !n the dopArttire at mtrnhmits fm^ 

the Abhitiishlmtiiana Mtm {Ho- tiote m the Homantk l^jtmi}. 

ifuxntit L&jtndf luc. ch*) The re- Avjilukit^v&rsi i» ottsn spoken of 

fefeucje nppijiikn to bo Ui tho change a^ a whitta horae, i.^,, u oue wh& 

of iDofiLB'OoEi, which would fiivour came Jicro^a thi^ sua. 




But the miiitls of the merchants weie as yet unwilling 
to conseotv The Eikshasis, seeing their words had no 
effect, had recourse to seductive blatidishments, and by 
their conduct excited the feelings of the merchants; in 
consequence of which, being unable to suppress their 
tender emotions, their steadfastness forsook ihein, and, 
hesitating to go on, they paused, and at lengtli returned 
io coinpnny with tlie Mkshasls. The women, saluting 
and congratulating each other, closely holding to the men, 
went back. 

!Now the wisdom of Siihhala waa deep, and his firm 
purpose remained unchanged, and so he succeeded in 
traversing the ocean, and thus escaped the danger. 

Then the queen of the Mkshasts returned alone to the 
iron city ; on which the other wemen addressing her said, 
^'* You are without wisdom or astuteness, and so yon are 
abandoned by your husband; since you have so little 
cleverness or capacity you cannot dwell here." On this 
the mivshasi queen, taking her child, hastened her llii^^ht 
after Siihhala. She indulged before him in excessive 
Uandishnienis and entreated him tenderly to return- 
But Simhala repeated with his mouth some spiritual 
charms, and with his hand brandishing a sword, he said, 
*' You are a E^kshasi and I am a man, men and demons 
belong to different classes, there can be no union Ijetween 
such ; if you trouble me further witli your entreaties I 
will take your lift*' 

The Hiikshasi woman, knowing the uselessness of further 
parley, darted throngh the air and disappeared. Coming 
to Siihliala's liouse, she addressed his father Siiiiha, and 
said, " I am a king a daughter belonging to such nnd such 
a country, Siihhala took me as his wife, and I have 
borne liim a son. Having collected gems and goods, we 
were returning to my lord's country when the ship, 
driven by the winds and the sea, was lost, and only I, my 
child, and Siihhala were saved. After crossing rivers and 
mountains with great difficulty, hungry and worn out, I 


said a word displeasing to my husband, and I found myself 
deserted, and as he left me he let fall bitter words and 
raged on me as if he were a Eiikshasa.^ If I attempt to 
return, my native country is a very long distance off; if 
I sLup, then I am left alone in a strange place : staying 
or returning I am without support. I have, therefore, 
dared to tell you the true state of things/' 

Siihha said, "If your words be true, you liave done 
right/' Then she entered the king's house to dwell there. 
Not long after Siihhala came, and his father addressing 
him said, " How is it you esteemed riches and gems so 
much and made so little of your wife and child ?'* Siih- 
hala said, **Thi3 is a MkshasC* Then he related the 
whole previous history to his father and mother; then his 
relatives, angry on account of the whole affair, turned on 
her to drive her away ; on which the Eukshast went to the 
king and entreated him* The king wished to punish 
Siibhala, but Siihhala said, "The delusive influence of 
E&ksliasis is very great/' 

Moreover, the 


regarding his son's words as 

untrue, and being moved in his mind {/tdin^si} by her 
fascination, addressed Siihhala and said, " Since you 
have decided to reject this woman, I will now protect her 
in my nfter-palace." Siihhala said/' I fear she will cause 
you some misfortune, for the Hakshasas eat only flesh 
and blood/' 

But the king would not listen to Siihhala's words, and 
accordingly took her as his wife. In tlie middle of the 
night following this, flying away, she returned to Eatna- 
dvlpa, and calling together 500 EAkshasa demon women, 
they all came to the king's palace, and there, by means of 
destructive charms and sorceries, iJiey killed all living 
things within the building and devoured tlieir flesh and 

^ Oft it may be, *' tt* if I were a E4?rve that m the prevrnits Betit^nce 

H&kdh&al/^ and »o JuHen tranalatt » ihher« Siuiluilti draUA his sword be 

it. Ill this cAJie wtJ i-houltl supply calls hem Kiikshasa, tiot a Hi^kflhad, 

thi3 a^mboi niu (wQiQui) I but I ob- so thmt mth^t kfiiui^tioti ia ct^rtncl 




drank their blood, whilst they carried off the rest of the 
corpses and with tbeni mtiuned to the '* island of gema," 

The nest day, early, all the ministers were assembled 
at tlie king's gates, which they found fast closed, and not 
able to be opened. After waiting a long time, and not 
hearing any sounds of voices within, they burst open 
the doors and gates^ and pressed forward together (into 
ih€ hQUBt), Coming to the pakce haO, they found no 
living tbing therein but only gnawed bones* The 
oflBcei-s looking at one another in astonishment, then 
bent down their heads in their confusion, and uttered 
lamentable cries* Being unable to fathom the cause of 
the calamity that had happened, Siiiihala related to 
them from beginning to end the whole story. The 
ministers and people then saw from whence the evil 

On this, the ministers of the country, the aged mea 
and different officers, inquired in order as to the best 
jterson to appoint to the high dignity (0/ the throne). 
Ail looked hi the direction of Siihhak, (so conspimom 
/or) religious merit and wisdom. Then speaking to- 
gether, they said, " With respect to a ruler, the selection 
13 no trivial matter; he needs to be devout and wise, 
and at the same time of quick natural parts. If he be 
not good and wise^ he would not be able to give lustre 
10 the succession j if he have no natural parts (skill or 
la€i)f how could he direct the affairs of state ? Now this 
Siiiihala appears to be such a man : he discovered in 
a dream the origin of the calamity;^** by the effect of 
bis virtue he encountered the divine horse, and he has 
loyally warned the king of his danger. By his prudence 
he has preserved himself ; the succession should he 

The result of the deliberation being known^ the people 

, joyfully raised him to the honourable position of king. 

Siiiihala was desirous of declining the honour, but, was 

i* Vit, of the EikHhr.aia, 


not able to do so. Then keeping to the middle course, 
he respectfully saluted the different officers of state^ and 
forthwith accepted the kingly estate. On this, he cor- 
rected tlie former abuses, and promoted to honour ihe 
good and virtuous j then he made the following decree, 
"My old merchant friends are in the country of the 
Rikslmsis, hut uliether alive or dead I cannot tell. Bat 
in either case I will set out to rescue tlmm from their 
danger; we must equip an army. To avert calamities 
and to help tlie unfoitauate, this is the merit of a king- 
dom ; to preserve treasures of precious stones and jewels, 
is the advantage of a state/' 

On this he arrayed his troops and embarked- Then 
on the top of the iron city the evil flag was agi- 

Then the Eakshasls seeing it, were filled with fear, and 
putting in practice their seducing arts, went forth lo lead 
and cajole them. Eut the king, thoroughly uuderstand- 
ing their false artifices, commanded the soldiers to recite 
some charmed words and to exhibit their martial bearing 
Then the Mkshasts were driven back, and fled precipi- 
tately to rocky islets of tlie sea j others were swallowed up 
and drowned in the %vaves. On tliis they destroyed the 
iron city and broke down the iron prison; they delivered 
the captive merchants, obtained large stores of jewels and 
precious stones, and then summoning the people to change 
their abodes, he (Sithhala) founded his capital in the**island 
of gems/' built towns, and so found himself at the head of 
a kingdom. Because of the king's name the country was 
called Siihhala, This name is also connected with the 
JdtaJ^s, relating to Sakya Tatlj^gata, 

The kingdom of Siihhala formerly was addicted to im- 
moral religious worship^ but after the first hundred years 
following Buddha's death the younger brother of Alftka- 
rAja, Mahendra by name, giving up worldly desires, 

^^ It would mtm thai "the evU flag" wM a aigiul to vrnni tha R&k* 
Bbnsis of dangtT, 




sought with ardbiir the fmit of ArKatsliip, He gained 
possession of the six supernatural powers and the eigtst 
ixieans of liberation; and having the power of instant 
locomotion, he came to this country. He spread the 
knowledge of the true law and widely diffused the be- 
queathed doctrine. From his time there has fallen on the 
people a believing heart, and they have constructed 100 
convents, containing some 20,000 priests. They princi- 
pally follow the teaching of Buddha, according to the 
dhm^ma of the Stbavira (Shaug-ts'o-pu) school of the 
MabiySna sect^® When 200 years had elapsed,^® through 
discussion, the one school was divided into two* The 
former, called the Mab4viha.mvi^inas^ (Mo-ho*pi-ho- 
li>chu-pu)^ was opposed to the Great Yehiole and 
adhered to the teaching of the Little Vehicle; the other 
was called AbhayagiriyS^inaa (*0-p*o-ye-kl-li-chu-pu) ;^ 
they studied both Yehicles^ and widely diflused the Tripi- 
piha&. The priests attended to the moral rules, and were 
distingtiished for their power of abstraction and thcic 
wisdom,^ Tiieir correct conduct was an example (or 
subsequent aged; their ijmnners grave and imposing, 

^ ^ The Mfthtv Ana, or G rtat Vt;h i e Je, 
19 generally iupfnised to have betsn 
unknown in the Southera school j 
but it b im f tojistic tenn, and id the 
pr£«vnt ItiNtanDe would refer pro- 
bable to the developtid tlnctrintt (in 
whit direction we h&rdly know) uf 
the old sdbool of tht? Sthaviras or 

^' That k, as k ■e«m% twci hun- 
dred ye«r« aft«r the introducticin of 
Buddhism into Ceyloiii If ko, tho 
period referred to would bo nl)out 
the titiic r>f tbt intHinction of the tbrtie 
pifakfit t<i writing in Ceylon, viz , 
RC. 75* Xioeii the pUr&^e juat fol- 
lowing tbi^p ^'tbey widely diffu^d 
the JViprVrfjba*/' refer to this 
event ? 

* Thi* pkIiooI evidently followed 
thtt le&chin^ of tho 3i&b4Tihdr« 
pHetta. Thu ^laha\ ib&ra waa about 
7 11 to the erputb of the cQpttid Anu- 
T^bapum. it wa« built by D^va> 

luunpiyatiaita, nbout 250 B,C. (^o- 

(Oldenlierg), xijc. 10. U I den berg 
makes (iorn*i retnarkfl reii[>ecting^ the 
A(^hak-athd preserved in this monas- 
tery, op. di. Inirod,^ pp, 6, 7. Sea 
fur some notice of the vihAra, Beal^ 
Fu-hiaa, p* 1 59, n, \, 

■Ji For *wmj« ^iccount of the Ab- 
hayagld vIMra Fee Dtjtavafkta^ xix. 
T4j 17; BeaPii Fa-fimn^ ^, 151,11. t. 
It fic^tiins to have been tht? v ib&ra fn 
which the tootb-relic wad exhibited, 
Ftt'hian^ 157. 

" "Mftlitativepowers'^itHl "wis- 
dom/' This wonltl indicttttf a de- 
veloped form of belief. It eorre- 
j^potids to the chi hmn H-ebw^l of 
Tien-tAi m Chin a. The pame stepa 
which led to the formation of the 
Bcbool there may have marketi the 
devtrlopnient in Cejlon, It r^pre- 
fients tt ciiuipromise betwieen qubt* 
i^tn and pmctioe of rules. 


By the side of the kiDg's palace is the vihdra of Butl- 
dha'a tootb, several buiidred feet high, brilliant with 
jewels and onianiented with rare gems, Abovw the rilidiu 
is placed an upright pole on which is fixed a great Padms 
rftja (mhj) jewel^ This gem constantly sheds a brillianL 
light, wliich is visible night and day for a long distance, 
and afar off appears like a bright star. The king three 
times a day washes the tooth of Buddha with perfumed 
water,** aometimes with powdered perfumes. Whether 
washing or burning, the whole ceremony is attended with 
a service of the most precious jewels. 

[The country of Siiiihala,^ formerly called the Kingdom 
of Liotis, is also called tlie Sorrowle^s Kingdom ^^ it is the 
same as South ludia. This country is celebrated for iU 
precious gems ; it is also called Batnadvtpa. Formerl)\ 
when 6ftkyamuni Buddha took an apparitional body called 
Siiiihala, all the people, and priests, in honour of his 
character, made him king,^ and therefore the country was 
called Sirhhala* By his mighty spiritual power Ua de- 
stroyed the great iron city and subdued the Bdksbas! 
womeu, and rescued the miserable and distressed, and 
then founded a city, and built towns, and converted tliis 
districts In order to disseminate the true doctrine, he 
left a tooth to be kept in this land, firm as a diamond, in- 
destructible through ages. It ever scatters its light like 
the stars or the moon in the sky, or, as brilliant as the 
sun, it lights np the night, AH those who fast and piBv 
in its presence detain answers, like the echo (anstvers th€ 
voice). If the country is visited by calamity, or famine, 
or other plague, by use of earnest religious prayer, some 

^ Por some notice of the rubies 
uf Ojlon, tte Mat'co Poiot book ii[, 
cap. xiv. 

'* Or, every day thrict waahfs, &(;:* 

* This atid the following j^^^^^ 

graphd ure intt;rpoIated in %h.^ Itst ; 

th(?y belong to the time of the Ming 

dyuoAty (tEifd jear of Yung-lp, h*i^ 

1405]. IbftTetrRiUilatedA portitm of 
the passage, the re^ will bu f i>iLnd iu 
a note at the end of this Book xi- 

^ Or the Aboka kingdom. Com- 
pare the Afl6ka gardixn ol I^Ttt^a, ia 
the Edmdi/ana. 

^ To diO hiu honotir. 




Bpiritual mamfestatioii ever removes tlie evih It is now 
called Si-lan-moutit,^ but forme ily Shiiliala country. 

By the side of the king's palace is tlie vUidra of Euddha'a 
tooth ® wkidi is decomted with avery kind of gemi tlie 
splendour of wbich dazztea the sight like that of the stiu. 
For sticcesaive generations worship has been respectfully 
offered to this relic, but the present king of the conn try, 
called A-li-fuu-iiai*'rh (Alibnnar* ?), a man of So-li 
(Chola),^ is strongly attached to tlie religion of the 
hereuca and does not honour the law of Buddha ; he is 
cruel and tyrannical, and opposed to all that is good. 
The people of the country, however, still cherish the tooth 
of Buddha,^!] 

By the side of the vihctra of Buddha*3 tooth is a little 
vihdra which is also ornamented with every kind of pre- 
cious stone. In it is a golden statue of Bnddha ; it was 
cast by a former king of the country, and is of the size 
of life. He afterwards ormimented the head-dreas (the 
udi7},is!i€L) with a precious gem. 

In course of time there was a robber who formed the 
design to carry off the precious stone, but as it was 
guarded by a double door and a surrounding balustrade, 
the thief resolved to tunnel out an entrance underneath 
the obstacles, and so to enter the vihdra and take the 
jeweL Accordingly he did so, but on attempting to seize 
the sem, the figure gradually raised itself higher, and out- 
reached the grasp of the thief. He, then, finding his 
efforts of no avail, in departing sighed out thus/* Formerly 
when Tathagata was practbing the life of a ESdhiaattva, 
he cherished in hhnself a great heart and vowed that for 

^ Si'lAn-fihan. Sftan corresponds 
to ff*iif the nftme therefore would 
be Silan^rl, reminding us of tho 
SiTtmum. MCopuli of Virgili j!En^ v, 
£64. Jt IB Gvidenl that this nauiti 
WMa given to Gaylon borort: the For- 
tugni^Be^ arrived in India 

^ Tbim bii» be^n already fltated in 
rttui previoua Bectioo^ FulT mi ac- 

count of fiuddha^a tooth and the 
rtAtJra, Bee B^aFs Fahian^ p* 153, 
n. I, ; intern Montichismt by Speaca 
Hnrdj, pp, 224, 326* 

^ For Hoi J Ki^e Marco Polo (Yule), 
vot a p. 272. The Cholaa hi*d juat 
before this conquered tbo Pallavafl, 

^^ The real of this pa^t^age wiU bti 
iound mi tb<u> end af this bwik (xi.) 

the sake of the four kinds of living tilings he would of his 
compassbti give up evei-ything, from his own life down to 
his country and its towns. But now the statue which 
stands in his place (bcgueuihed) grudges to give up the 
precious stoua His words, weighed against this, do not 
seem to illustrate his ancient conduct" On this the 
statue lowered its head and let him take the gem. The 
tliief having got it, went to the merchants to sell it; on 
which they all exclaimed and said, *'This is the gem 
which our former kin^^ placed on the head-dress of the 
golden statue of Buddha. Where have you got it from, 
that you want to sell it surreptitiously to us?" Then 
they took him to the king and stated the case. The king 
then asked him from whom he had procured the gem, on 
which the thief said, " Buddha himself gave it to me. I 
am no robber." The king not believing him, ordexed a 
messenger to be sent immediately to ascertain the truik 
On arriving he found the head of the statue still bent 
down. The king seeing the miracki his heart was affected 
by a sincere and firm faith. He would not punish the 
man, but bought the gem again from him, and ornamented 
with il the head-dress of the statue. Because the head of 
the figure w^as thus bent on that occasion, it remains so 
until now. 

By the side of the king's palace there is built a large 
kitchen, in whiclt daily is measured out food for eight 
thousand priests. The nieaJ-dme having come, the priests 
arrive with their pdiras to receive their allowance,** 
Having received and eaten it, they return, all of them, to 
their several abodes. Ever since the teaching of Buddha 
reached this country^ the king has established this charity, 
and his successors have continued it down to our times, 
1 »iit during the last ten years or so the country lias been 
in confusion, and there has been no established ruler to 
attend to this business, 

^ Fa-hUn tiho ellndefl Ui thiit ch&nUble mode of feeding the pri«Ht% 
p. 155, op. ciL 





In a bay on the coast of tlie country the land is ricli in 
gems and precious stones.^ The king himself goes (there) 
to perform religious services, on which the spirits present 
him with rare and valuable objects. The inhabitents of 
the capital come, seeking to share in the gain, and invoke 
the spirits for that purpose. What they obtain is diSereut 
according to iheir religions meriL They pay a tax on the 
pearls they find, according to their quantity. 

On the SDiith-east corner of the country is Mount 
Lankfi,** Its high crags and deep valleys are occupied 
hy spirits that come and go ; it was here that TathfiLiata for* 
merly delivered the Ling-kia-king {LanJca SMra or Lcfiikd- 

Passing seawards to the south of this country some 


** Marci> Polo {cap, xvi) allude a 
to Ibe pf^arl'fliihe riea off tbu west 
vtm^l of Ceylon^ He mentloiia 
Bettelar m the pioc^ of retnleisvout!. 
Colonel Viile thinkji that this U 
PutlAin, the Piitt^la of Ibu Batiita. 
With r«fert*nce to thcs acootiiit given 
by Mareo l*olo of the fiBhery, it i'^ 
eurious hnvf, in aU jtn particmlAri 
(except that of th«;! diarmera) it 
agrei^if with tbti arran^r meats of the 
ptarl-fiiherv iit La Pa2, on the 
coast of Lowirr California. I have 
V Lilted that fiihery, and inquired 
into its lunnageiuent. The niier- 
chantii fit out the boat* and pay 
ibe giuigi ol drif^tfrH {buzoi) ; the 
dMlk Vts bnmght up in the aamd 
w»j At deicribed by Marco V(4i\ 
The heftp vacb day in divided Into 
three parts — ^one for the Statti 
(estadoli one for the Church [The 
Virgin), one for the chief mi rchant 
(iimador)* or sometimeB, when the 
divm do not receive pay, they bave 
m pfopoftion of the Jant heap for 
tbemielve.fli Tbi^ ubarkii which 
abmmd at La Pa^ can be Heen 
r<wiiiuntng in the ni^ighboiirboo<I (ao 
di^ar is the water under a cloud leitts 
and rainlcsH »ky), hut the dlvera 
fear only one kind» which thev caU 
the Ttnierti {(h€ Hfjtr thark). They 
diir« just AS Marco Polo defcribes. 

and I may add that I never fonnd 
one of them ^tixptrts thou^jh tbey 
were) remain down more than 58 

^ LnrikA is somctimc^s sprtkeu of 
as a city, Rnmetimes as a mountain, 
and at other ttuies applied to the 
whole iskn<l Moreover, it i» mmm- 
tinies dii«tin fished from Ceylon^ 
nnd described «s on the Enme merl- nu XJjpyint. The momitaltl 
jH npukeTi of as three-pen ked {tri* 
k^fa)m the Jtdmdif0jsa. It wm the 
nbode of Edvaruw 

^* The LiMmUtra SMm or the 
Saddhntma LankdiHitdra Stitia be- 
longs to the later development and 
]« of a mystical character. It re- 
ft? ra everything to **the heart/* 
which is aitnply the all -pervading 
4/ffi^i», There »re three tratis- 
tationj^ (»f the «^fm In China ; nee 
B, Kanjiu, Calalo^tu!, 175, 176, 
177. The title of 17^* the "en- 
tering La Aka«Ffltni," would almost 
]ijfltify uft in considering thia gi^titt 
af< belonging to Vaiubnavistn* Bod- 
hid harm a, who arrived in Cbina, 
A.D. 526^ trnm South India, at- 
tached hia faith to the teaching' of 
thia ^Atra ; it was therefore com- 
pofM^d before hi a time» The ear- 
liest translation in China {Na 175) 
dates from A.D. 443, but tbla Is 


tliousaiida of li, Ave arrive at the island of l^arakira 
(Na4o-kMo), The people of tins ialaud*^ are small of 
stature, about three feet liigh; their bodies are those of 
men, but they have the beaks of birds; they gi^w no 
grain, but live ouly on cocoa-imts. 

Crossing the sea westward from this island several 
thousatidB of li^ on the eastern cliff of a solitary island 
is a stone figure of Buddha more than lOO feet high. 
It is sittbg facing the east. In the head-ornament 
{mhiiUIm) is a stone called Ymh-n^ai-cku (Chandra- 
kanta). When the moon begins to wane, water imme* 
diately runs down from this in a stream along tlie aides 
of the muuntam, and along the ravines of the pre- 

At one time there was a band of merchants who were 
driven by the winds and waves during a storm, till 
tliey reached this solitary island The sea-water being 
salt, they were unable to drink it, and were parched 
with thirst for a long time. But now on the fifteenth 
day, when the moon was full, from the head of the 
imi^e watOT began to trickle forth^ and they obtained 
ddiveranQe* They all thought that a miracle had bean 
wrought, and were affected with a profound faith; they 

Ineotupkte ; the neit (No, l?^) 
d»tt?3 from A, IX 513 ; the third 
from A.D. 700. The foltowjnjr 
qiiniatiou from CfidtDft Kcrtdd is 
found in Sp«iioe Hud^r't Manual 
rf liudSiiMnif p. 356^ "The wctsnil 
treAtiie or atltta m Ihe fifth volume 
of th« Mdo is entitled in Smis- 
kHt Jrj/c] Lankdtf^idra maMjfdna 
8^ta, n venerAble tiifia tif high 
priocipiea (or «Epeciiliitfi>ii) cm the 
irliitiii^ af LitnkiL This w>« de- 
lir«red nt the request ol the lord 
of Lmtki h^ Bh&kjAf when be wm 
in the city of LikDiUc& on Ihe top of 
the MAUya ini.»auUhn ua the seA^ 
ehore, t4>gethor with niduy prie«ta 
nod B6\lhiftnttva«,^* It i^ fttAted by 
Hod^^pu th&t the Lanhttiaidra is 
f<^i»nlMl in Nepki fta thu fourth 

t^arma; "it iiKxtisista of 3000 i1rK:!%i^ 
and HtJttefl tbit K&vA^itf lord of 
L«nkA, h iviTig gone to the MkI^- 
yagiri mountain, therff heard the 
hieturj of the Buddbaa frum Sakya 
SinhA^ and obtAiued Boddhynkna '^ 
{ibid.} Lftokigiii, then, u prob&blj 
the a«ne «■ Mount Fotftr^kft 
■tioken of si the end of the tenth 

* Perhaps the M&Idi ve Island* ; 
but tee Yule, Marm Poli^, it 249, 
NArtkerA means tocma-ntti, 

^ Julicti IrHnfllntt^Sf '* when th« 
mnoYi is about to ridl^t its M^t 
from thift jewel (ffy r^kkir m 
lumiere) ; *^ but the literal rendering 
lA, *' when the lutKin ia about t4 
turn buck iu light," that ic, " tik 






determined then to delay on the island. Some days 
liaving elapsed, as soon as the moon begao to be hidden 
behind tlie high steeps, the water did not flow out* 
Then the merchant-chief said, "' It cannot have been 
specially on onr account that the water ran do\^n, I 
have heard that there is a pearl * loved by the moon/ 
\vhen the moon's rays shine full on it, then the water 
begins to flow from it The gem on the top of the 
statue of Buddha must be one of this sort'' Then 
having climbed the mountain to examine the case, they 
saw that it was a CliandrnHnta pearl in the head-orna- 
ment of the figure. This is the origin of the story as it 
was told by those men. 

Crossing the sea many thousand li to the west of 
this country, we come to a large island renowned for 
its precious stones (or Mahfiratnadvipa) ; it is not in- 
habited, except by spirits. Seen from a distance on a 
calm night, a light seems to shine from mountains and 
valleys. Merchants going there are much surprised to 
find nothing can be procured* 

Leaving the country of Ta-lo-pi-ch'a (Drdvitjla) and 
travelling northwards,*® we enter a forest wild, in which 
are a succession of deserted towns, or rather little vil- 
lages.*** Brigands, in concert together, %vound and cap- 
ture (or delay) travellers. After going 2000 li or so we 
come to Kong-liin-na-pu-lo (Kofikanilpura)*'^ 


This country is about 5000 li in circuit The capital is 

* Boib GeuenU Cyfiningbam 
and Mr* Ffergiis;*^tja give thedirtctitm 
north- west Thm b ik mhi&kn {Anc, 
tjt^., p. 552 ; /. JL A. S.f vi. 2t>6J ; 
but U will -lib hits nnrth-weat. He 
njoreover nays tLat thu pilgrini re- 
tt^ntd to tht; ii;:9rth-we&ti If we 
adopt the re&ding north, tht-n the 
route won Id hti n retiim f>tie. 
Tbe t'rti^m, jia it 4teem*s of tht* errf>f 
m direction must be traced to M« 

V, de St. Martin {M^moirt, p, 400), 
who B«£Ui3 to ailopt Uwui'lih^ft te^^t 
as bis guide. 

** Tbe passage mtkj also be ferana- 
lated ^'paii^ing through {i>r by) a 
deserted town and manj littte vU- 

*' HwuMih givea Klu-nA-pudo, 
altliotigh in Julieti we find Kotig* 
kiii^na-pu^lo. It may be an error in 
the text. In tbi^ piuisage beEoit^ U4 


3000 U or so round. The land is rich and fertile ; it is 
regulaily cultivated, and produces large crops, Tiia di- 
mate is hotj the disposition of the people anleDt and 
quick. Their complexiou is l)lack, and their maimers 
fierce and uncultivated. They love learnftig, and esteem 
vatue and talent There are ahout 100 mnghdrdmM, 
with some 10,000 priests (/oUmt^cm). They study boAj 
the Gmat and the Little Veliicla They also LiiglitjJ 
reverence the Dfivas, and there are several hundredl 
temples in which many sectaries dwell together. 

By the side of the royal palace is a great mii^hdr 
with some 300 priests, who are all men of distiiictiQii 
This convent has a great vihdrat a hundred feet and mow 
in height. In it is a precious tiara belonging to Samr- 
thasiddha (Yih-tsai-i-sh*ing) the prince. It is soraewhat 
less than two feet in height, and is ornamented with genis 
and precious stones. It is kept in a jewelled casket Oa 
fast-dayg it is brought out and placed on a hii^h throu 
They offer to it flowers and incense, on which occasions i 
is lit up with radiance. 

By the side of tlie city is a great sawjhdrdma m whic 
is a viMra about 50 feet high. In this is a figure 
Maiti'&ya Bodhisattva carved out of sandal-wood» It is 
about ten feet high. This also on fast-days reflects a 
bright light. It is the work of the Arhat Weu-*ih-pih-ij 

the country h Kang'kin»im*pii-lo, 
whicjh is re!skire<i by Julien to Kon- 
kai^&pura. It in (stated tJmt thU 
goiiQtry is in Southern ludio. Them 
in no ngTCGiinetit aa to the sitt of the 
capital y. de St Martin Uikas thtt 
pQl^iui uoitb'wesfc to VdnavAsi 
{M^nimn^ p. 401)- General Ciin- 
iiiogham thinks! thnt Ana^indi «3n 
Ihe northern bank of thu Tftnga- 
bbftdrA river is thii phvce indicated 
{Ane, Gtog.i p, 552)^ whilat Mr. 
]r«i^«son would take the pilgrim 
frcnaNAgnpaf ^i> to the centre of the 
Muafir plmlettu somewhere e«at of 

Bftdnure (/, R. A. S, N.S,, vol tL 1 
367), Aa»iuntng, however, th^ his 
route WAS north f and that he wm 
n^ turning towards the neigbbonr- 
ho<id of Gh^ndAf we esbuuld bare tn 
look for the capital of Kong-kin- 1 
ne^r Golkondo, 

*^ Por flonie reference to til 
person see anfe» p, 1S7, n. j^ 
fteems likely thnt tbe alliision in tht^ 
text it to B^ntk Kuttk&niiA, fta b« 
wtt« & diactpk of KAtT&yAn% who 
dwelt in Sontbem ludiA iS Jl J 
xvlL p. 32), 

?00R XL] 



To the uorth of llie city not far is a forest of Tdia 
trees about 30 U round. The leaves (()/ £ku tree) are lorjL 



ling and glistening, 
llm countries of India these leaves are everywhere used 
for writing on. In the forest is a $iiipa. Here the four 
former Buddhas sat down and walked for exercise, and 
traces of tliem still romain. Beside this is a sidpa contain- 
ing the bequeathed reUcs of the Arhat Srutavirh^tikoti. 

Not far to the east of the city is a stilpa wliich iia^ 
sunk down into the ground from its foundations, but is 
still about thirty feet high. The old tradition says, In 
this sidpa is a relic of Tathigata, and on religious days 
(holi/ days) it exhibits a miraculous light In old days, 
when Tathlgata was in the world, he preached in this 
place, and exhibited his miraculous powers and converted 
a multitude of men. 

Not far to the south-west of the city is a d^pa about 
a hundred feet liigh, which was built by A^oka-ruja, 
Here the Arhat J^nitaviih&iLikoti exhibited great mira- 
eulons powers and converted a great many people^ By 
the side of it is a saivjhdrdmu, of which only the founda- 
tions remain. This m as built by the fore-named Arhat, 

Prom this going north- west, we ent^r a great forest 
wild, where savage beasts and bands of robbers inflict 
injury on travellers. Going thus 2400 or 2500 li, wa 
come to the country of Mo-ho-la-ch*a (llaliftrislitra)/^ 


/ This country is about 5000 li in circuit Tlie capital ** 
borders on the west on a great river. It is about 30 li 

^ *"the great kingdom | " th© 
ooantry of the Mar4f ha«. 

*• Thepe have been variojus sur- 
WitwBi Ai to the name of ihU capital, 
M, V. *!e St, Martin i:iame» De va- 
gi ri ur DiiiilatjlWid, but thk U w^t 
on a rivtr. General Cuunlngham 
Uiinka Kftly&ii or KalyA..! in the 
plq^:« inteEiiied, to the weet *>f which 
l!<iw» the KftUiaa river ; but this i^ 

due south of Btiaroch (the next 
Btattou) Injiti^nd of eajiL Mr, Fer< 
gUMon tiaiuea Tuka^ Pbolthjimba, or 
JPai tan, H o wq v e r, t h e d btatict^ an d 
dlrtiction from the (^pital of Koft- 
kun/tpiira i^ about 40O mihn N.W. 
Thia aeems -to bring ua nt'ar tl»« 
river Tapt), or perhapjs th€ tibiroA 



round. The soil is rich and fertile ; it is regularly culti- 
vated and very productive. The climate is hot; the dis- 
position of the people is honest and simple ; they are tall 
of stature, and of a stern, vindictivo cLaracter. To theif 
benefactors thev are jimtef iil : to their enemies relentless. 
If they are insulted, they will risk their life to fivefigl 
themselves. If they are asked to help one in distress^ 
they will forget themselves in tlieir haste to render assist* 
fincc. } If they are going to seek revenge, they first give 
~ their enemy warning ; then, each being amied. they attack 
each other with lances (^pr^r^s), Wlien one turns to flee» 
the other pursues him, but they do not kill a man down [a 
person who mhmUs). If a general loses a battle, they do 
not inflict punishment, but present him with woman's 
clothes, and so he is driven to seek death for himself, 
The country provides for a hand of champious to the 
number of several huudreA Each time they are about to 
tnigage in conflict they intoxicate themselves with wiae, 
and then one man with lance in hand will meet ttm 
thoitsand and challenge them in £gbt If one of these 
champions meets a man and kills him, the laws of tli3 
country do not punish him. Every time they go forth they 
beat druujs before them. Moreover, they inebriate maay 
hundred heads of elephants, and, taking them out to fight> 
they themselves first drink their wine, and then rushing 
forward in mass, they tran^ile everything down, so that ao 
eueniy can stand before them. 
T"^ The king, in consequence of his possessing these mea 
' and elephants, treats bis neighbours with contempt He 
is of the Ksbattriya caste, and his name is Pulak^ (Pa* 
lo-ki-she). His plans and undertakings are wide-spread^ 
and his beneficent actions are felt over a great distance 
His subjects obey him with perfect submission. At the 
present time Siladitya** Mahii^ja has conquered the 
nations from east to west, and carried his arms to remota 
districts, but the people of this country alone have no^ 

50tt XL] 



snbniitted to him. lie lias gathered troops from the five 
Indies^ and summoned the best leaders from all countries, 
ud himself gone at the head of his army to punish and 
subdue these people, but he has not yet conquered their 

r So much for their habits. The men are fond of learning, 
and study both heretical and orthodox (hooJcs). There are 
about lOO saiiffiidrdmas, with 5000 or so priests. They 
practise both the Great and Small Vehicle. There are 
about 100 Diva temples, in which very many heretics of 
different persnai?ions dwelh 

P Within and without the capital are five siiipas to mark 
the spots \rhere the four past Buddbas walked and sat 
They were built by A^6ka-rfi.ja. There are, besides these, 

rther sttlpas made of brick or stone, so many that it would 

>e diflficult to name them alh 

I Kot far to the south of the city is a sanghdrdma m 

^hich is a stone image of Kwan-tsz'-tsai Bfidhisattva, 
its spiritual powers extend {far ami imde), so that many 

if tho=e wlio have secretly prayed to it have obtained 

Jieir wishes, 
On the eastern frontier of the country is a great moun- 

Sain with towering crags and a continuous stretch of 
piled-up rocks and scarped precipice. In this there is 
a miighdnhim constructed, in a dark valley. Its lofty 
halls and deep side- aisles stretch through the (or open 
into ihe) face of the rocks. Storey above storey they are 

backed by the crag and face the valley {waicrmune},^ 
This convent was built by the Arlaat Achara (0-che- 

o).*" Tills Arhat was a man of Western India, His 

' * Thb miiftt refer to the fAiiJfltLS 

Blajtdjdh& rock tPinpleti at Ajantft, 
%L the lufihylldri range of hilln^ cut 
in the hifty and iiJmDttt perpciidiciilar 
rticka^ that hem m % wild B<^cluded 

%en. See Fergiiaiou and Eurge»«, 

?<it'<f Ttmpl^tt pfk 2St>-j47 ; AtcL 
K'e<l /n£^, Meporttj vol. i¥« pp. 





fiiacriptroii on the 

Chmltja ciLve, No. xxvi,, at Ajari^u, 
we rejid thitt '* The aflcotic Sthavirii 
Aehalft, who glontied the faith and 
wail grateful, caused t<i be built a 
itiouutain d we King (^ila*/ftha) for 
the Teacher, tboogh htif desJreB 
were fulfilled*' {Aivh. Sun Wt»i 
Jnd. Mejm'tt, vol iv. p. 135). Thia 
appftrentlj decidcri^^ the name of the 
Arhat m«itloned here. But »m thd 


motbcr baviBg died, lie looked to see in what condition 
she was re-liorn. H^ saw that she had received n 
woman's body in this kingdom. The Arhafc accordingly 
came here with a view to convert her, according to her 
capabilities of receiving the truth. Having entered a 
village to beg food, he came to the house where his 
mother had been born. A young girl came forth with 
food to give him. At this moment tlie oiilk came fn^m 
her breasts and trickled down* Her friends having seen 
this considered it an unlucky sign, but the Arhat recounti^d 
the history of fier birth. The girl thus attained the holy 
fmit (of Arhatship). The Aihat, moved with gratitnde*^ 
for her who had borne and cherished him, ami remember- 
ing the end of such ij^ood) works, from a desire to rc^quite 
her, built this saiujMrdmtL The great mhdra of the con- 
vent is about loo feet or so in height j lu the middle is a 
stone figure of Buddha about 70 feet or so high. Above 
it is a stone canopy of seven stages^ towering upwards] 
apparently without snppoiL The space between eacli 
canopy *^ is about three feeL According 10 the old report, 
this is held in its place by the force of the tow of the 
Arhat They also say it is by the force of bis miraculousj 
powers I others say by the virtue of some magical com** 
pound; but no trustworthy account has yet explained 
the reason of the wonder. On the four sides of the v%hdr&, 
on the stone walls, are painted** diOerent scenes in the 
life of Tath^ata*s preparatoT}* life as a Bodhisattva: the 

CbiuMe tnEiiiliLtiozi of the ii«]iie h 
S& kim^ (he who do«s» er, ihm du*r]^ 
WQ retAlD tli« equiTatet Acb&nL 

^ Ckjinp&re tie word* of the in- 
■Qfiptinzi giv^u m Um preocdiiw 
noie, " wbf* |]ori£«d the lijtfa and 
wa* ^mtefni 

* Bee Um drAwiiigv of Cftve xix« 
■ikd of Um dic»ba m il. Mmdmm 
Vmm Tkm^ {Atrk Smr. W, I$hL 

T^m^fimt pL xxxtLi jcutviL Tb« 

AX9 irmfy «iagffentodt •> mtA 

ihaUss very often In India, 
But pomll^ the re m9^j bftve b^u » 
itni^tiitsJ bitilding agaiiast th« fiCi 
of the Tockt with a dAgaba of JArgei 
dwMXsmoDSf though by no memu %ii' 
U» dm jndiakied in the IqxL It 11 
mon probftble, bowvtor, that the 
f^cpofi is omly mt) ifxagg^rstc^i ne- 
ccvtnti el the roek-cut eh^itji^ 
Himec Takiig do^A ni»l Apincax to 

' («e<«ti Jew). 

^^iL-d iLnd Isa- 




wondrous signs of good fortune wlucli attended Iiis 
acquirement of the holy fmit {of a BudiUia), and thy 
spiritual manifestations accompanying hhHirvdna, Thes^ 
scenes have been cut out with the gveaioat accuracy and 
fineness.^ Oil the outside of the gate of tlie mh^hdrdma, 
on the north and south side, at the right hand and the 
left, there is a atone elephant*^ The common report sajs 
that sometimes these elephants utter a great cry and the 
earth shakes throughout In old days Jina (or Channa) 
E6dhisattva*^ often stopped in this sanf/kdrdina. 

Going from this lOOoU or so to the west,^^ and crossing 
the Nai-mo-to (Narmad§.) river, we arrive at the kin*:- 
dom of Po4a-kie'Che-po (Bharukachheva j Barygassa or 


This kingdom is 2400 or 2500 li in circuit Its capital 
IB 20 li round. Tlie soil is impregnated with salt Treea 
uiid shrubs are scarce and scattered. They boil the sea- 
water to get the salt, and their sole profit is from the 
sea. The climate is warm. The air is always nj^itated 
with gusts of wind. Their ways are cold and indifferent ; 
the disposition of the people crooked and perverse. They 
do not cultivate study, and are wedded to error and true 

"* ThU must refer lo the f&motifl 
A}ii[t^ frescpeJL 

*^ Tbia seoms %o refer to two 
elepbftatii id qIIq rtjfiet^ that were 
^eulptui^'d im the rock in front of 
Cftve ^v.f but which are uow scftro^y 
ri^'CogniiAble* Bm F^fguaaon And 

«* J&UK K Am. B&c, vqL X3^, p. 20S* 
■* Hivtii-Uh gives north - west. 
M. Jnlion ha» tnundaled it north- 
eaatf by inif tiike ( Vie, &c., p. 203). 

** Bhurdch Appear* in ;i Pilli in- 
mctipUon at Junnar {Arcfu Sar. WtM. 
hid, Jie/t,, voL iv. p, 96) under the 
form BhArnkochha ; in Sanskiit it 
IB BhikrukAchehba (BftK Saitji., v, 
40, 3fiv, lt| xvL 6 J VfUMtUef, p. 

45) ami Bbrl^ikachch* {Bh%fj. Pur., 
viiL iS, 21 ; Ai. Rcx.^ vol. is* p» 
104 J inacrjp. m J. An^er. Or* 8ttc,t 
vol vjL p* 33) or Bhr1guk«htitrA-- 
from th^ loioaliiy being the tra^li- 
tiunal residence of the ftogt: Bh|igii>^ 
ft^hi. The Bh&rgava Britbtnaiis of 
Bhar5ch ftte the repreectitatives of 
an early colony of the flehool of 
Bhrlgu, Bh.lrnknchha UrtpreAcnted 
by thf Greek Ba/Jtryafa 4fiit^fiQ¥ of 
Ptokray (lib, viL c l, 62) and of the 
author of the Peripluf Maf, Ertfth. 
(a. 42, Jfec) ; StraW (lib. xv. c t, 
73) has B^p76n7. Sti^ l^^^w^ /. A.^ 
vol, i. pp. iiji 136* It wan from 
Bhiirdch the iijrauiaiia came who 
burnt himB^lf at Ath«n«. 


doctrine alike* There are some tea miiffhdrdma^, with 
about 300 believers* They adhere to the Great Vehicle 
and the Sthavira school There are also about ten DSva 
templcsj in which sectaries of various kinds congregate* 

Going from this^ north-west about 2000 lij we come 
to the countiy of Mo-la-po (MILlaia),^ 

Mo-UL-p'o (Malava), 

This country is about 60OO li in circuit. The capital 
is some 30 li round. It is defended (or supported) by the 
Maht river on the south and east^^ Tiie soil is rich and 
fertile, and produces abundant harvests. Shrubs and 
trees are numerous and flourisliing. Flowers and fruit are 
met with in great quantities. The soil is suitable in an 
especial manner for winter wheat They mostly eat bis- 
cuits and (or, made of) parched corn-flour. The disposition 
of the men is virtuous and docile, and they are in general 
of remarkable intelligence. Their language is elegant and 
clear, and their learning is wide and profound. 

Two countries in India^ on the borders* are remarkable 
for the great learning of the people, viz.» MMava on the 
BOUth-west» and Jlagadha on the north-east In this they 
esteem virtue and respect politeness {humanitij). They are 
of an intelligent mind and exceedingly studious ; never- 
theless the men of this country are given to heretical 

^ Th^ g^^k^Tftphy nf thi« part of 
thti |iil^iiii*R rotite U itivoh'ed in 
f>bftcuriUeiL 1 cjin only therefore 
ofi&T stjDie Femarks on the text^ 
lit Hwui-Uli trhf^ symbol used is tkk^ 
notAinf?, from which it might have 

did not himself vbtt thU c^runtry, 
or at legist on this iicc.^ion. But In 
the text the symbuL kin*j in vii^ilT »«> 
that no weight c&a be givoD to thi» 

" If this country hi^ Miila\'ai it 
lies tiorth-emr. fnm) Bhardch. But, 
on tho otbf^rhaudf it doti« not ftiUow 
that the route wu a dire^ oa«. 

The pilgrim and his cotiipanions 
frrjm Ce^vJon may hnve trav*-4ti-d 
eji^t towiinla the ht^a^J intern of tfau 
Hnh! river, and tJieu north -west. 
It IB said in a note to bo the same 
ad the ^uthem iji-h (LAra) eoimtiy. 
*^ Thf? »vuibi*l kn lmj4i©H tb»t 
the ca[>itftl w*» ** ht'H by ** (uither 
defeniled or atijipfii-tu>d byj the MabI 
fivi^r on thu »imth -t^iutt, or ou tlm 
south aud pasL Thia wtmld i^^rQ 
to take us to the neighlwatirhiKid 
of Don^ftrpiir [h'lfhifuftniti't m^*p; 
Cunuipgliani cousidert} Dliirauagara 
to be inteudedf in which Y, dv 5t 
Marlin «gre«s. 

&00K XL] 



belief as ^ell as the trae faith, and so live together. 
There are about lOo mn^kdrdmas ia which somo 2000 
prit^sta dwelL^ Th^j study the Little Vehicle, and be- 
long to the Sammatlya school. There are 100 D^va 
temples of different kinds. The heretics are very 
Bimierpus, but principally the Paiiipatas {tkc cijidir- 
mvcrifig heretics). 

I, The records of the country state : Sixty years before 
this *® flourished Siladitya, a man of eminent wisdom 
and great le;irning; his skill in literature was profound. 
He cherished and protected the four kinds of creatures,*"' 
pud deeply respected the three treasures."^ From the 
time of his birth to his last hour, his face never crim* 
^soned with anger, nor did his hands ever injure a living 
lihing. His elephants and horses drank water that had 
iheen strained, after which he gave it them, lest any 
creature living in the water should be injured. Such 
hrere his love and humanity* During the fifty years 
fftud more of his reign, the wild beasts became familiar 
witli men J and the people did not injure or slay them. 
'By Uie side of hia palace be built a vikdra. He ex- 
'liansted the skill of the artists, and used every kind of 
(ornament in decorating it In it he put images of tlie 
seven Buddhas,^ Lords of the World, Every year he 
fconvoked an assembly called 3fSk3ha mahdparisluid, and 
[eummoned the priests of the four quarters. He offered 
them "the lour things" in religious charity; he also 
gave them sets of three garments used in their religious 
Bervices, and also bestowed on them the seven precious 
iBubstances and je%vels in wonderful variety* Tliis meri- 

^ Tbiu c»ii bardlj rrfer to 
Uiwi&i tberefnr^, because we are 
lold lubBequetitly thut the cunventa 
lliere were in ruiru, &nd only about 
300 pris'fttB in them. It im curi<}Uiir 
however, t\mt the circuit of this 
capital, thirty 11 I Jnlieii h&9 Ufenlif 
lif by mifltrnke), &nd that al Ujjaiu 

^ See anUf book if. note 91. 

•*" ViviparouB, oviparous, bom 
from epaMU, or by tranafurtnation 
{/ft) ItGcUer-insteit, and ho oti]. 

^^ Buddhai dhorma, ^anghiL. 

^ For tbe aeven Bud d has con- 
sult Eitelj IIandtiOol\ s. v, Sapta 


torious custom baa continued in practice without iiter- 

ruption till now. 

To the nortU-west of tlia capital about 200 li, we come 
to the town of the Brfilimans,^ By the side of it is a 
hollow ditch ; into tlds the winter and summer streauB 
flow continually, but though through docades of dnyB 
the water runs into the hollow, yet it never seems to 
increase in quantity. By the side of it again is a little 
s^^pa. The old traditions of the country say : Formerly a 
Brahman of an exceedingly haughty miud ^ ft-U alive 
into this pit and went down to hell In old days thec^_ 
was a Er&bman born in this towu, who was aequainte^^H 
with all things, and of learning beyond all the eminent 
men of his time. He had penetrated the secrets and 
dark sayings of books sacred and profane. He was 
acquainted with the calculations of astronomy as if they 
were in his hand; his fame was wide-spread and his 
behaviour without blemish. The king very highly es- 
teemed hinij and the people of the country made much 
of him. He had some 1000 disciples, who appreciated 
his doctrine and respected his character. He constantly 
said of himself, ''I am come into the world for the pur- 
pose of publishing abroad the holy doctrine and to 
guide the people. Among the former sages, or those 
who have artived at wisdom after them, there is none 
to compare with nie. iliLhS^varadeva, V^sudfiva, Nit4- 
yanadfiva, Euddha-lfikan^tha, men everywhere worship 
these, and publish abroad their doctrine, represent them 
in their effigies, and pay them worship and honour. 
But now I am greater than they in character, and my 
fame exceeds that of all living. Why should they then 
be so notorious, for they have done no wondeifid 

•w Tbiii may be BrAhTtiauapijrjv ; 
thare Is i% city of the BrfklmianM 
immed by Arrian i£xptiL AkiL, 
vL J] and by Diodunis^ caUed by 
him HarmiiteHa (vit, 465). See 
aho Cuimingbam, Anc, Geoff ** pp. 

267, 26S, But the town naoiMi 
in the text cannot hn ^ear Hartoa- 

^ Or it may \m a pmp«r nun^j 
** the great prutid Biiniii»M.** 

moK xt.] 



Accordingly, he made out of red sandal- wood figures 
of MaliS^varadSva, VtlsudSva, NfiriyanadSva, Buddlia- 
Iftkanatha, and placed them aa feet to his chair, and 
whemver he went as a rule he took this chair with him, 
showing his pride and self-conceit. 

Now at this time tliere was in Western India a 
Bhikshn, Bhadraruclri (Po-to-Io4iu-chi) by name; he had 
thoroughly exhausted the U^nvidi/d {Sdstra) and deeply 
investigated the sense of different discourses (treatiMs).^ 
He was of excellent repute, and tlie perfume of his ex- 
ceeding gooduess (moraliti/) spread in every direction. 
He had few desires and was contented with his lot, seek- 
ing nothing in the world. Hearing (of the Brdhma'^) he 
siglied and said, ** Alas ! how sad. This age (time) has no 
(ms worih}j to b& called a) man; and so it pern tits that 
foolish master to dare to act aa he does in defiance of 

On this, he took his staff, and travelling afar, he came 
to this country. Whilst dwelling therein his mind was 
made up and he acquainted the king with it The king, 
seeing his dirty clothes, conceived no reverence for him ; 
but, in consideration of his high purpose, he forced himself 
to give him honour (^a treat him with rcspeci), and so he 
arranged tlie chair of discussion and called the llrahman. 
The Br&hman beariog it smiled and said, ** What man is 
this who has dared to conceive such an idea {to cherish 
this dttirminn t ion). " 

His disciples having come together, and many (hundred) 
thousands of listeners heing arranged hefore and behind 
the discussion-arena to attend as hearers, then Bha- 
draruchi, with his ancient robes and tattered clothes, 
arranging some grass on the ground, safe down. Then the 
Brahman, sitting on his chair which he carried with 
him, began to revile the tnio law and to praise the teach- 
ing of the heretical scliook. 

The Eiiikshu, with a clear distinction, like the running 

"* Or, it mskj pobsiljly be, " differtint sjfittiua*^* 



of water, encircled his arguments iu order. Tben ih^ 
Brubnmn alter a while yielded, and confessed liim&e*-* 

Tha king replying said, " For a long time you har^« 
assumed a false repiitatiou ; you have deceived th ^ 
sovereign and affected the multitude with delusion, Ou ^; 
old rescripts say, ' He who ia defeated in discussion ougk % 
to suffer deatk*'' Theu he prepared to have a heate*^ 
plate of iron to make him ait thereon ; the Bmhma^j therc^ — 
upon, overpowered by fear, fell down to entreat pardojs 

Then Ehadraruchi, pityini^ the Brihman, came and 
requested the king, saying, "Mahdrajal your virtue ei- 
leuds far and wide j the sound of your praises resounds 
through the public ways. Theu let your goodness extendi 
even to protect this man : give not way to a cruel deaigiu 
Pass over hia want of success and let him go his way, 
Then the king ordered him to be placed on an ass and 
be proclaimed through all the towns and villages {a$ 

The Er£hma9, nettled by his defaat, was so affected that 
he vomited blood. The Bhikshu having heard of it, went 
to condole with him, and said, ** Tour learning embraces 
subjects religious and profane; your renown is spread 
through all parts ; in questions of distinction, or the 
contraiy, success or defeat must be borne; but afier 
all, what is there of reality in fame ? " The Brflhmaii, 
filled with rage, roundly abused the Bhikshu* calumniated 
the system of the Great Vehicle, and treated w^ith con- 
tumely the holy ones who had gone before ; but the sound 
of his words had scarcely been lost before the eanh 
opened and swallowed him up alive; and this is the 
origin of the traces still left in the diLch. 

Going south-west we come to a bay of the seaj®*th©n 

** Literally, th« passage runs, 
^* From thiig Bouth-west^ we enter a 
geft blpn(Jiiig» or a confluence of two 
sebs*^* I hikva tfiauskted it ^' bay," 

becnti^e It is flioinettm^ uiued lo ; it 
probably refere to the guLf of Kaehh. 
Hwui-lih doe« not mentioD. this 
gulf, but tiikes uti aw&y ixoui ilit^ 




going 2400 or 2500 li north- west we come to the king- 
domof '0-ch'a-li (Atali), 

'O'Ch'a-u (Atali)-^ 

This country is ahout 6000 li in circuit } the capital of 
the country is ahout 20 li or so in c iron it The population 
is dense ; the quality of gems and precious substances 
stored up is very great ; the produce of tlie land is auffi- 
cieut for all pur|K>3e3, yet commerce is their principal 
occupation. The soil is salt ami saudy^ tlie fruits and 
flowers are not plentiful. The country produces the hu- 
tsian tree. The leaves of thtg tree are like those of the 
Sz'clmen pepper (Shuh ts^iait); it also produces the hiun4u 
perfume tree, the leaf of which is like the than^-li.^ The 
climate is warm, windy, and dtisty. The disposition of 
the people is cold and indifferent. TJiey esteem riches 
and despise virtue, Eespecting their letters, language, 
and the manners and figures of the people, these are much 
the same as in the country of Malava. The greater part 
of the people have no faith in the virtue of religious 
merit ; as to those who do helieve, they worship princi- 
pally the spirits of heaven, and their temples are some 
ihousand in number, in which sectaries of different 
characters congregate. 

Going north-west from the country of Malava» after 
passing over 300 li^ or so, we come to the country of 
K*ie-ch'a (Kachha). 

** city of tha BrfthmAi>B " the s&me 
diatuice aa m the text to '0'Cb'a-H< 
*^ 'O-chVli appears to be far 
north of Kachh. Mivy it not bavi^ 
been Uchh or BiL walpur ? Thi^re h 
ft town called At&ri in the ncjgh> 
bdttrhood of Multiln (CunningbiUD, 
Anc. Gtag., p, 2Z^] ; but it is diffi- 
cult to know what could ha^ e taken 
the pOgnm there. This plaoe Ib 
jrletitified bj CuriQiughain with the 
eltjr of tha Brahman I, t&keo by 
~ JeK&oder the Great (L c.) 

^ Can this be the &£2ai from 
which Kimduraf Gujar&ti Kinf(ru 
or iidlainO'ithi^pa^ Indian gUBif oliba- 
num, h obtained ? Thia tree {Htm' 
itrlliii thuri/erat errata aud tj^^rti\ 
ifl fuund m Ondh, Khand^, and Ki* 
thi&AVii^. Gitgf/rdci (bdeillum), thtt 
gum resin uf fhUamodtnnyn rojf- 
burtjhti^ /juftrafriijf, and m a^rtc^, ia also 
produuL'd in Kachh nud i^^mdh. 

^ Iti Hwui-Eih, tbfji dutattce la 
*' thro^ days' " jouroey. 



K'ie-ch'a (Kachha).'^ 

This country is 3000 U or so iu circuit the capital 
about 20 li* The population is dense. The establish* 
iiients wealthy. There is no king (f^rcai ruler) amongst 
them; the country is an appanage of M&lava, and the 
climate, products of the soil, and manners of the people 
are very similar in both countries. There are Bome ten 
giVti^kdrdmm, with about looo priests, who study ahke 
the Great and the Little Vehicle, There are also several 
tens of Deva temples with very many unbelievera (icc- 

B'rom this going north ^^ rooo li or ao^ we come to 

Fa-la-?i (ValabeI). 
This country is 6000 li or eo in circuit, the capiul 

about 30. The character of the soil, the climate, and 
manners of the people are like those of the kingdom of 
Milava. The population ia very deaae; the establish- 
ments rich. Tliere are ^ some himdred houses (/amUiis) 
or sOj who posse 33 a hundred lakhs. The rara and vala* 
able prodiiGta of distant regions are here stored in great 
quantities. There are some hundred mw^kdrdm/as, with 
about 6000 priests. Most of them study the Little 
Veliicle^* according to tire Sammatlya BchooL There 

^ The diatiLnce ii to be reckoned 
from the kingdom or country of 
2it&lav&, but tlie pliLce ii not n&mtKi 
(^nenkl CunEuugb&m propos«ft to 
r«iid 1300 li from Dbir to Kb^da ; 
thii Ittet plajob ii a l&rge town of 
Gujiii-d.t, fiitiJAtc-d between AhmiL'^ 
dAbAd and KtmnibAji and would W 
in its Sanikrit form the same aa 
Khecf*, whicb again is tbo cquiv*- 
!ent of the Cbintie Kie-ob'ft* But 
Kie-cbX <dtbougb it nn^bt be cor- 
rectly rofttored to Khtrla, U the 
n%me of » country* TKe di»tanc<^, 
Also, btiin^ *' thrt« »Inys/* in Hwni- 
liht fieem^ to conSrm the 500 U in 

the text. We mfist therefore retain 
the i^Ktoratioii of Kachb*^ 

^ Although WA ibould Gjrpect 
the direotion to ha mmlh irnm 
Kacbb^ the reading k iiurib, Lm41i 
in the teitl And in HwuMib ; 
wherever the Yal^hl ni Hiusn 
1 ebbng WAI sitUAtedi it la &ti4 t^ 
h^ve bi^en '* th^ kuagdooi of the Nor- 
thern L&m iLo'lo] peofile/' (N^Ut 
in tho Chin«iie teit). * 

^^ In A copper<plut« deed d 
Guhas6nA of Vakbht, be tKf^ " In 
Qtder to obtain Cor tnj ptargnti rdiI 
for oiyaelf bene^ts lo tbii life mnd 
the ntxt) I hAvo gnuiiipd, bjf Ub^ 





are several liundred Deva temples with vety many sec- 
taries of different sorts. 

Wiicn Tatliitgata lived in the world, he often travelled 
through this country, Hcoce AI6ka-raja raised monu- 
ments or built shlpas in all those places where Buddha 
rested. Seattered among these are spots where the three 
past Buddhas sat down, or walked, or preached the law. 
The present king is of the Kshattriya caste, as they all 
are* He is the nephew of SilUdit^-a-raja of Mllava, ami 
son-in-law of the son of SilSditya^ the present kiug of 
Kanvukubja, His name is Dliruvapata (T'li-Iu-Lo- 
po*Lu)J^ He 13 of a lively and hasty disposition, his 
wisdom and statecraft are shallow. Quite recently he 
has attached himself sincerely to faith in the three 
*' precious ones." Yearly he summons a great assembly, 
and for seven days gives away most valuahle gems, ex- 
i^uisite meatSj and on the priests he bestows in charity 
the three garments and medicaments, or their equivalent 
in value J and precious articles made of rare and costly 
gems of the seven sorts. Having given these in charity^ 
lie redeems them at twice their price. He esteems virtue 
(or tk€ virtuous) and honours the good; he reverences those 
who are noted for their wisdom^* The great priests 

tioii of Wftten to the CfiEnmuiiity of 
the reverend SAkjfU I3h(k»hua be- 
longing to tho eighteen schools 
(niMi/d) who have come from vibK- 
oOff direettniiR to the j^at cotiATtit 
{MahdrMm] vf Duildii/' Jmt. 
AnLj vol iv. p. 175, Thia Pufjdti 
wan the daughter of Dhruvas^iia 
r« «iater [Ik, p. ]q6), and bo 11 
gi^tid-daughter tA BhntArka, th« 
founder of the Vakbht dynriHty. 
In Mooiber copper-'pl&te of Gtihu- 
«^1H he mitke* a grant to '*thG 
foreign monks belonging- to the 
eighteen ^fichoolfl, uid living in tbo 
Abhyantaiikft vihdra built by the 
venerable MimDiA, vad tdttuited dose 
t(j the motmstery of Bhat&vk«t pre- 
nented to the HAj^i^thl^ntyii Buru." 
Ind. Ant,t vol v. p, 206 ; cntif. 
VHnailfef, It Bfntd*Jh.^ p, 63. Arck 
Sitr, W, ind. Repot it » vol. iii. p. 

94, The " eijfhteea achooln " here 
m^ut toned |H>lnt to thu HIn.iydUft 

"* Dr. Buhler argues tlmt thia 
king WAH the sftine as BU^ditya VI., 
Eitirnamtd Dhrubhat** (which he 
ffUppoiea to fttartd for Dhruvabht^a, 
"the Goowtant WAmor*'), of whom 
we have a grant dated '*Saiii. 447 " 
(/wd Afit.^ vul. vii, p. So). Uener*! 
Coiininghntn sidrypta th<5 Mame view 
iA. S. MeportM^ vol. fjc. pp. 16, iS) ; 
hilt Burg««»a is di^^piB^d Ui rt-'g.tril 
thin king an the L^hmv-nn^na IL ^if 
a Valabht gratit dated *' 3tvm« 310 ** 
{Arch. Sm\ W. IntL^ voh iu pp. S2, 
ft.) ; and Otdenberg* 110 possibly 
DMrsbhata, the oouain of Bhru- 
vaa^nfi II, {ImL Antf voL x. p, 


^* Or, h(* reverences religion and 
niiikeH iijucli >^\ wjtdtm» 



wlio come from distant regioas be particularlf liouours 
imd respects. 

Not far from the city is a great mn^Mrdma which 
was built by the Arhat AchSra ('0-che-lo);^^ here tlie 
Bftdhiaattvaa Gunainati and Siliiramati^*^ (Kien-bwni) 
fixed their reside iicea during their travels and camposed 
treatises which have gained a high renown. 

From this going iiorth-west 700 li or so, w& come l^ 
'0-nan-to-pu-lo (Anandapura). 

'0-NAK-TO-ru-Lo (Akandapura), 

This country is about 2000 li in circuit, the capital 
about 20* Tlie population is dense; the establishments 
rich. Tlieie is no chief ruler, hut it ia an appanage of 
M&Iava.^ The produce, climate, and literaiure and laws 
are the same as those of Miilava. There are someieii 
miigharaftuu with less than looo priests ; they study tLe 
Little Vehicle of the Sauimatiya school There m 
several tens of Dfiva temples, and sectaries of diJTertist 
kinds frequent them* 

Going west from Valabhl 500 li or so, we coma ta the 
country of Su*la-ch'a (Surfi^htm). 


This country is 40CX) li or so in circuit, the capita! 

™ Tills Is confirmed by a grant 
of Dhnrssi^iia lit of Valabbt, in 
wbich the S^itiMkHt name of U113 
fotmder is given jis Atharya {ImL 
AnLtToL iv. p. 164 n.; vol, vL p. 9). 
■Tnlien haa Achilra ; tbe Chinese 
traniilatioti m-hing rcquli'^sa tbiu 

^ Stbiramnti Sthttvina wwm one 
of tbe famouf} diaciples of V^u- 
bAndhn, tbe twentj-firtt patriarch, 
who wrote couiEnentorfea on tJX 
the works oF bin master. He 1% 
named in a grant of Dheir^Gna T, as 
the Acburyja Bhadanta 
who foundf^d the vihdra of Srt 
Bappapdda at ValabhJ {Itid* Ant^ 

vol. T?L p. 9 ; Vftteillef, p. 7S ; M. 
Muller's Iridkt^ p, 305 ; B* Nmujwi 
Cot Bitdd. THp.f c 372). Gtmi- 
mati wAA alao a disclpk of Vtiia- 
bandbu. Ha bad a famoua diidptt!, 
VaJ^unntra [Pbo-ahu-mi), who uri^iU 
& commentary on VaAubandhai 
Abhidharmaki^hai (Bunjiu Nanji'^'* 
Cat Btid. Tri}\, cc 375, 377 ; M 
Muller, India, pp 305, 3P9*3lo» 651; 
BiiTOotjf, Introd,^ p^ 505; Yuailkfi 
P* -SK 

^ See J«dL Ant^ voL tH, ; if, 
Sar, W. HmL^ voL ii. p, Sj* 

^ SiiriiBbtTa,orSnrAth&,or S<iT«^ 
Aa tbtfi distrlcl is in the Gujafil 
peninsula, it U diificnlt to uadi^r^ 

BOOK %h] 


about 30 li* On the west the chief town borders on the 
Mab! river ; the population is dense, and the varioas 
establishments {families) are rich. The country is de- 
pendent on Valabhl The sail is impregnated with salt; 
ilowers and fruit are rare. AUhough the climate is equable, 
yet there is no cessation of tempests. The manners of 
tiie people are careless and indifferent; their disposition 
light and frivolous. They do not love learning and are 
attached both to the true faith and also to heretical 
doctrine. There are some fifty miighdrdnms in this king- 
dom, with about 3000 priests ; they mostly belong to the 
Sthavira scliool of the Great Vehicle. There are a 
hundred or so Deva temples, occupied by sectaries of 
various sorts. As this country is on the western sea 
route, the men all derive their livelihood from the sea and 
engage lu commerce and exchant^^e of commodities. 

Not far from the city is a mountain called Yuh*chen-to 
(XJjjanta),^ on the top of which is a miighdrdma. The 
cells and galleries have mostly been excavated from the 
mountain-side. The mountain is covered with thick 
jangle and forest trees, whilst streams flow round its 
limits. Here saints and sages roam and rest, and lUshis 
endued with spiritual faculties coiigregate here and stay. 

Goiti^ north from the country of Valabh! 1 800 li or sO| 
we come to the kingdom of Kiu-che-lo (Gurjjara). 


This country ^ is 5000 li or so in circuit, the capital. 

staQcl hi>w ita chief town ** on the 
we6t "' borders od the Mahi river ; 
perhaps It should be " iia thci eiLst." 
But tbJi port ot thti pilgrim a nurra* 
live aeenLA to bt^ c^FtjWttaly written. 
Ferhapfl, A3 Fer«jiU!.3oii «uppo.^B, the 
original documtnt-i had be^ti liiit't In 
cro^iiDg iha |)iiiua at Attiik {nafi 
Book 3111.), »nd tbo detaila isupplied 
from memory or notes. For rt*- 
mjirk^ on localities aee V. de St 
Mftrtin, Mdm<Hi% p. 405 i Gunning- 
hajxki Ana Gtog,f pw 32 j. 

'» The old Prakrit name of Gir- 
n4riK GliM0 to JunilgAdh in KAtbB- 
vrAd ; the Sanskrit form m Iv jjaj- 
»nta {MaJtdhLj iii. 8347 if.) Liysen 
\IniL All., vol. i. p. 686 n.) miMplac* 4 
it at or ne&r Ajan^iL It i^ »a<:rt^ci 
to NSmin^tha, tlie twenty-ut^cond 
JinAi and Urjfiy^ta (Cnli^brooke^ 
J'Jaaai/B. voL ii p. 212 ; ArcL Stir. 
W, I mi. lif*., vol jI, [I, [29), and ia 
also (>atled liaivnta. 

^ ?rt>f. R G. Bhatidftrkar sug- 
ge^t.^ tbat Kukura, » dit^trlct lUtiU- 



which is called Pi-Io-mo-lo,®^ ia 30 H or so rouail The 
produce of the soil and the manners of tlie people resemble 
those of Surfijhtra. The popnlaiion 13 dense; the estsV 
lislmienta are rich and well supplied with raaterials 
(wealih). They mostly are unbelievers ; a t^iw are attached 
to the law of Buddha. There is one wi^Adrdma, with about 
n hundretl priests ; they are attached to the tenchiog of tbe 
little Vehicle and the school of the Sarvastivftdas. Tho^ 
are several tens of Deva temples, in whicli sectaries of 
various denominations dwell. The king is of the Kshat- 
triya casta He is just twenty >eajs old; he is distin- 
guished for wisdom, and he is courageous- He is a Amp 
believer in the law of Buddha * and highly honours mtju 
of distinguished ability. 

From this going south-east 2800 li or so, we come to 
the conntry of U-she-yen-na (Ujjayan!). 

U-SHl-YEK-KA (tJjJATAlrt). 

This country^ is about 6000 li in circuit; the capital 
is some 30 ii round. The produce and manners of the 
people are like those 0! the country of Surashtra* Hie 
population is dense and the establishments wealtbr. 
There are several tens of conventSj but they are mosllj 
in niins ; some three or five are preserved. There aie 
some 300 priests ; they study the doctrines both of the 
Great and the Little Vehicle, There are several tene <*i 
D6va temples, occupied by sectaries of various kind-^ 

tioned in an macHptioi] of Fulu- 
mtj\ at NAaikt and in the Kt^dra- 
dfiuian inscriptioB at Gira4r% iaij^ht 
be Kia-chtt-lo, but the Ghineee iiyl* 
lables HTC agftiriHt such nn identiEca- 
tion (rmnif. Int^ Con^. Oneitt, 1S74, 
\K JM ; Arrh. Sur, IV. Ind. Ikp.t 
\uL iw, p. 109, And vol. iL pp. 129, 
1 3 K G ur jftra 13 certamly tbu | iiMp^r 
repre^ttt^itnej &nd tbti dJHtrict as 
weUu thi^ lutigtmge ej^ tended into 
the Aoytherii p^rU of modem R^j^ 
putfitia and ilAlwi, See Laasun, 
ItiU. AtLf vat L p. 136; Qglebrooki^i 

EuaySj vol ii. py 31 n, s M^- 
tamnff^f v, 144 ff, 

^ m\m^r m R4jputiiu (lit 
2S*4S^Nh kng. jr itf E.) Frero 
tills u^^igbboiirhood leiretml «l tkra 
dans in Kftthi&w&d aaj thof or$ci* 
oally oam«. 

^ Ujjuyani or Ujjayiut it pw* 
pcfly tile capitiii of Avwiti vft 
M4Uvii, the oap^tAl of TiastMi^fl 
(Ohwhtmui), the 'O^'ijpi} i^ VuU 1113- 
lib, vil c, I 63) a&d the Pt^^j^t. Miir 
^Eri^tlt. (c. xlviti.) Bohlen, AUt Jid,^ 
vol L pw 94. 




The king beloii^js to the Brtlhmai;i caste. He is well versed 
in heretical books, and believes not in the ttutj laAv. 

Kot far from the city is a st^pa ; this is the place 
where A^6ka-raja made the hell {of punishmeni). 

Going north-east from this looo li or so, we come to 
the kingdom of Chi-ki-to* 


This country is about 4000 H in circuit j the capital is 
e 15 or 16 li round. The soil is celebrated for its 
ility; it is regularly cultivated and yields abundant 
crofjs ; it is siieciallj adopted for beans and barley ; it 
produces abundance of flowers and f rnits. The climate is 
temperate ; the people are naturally virtuous and docile ; 
most of them believe in heretical doctrine^ a few honour 
the law of Buddha. There are several tens uf sav^hdrdmas 
with few priests. There are about ten Deva temples, which 
some thousand followei-s frequent The king is of the 
Brfthman caste. He firmly believes in the (three) precious 
ones ; he honours and rewards those who are distinguiahed 
for virtue. Very many learned men from distant coun- 
tries congregate in this place* 

Going from here north 900 li or so, we come to the 
kingdom of Mo-hi-shi-fa-lo-pu-lo (Mahe^varapura), 


This kingdom is about 30C30 li in circuit ; the capital 
dty is some 30 li round. The produce of the soil and 
the manners of the people are like those of the kingdom 
of Ujjayant They greatly esteem the heretics and do 
not reverence the law of Buddha, There are several tens 
tjf Dtiva temples, and the sectaries prijici pally belong to 
the l*^lupatas. The king is of the Jbrahnmn casie ; he 
places bui little faitli in the doctrine of Buddha. 

From this, going in a backward direction to the country 
of Kiu-che-lo (Gurjjara)aad then proceeding northward 


through wild deserts and dangerous defiles about 190G li, 
tTossing the great river Sin-tu, we come to the kingdom ol 
Sia-tu (SiiH h). 

BtN-TU (SlNDH). 

This country is about 7000 li in circuit; the capital 
city, called I**i-s hell- ]»'u'pu-lo,®* is about 30 li Tound, 
The 3oil is favourable for tlie groivtli of cereals and pro- 
duces abundance of wheat and millet It also abounds 
in gold and silver and* native copper. It is suitable for 
the breeding of oxen, sheep, camels, mules, and other 
kinds of beasts. The camels are smalt in size and Imva 
only one hump. They find here a ^eat quantity of salt, 
which is red like cinnabar; also wliite s*ilt, black salt 
nnd rock salt- In different places, both far and near* thia 
salt is used for medicine. The disposition o£ the men ia 
liard and impulsive j but th oy are honest and upriglit, 
They quarrel and are much given to coutradiction- They 
etudy without aiming to excel; they have fiiith in the law 
of Bnddha, There are several hundred saA[fhdrdma$^ 
occupied by about lo.oco priests. They study the Utde 
Vehicle according to the Sammatiya schooL As a rule^ 
they are iudolent and given to iudulgenceand debaucheiy. 
Those who are very earnest as followers of the virtue of 
tlie sages live alone in desert places, dwellin;^' far off ia 
the mountains and the forests. There night and day the)" 
exert themselves in aiming after tlie acquirement of tfje 
holy fruit (0/ Arhaiship), There are about thirty Deva 
temples, in which sectaries of various kinds congregate. 

The king is of tlie Sfldra (Shu-t'o-lo) caste. He is by 
nature honest and sincere, and he reverences the law of 

When Tath4gata was in the world, he frequently pass&d 
througli this country^ therefore A0ka-raja has founded 
several tens of d4pas in places where the sacred traces of 

m 01 I 

-* Yichavapura — JulieOn Rtin- 

vuL viil, p, 336 f. 










hia presence were found. Upa^pta,^ the great Arhat, 
sojoumed very frequently in thiB kiiigilom, explaining the 
law and convincing and guiding men. The places where 
he stopped and the traces he left are all commemorated 
bj tlie building of saii^hdrdmaa or the erection of sldpas. 
These huildincjs are seen everywhere; we can only speak 
of them Lriefiy, 

By the side of the river Sindh, along the flat marshy' 
lowlands for some thousand li, there are several hundreds 
of tliousands (a venjgrmt mamj) of fatnilies settled They 
are of an unfeeling and haaty temper, and are given to 
bloodshed only. They give themselves exclusively to 
lending cattle, and from this derive their livelihood. 
Tiey have no masters, and^ whether men or women, have 
neither rich nor poor ; they shave their heads and wear 
the Ka&hdija robes of Ebikshus, whom they resemble out- 
wardly, whilst they engage themselves iix the ordinary 
affairs of lay life* They hold to their narrow {litth) 
views and attack the Great Vehicle. 

The old reports state that formerly these people were 
extremely hasty {impatient), and only practised violence 
and cruelty. At this time there was an Arhat, who, pity- 
ing their perversity, and desiring to convert them, mounted 
in the air and came amongst them* He exhibit^ his 
miraculous powers and displayed his wonderful capa- 
bilities. Thus he led the people to believe and accept 
the doctrine, and gradually he taught them in words ; 
all of them joyfully accepted his teaching and respectfully 
prayed him to direct them in their religious life. The 
Arhat perceiving that the hearts of tlje people had become 
submissive, delivered to them the three " Refnges *' and 
restrained their cruel tendencies- they entirely gave up 
" taking life " they shaved their heads, and assumed the 
soiled robes of a Bhikshu, and obediently walked accord- 
ing to the doctrine of religion » Since then, generations 
have passed by and the changed times have weakened 

" Bk. ¥iil ; Burnouf, Inirod., pp. i iS^ I97i 37^ f- 
VOL. 11. a 


their virtue, but as for tlie rest, tliey retain their oI( 
customs. But tliongh tliey wear the I'obes of religion, 
they live without any moral rules, and their sons and 
grandsons continue to live as worldly people, without 
any regiird to tlmir religious profession. 

Going from this eastward 900 li or so, crossing the 
Siiidh river and proceedint* along the eastern bank, we 
come to the kingdom of Mu-lo-san-p*tt-lu. 


This country^ is about 4C00 li in circuit; the capital 
town is some 30 li round. It is thickly populated. Tbe 
establishments ai^e wealthy. This country is in depei 
deuce on the kingdom of Cbfika (Tse~kia). The soil is rich 
and fertile. The climate is soft and ogreeaMe; the maauers 
of the people are simple and honest ; they love learuing 
and honour the virtuous. The greater part sacritice to 
the spirits ; few believe in the law of Buddha, There 
are about ten swhghdrArnm, mostly in ruins \ there are a 
few priests, who study indeed, but without any wisb tu 
excel* There are eight DSva temples^ in which sectaries 
of various classes dwell There is a temple dedicated to 
the sun,^ very magnificent and profusely decorated* Tb^ 
image of the Suu-dSva is cast in yellow gold and onia- 
mented with rare gems. Its divine insight is mysteri- 
ously manifested and its spiiitual jjower made p!ain U> 
alb Women play their music, light tbek torches, offer 
their flowers and perfumes to honour it. This custom 
has been continued from the very first The kings ami 
high families of the ii%^e Indies never fail to make tbelr 
offerings of gems and precious stones {to this Diva}. They 
have founded a bouse of mercy {h^ppintss), m which they 
provide food, and drink, and medicines for the poor and 
sick, affording succour and sustenance. Men from all 

^ MCilajstbilnapiir or MiilUn ime Kt^maud, Af^. c L Imde^ p. 9SI 
^ Aditya or Siirja. 




countries come here to offer up their prayers ; there are 
alwavs some thousands doing so. On the four sides of 
the temple are tanks with flowering groves where one can 
wander about ^vithout restraint 

From this going north-east 700 li or so, we come to the 
country of To- fa- to. 


This country is 5000 li or so in circuit, its capital is 
about 20 li. It is thickly populated, and depends on the 
country of Clieka (Tse-kia). A groat deal of drj^-grouiid 
rice is here grown. The soil is also fit for bcana and 
wheat. The climate is temperate, the disposition of the 
people honest and upright. They are naturally quick 
and hasty; their language is low and common. They 
are ^vell vei'sed in composition and litcratiire. There 
are heretics and believers in common. There are 
some ten mfh^hdrdmm with about 1000 priests; they 
study both the Great and Liitle Vehicle, There are 
four stdpas built by A^oka-rlja, There are also some 
twenty D6va temples frequented by sectaries of different 

By the side of the chief town is a great sa^n^Mrdfua 
with about ico priests in it; they study the teaching of 
the Great Vehicle. It was here that Jinaputra, a 
master of ^dstra3,^ composed the YS^iirJtdri/ahkflmi 
SdstmkdriM; here also Bhadraruchi and Gnnaprabha, 
masters of idstraSf embraced the religious life. Tins 
great saiighdrdma has been destroyed by fire, and is now 
waste and ruined. 

Leaving the Sindh country, and going south-west 1 500 
or 1600 li, we come to the kingdom of 'O-tin-p'o-chl- 
lo (AtyanabakSla). 

** FArrirtA is given by PiLnini «h!ng-t«ra ; hla work^ the Y^chk- 

(it. 2i 143) AS the Q^mt: of a coun- BfC 'ii-lunt^ih, ii a eomm^utary oii 

tr^ m the Panj^b under the ^FOtip the YCgdcMryaUtilmi t^dUra ( TU- 

Takuha&ii&di (iv. 3, 93). Ind. Ant.^ ckiE-»h' ti-lun) of Maitreyik Both 

. i. p. 22. works were tr«ii»lHts?J into Chiue*e 

Jimputr^j In Chtnese T^ui- b}' Hitien TiiAug. 



This country is about 5000 li in circuit. The cliief 
towu is called lCJiie-tsi-shi-fa4o, and h about 30 li rouDiL 
It lies on the river Sindh, and borderg on the ocean* 
The houses are richly ornamented, and mostly possess 
rare and costly substances. Lately there has heen no 
ruler; it is under the pi'otection of Siodh, The soil h 
low and damp and the ground is impregnated with salt 
It i3 covered %vit]i wild shrubs, and is mostly wasta 
land: it is little cultivated, yet it produces some sorts of 
graini hut principally beans and wheat, of which there 
is a great quantity. The climate is rather cold and 
subject to violent storms of wind. It is 6 1 for rmmi 
oxen, sheep, camels, asses, and other kinds of lefiata 
The disposition of the people is violent and hasty. They 
have no love for learning. Their language differs slightly 
from that of M Id- India, The people are generally honest 
and sincere. They deeply reverence the three precious 
objects of worsliip. There are about eighty mkghdr&ms 
%vith some 5000 priests. They mostly study the Lialu 
Vehicle according to tbe Sammatlya schooL There are t<?ii 
IJSva temples, mostly occupied by heretics belongiug ty the 

In the capital town is a temple of Ta-tsz'*tsai-tia 
(Maho vara Deva). The temple is ornamented with rich 
sculptures, and the image of the Beva is pussesse'l of 
great spiritual powers. The P&lupata heretics dwell lit 
this temple. In old days Tatbigata often traveJkJ 
through this country to preach the law and convert mesi, 
leading the nudtitnde and benefiting the people. On 
this account A^oka-rfija built st^pas on the spots conse- 
crated by the sacred traces, six in immher. 

Going west from this les^ than 2000 li, we come to the 
countTy ofLong-kie-lo (Laiigala). 





Tills country^ is several thouaand li from east to west 
jind from north to south. Tlie capital is about 30 li 
round. It is Darned Su-tiu-li-chi-fa-lo (S&nur- 
Mvara?).°* The soil is rich and feriile, and yiehk abun- 
dant harvests* The climate and the mainieis of the 
people are like those erf 'O-tin-p'o-chi-lo, The population 
lis dense. It possesses abundance of precious gems and 
Bl0Des« It borders on the ocean. It is on the route to 
Jhe kingdom of the western women.*^ It has no chief 
ruler. The people occupy a long valley, aud aje not de- 
pendent on one another. They are under the government 
bf Persia. The letters are much the same as those of 
India: their language is a little different. There are be- 
lievers and heretics living together amongst them. There 
are some hundred sangkdrdmas, and peihaps 6000 priests, 
who study llie teaching of both the Little and Great 
Vehicle. There are several hundred Dfeva temples. The 
heretics called Fa^upatas are exceedingly numerous. In 
the city is a temple to MaheiSvani-D^va: it is richly 
adorned and sculptured. The Pfliupata heretics here 
©ffer their religious worship. 

From thii going north-west, we come to the kingdom 
of Po-la-sse (Persia). 

Po-LA-ssE {Persia). 

This kingdom ^ is several myriad of lis in circuit. Ita 
chief town, called Su-la-sa-t*ang-na (Surasthana), is 
about 40 li in circuit The valleys are extensive^ and so 
the climate differs in chariicter, but in general it is warm. 

* General Cunnmgbam thinks 
tliiA euiintrv m&y rtprea^nt LAko* 
riiLn or Lakiirjv, the name of o, great 
Tuuied dty which Moiaaon found be- 
rfween Kbozd&r and KilAtj about 
L^oOOli to the north- west of Koteaar 
in Kacbb {Anc. G^h^. of India^ p. 
511), The Chmeae symbok might 
be restored to Longblr* 

^ CtinniEighjmi flnggectts Sambhu- 
rlevara as the i^atoratton o£ this 
name {ihid,f loc. cil.) 

"1 See p, Z40, antt. 

" This country does not belong 
tn India (CA* Ed.) Hinen Tsiang 
did net vi^it it peisoD&Uj ; he writer 
from report. 


They draw the water up to irrigate tlie fields. The 
people are rich and affluent The coimtry produces gold, 
diver, copper, rock-crystal (sphtiiika), rare pearls, and 
variotia precious substances. Their artists know how to 
weave fine brocaded silks, woollen stuffs, carpets, and so 
on. Tliey have many slicn horses and camels. In com- 
merce they use large silver pieces. They are by nature 
violent and impulsive, and in their behaviour they prac- 
tise neither decorum nor justice. Their writing and their 
language are differeut from other countries. They caifti 
not for learning, but give themselves entirely to works of 
art. All that they make the neighbouring countries value 
vary much. Their marriage-customs are merely promis- 
cuous intercourse. When dead tlieir corpses are mostly 
abandoned. In stature they are tall: they tie up their 
liair {m*rai%gc their head-dress) and go uncovered. Their 
robes are either of skin, or wool, or felt, or figured lilif* 
Each family is subject to a tax of four pieces of silver p«f 
man. The Deva temples are very numemus. Dinava** 
(Ti-na-po) Is priiidpally vi^orshipped by the heTi?m 
There are two or three mmjhdrdmoB^ with several hum) red 
priests, who principally study the teaching of ilie little 
Vehicle according to the Sarv^lstavadiu school The 
pdirm of S&ivya Buddha is in this {cmtitry), in the kiug's 

On the eastern frontiers of the country is the town of 
Ho -mo {Ormus ?). The city inside is not great^ but the 
external walls are in circuit about 60 li or so. The 
people who inhabit it are all very rich. To the noith- 
west this country borders on the kingdom of Fo-11d* 

•■ Julien reatore* this namei 
donbtftLllj, to Dlnabba, DlEmTi^ or 
Dio&p^ however, may be » contntc- 
tlon for DiiiapA(ti), *^ the lord of the 
day/^ or " the a an," 

** For the waudeiiofis of the 
p^fu of Buddha, 8C« Ftt*njan, chap, 
xxxi^. It is intorestjnf to know 
that ther^ were Buddbiist bemplet 

And a community of priestf in ^^ 
^ft at the time of Hhien tDoasf^ 
As they belonged to the ichdol «f 
the Little Teblde* It b probi^t 
they hod fa«eQ «at^bUsli«d tb^n f^>^ 
£^11 tsarly date, 

*• Fo4iji (irA***) 18 jreDermlly «P" 
posed to rtfpr&sent titl« BjiifitiB* 




which resembles the kingdom of Persia in point of soil, 
and manners, and customs ; but they difftir in point of 
language and appearance of the inhahitantg. These 
also possess a quantity of valuable gems, and are very 

To the south-west of Fo-lin, in an island of the sea, 
is the kingdom of the western women : ^ here there 
are only women, with no men; they possess a large 
quantity of gems and precious stones, which tliey ex- 
change in yo-lin. Therefore the king of Fo-lin sends 
certain men to live with them for a tirae> I£ tliey sliould 
have male children, they are not allowed to bring them 

On leaving the kingdom of O-tin-p'o-chi-lo, and going 
north 700 li or so, we come to the country of Pi-to-shi- 

Pl-T0*SH1-L0 (FlTi^ILA), 

This kingdom is about 3000 li round; the capital is 
some 20 li in circuit. The population is dense. They 
have no chief niler^ but they depend on the country of 
Sin-tu* The soil is salt and sandy j the country is aub- 

zt to a cold tempestuous wind. A great quantity of 

ins and wheat is grown. Flowers and fruits are 
scarce. Tlie manners of the people are fierce and rough. 
Their language slightly differs fram that of ilid-India* 
They do not love learning, hut as far as they know they 
have a sincere faith. There are some fifty san^hdrdmas 
with about 30C!O priests; they study the Littlti Vehicle 
according to the Sammatiya school. There are twenty Beva 
temples, frequented mostly by the heretics called PMu- 

To the north of the city 15 or 16 li, in the middle 
of a great forest, is a sidpa several hundred feet high, 
built by A^ka-rfl,ja* It contains relics which from time 

^ Tor iome refer^Qceft to the h- and Colonel Yule't note (vol. ii p^ 
lAnd or kingdum of tht.^ we^terti 339). 
women, m^ Matco Polo, c^mp* x^xLi 


to time emit a bright light It was here that TatliSgatai 
when in old time he was a Rfehi, was subjected to tha 
cruelty of the king. 

Nut far east from this is an old gauf/Mrdma. This"^ 
was built by the great Arhat, the great KacyiiyaiiBu By 
the side of it are traces %vheie th€ four Buddbas of tbi 
past age sat down and walked for exercise* They have * 
erected a stdpa to denote tbe spot. 

Going uorth-east from this 300 li or so, we come to I 
country of 'O-fiin-ch'a, 

'0-fan-ch'a (Ava^vdaI). 

This kingdom is 2400 or 2500 li in circuit ; the capital 
is about 20 li. There is no chief ruler, but the countty 
13 subject to Sin-tu, The soil is lit for the cultivation 
of grain, and abounds in beans and wheat ; it produces 
but few flowers or fruits; the woods are thin* The 
climate ie windy and cold i tbe disposition of the men 
is fierce and impulsive. Their lani^mage is simple and 
uncultivated They do not value learning, but tijey are 
earnest ajid sincere believers in *' the three gems." There 
are about twenty saHghdrdmas^ with some 2000 priests; 
they mostly study the Little Vehicle according to t!ie 
Sammatiya school There arc some five Dfiva temples, 
frequented by the heretics called Pd^upatas. 

To the north-east of the city, not a great distaiice> in 
tbe middle of a great bamboo forest is a ^aiigMviif^ 
mostly in ruins. Here Taihitiiata gave permisaiou to the 
Ehikshus to wear Kih-fu-to (bools).^ By the side of it 
is a si^pa built by A^ka-raja, Although the fouada- 
dations have sunk into the earth, yet the remains are 
some hundred feet high. In a mhdra by the side of t^« 
Mjpa ia a blue-atone standing figure of Buddha, On 

^ There ire Borae rem arks fnivdc vdl, xviL pk 35), It would i«tn 

about permission to wear booti or from tliese recorth that itib esm* 

shiie« iritb thick Hninp in the try i>f Avaijfjft corresixjoded with 

Makdm^a, varga 13, § 6 ( S. B. t\j Avautl 

^BDOm XL] 



sacred days (fasi'days) it spreads abroad a divine 

To the soutli Boo paces or so, in a forest, is a &t4pa 
vliich was built by A^oka-rSja, Tatbdgata, in time 
gone by, stopping here, finding it cold in the night, 
covei'ed himself with hia three garments : on the morn- 
ing following he permitted the Bhikshus to wear wadded 
garments. In this wood is a place where Buddha walked 
ior exercise. There are bIso a number of sMpag placed 
opposite one another, where the four Baddhas of the 
-past age sat In this st^pa are relies of Buddha's hair 
and nails. On holy days they emit a miraculous 

Going from this north-east 900 li or so, we come to 
the couutry of Fa-la-na. 

V Fa-la-na (Varana),'» 

This kingdom is about 4000 li in circuit, and the 
chief towu^ about 20 li. The population is dense. The 
kingdom is subject to Kapi^a. The chief portion of the 
country consists of mountains and forests. It is regu- 
larly cultivated* The climate is rather cold. The man- 
ners of the people are rough and fierce. They are per- 
severing in their habits, but their purposes are low. 
Their language is somewhat like that of Mid-India. 
Some of them believe in Buddha, others not. They do 
not care about literature or the arts. There are some 
tens of mfifjhdrdmaSf but they are in ruins. There are 
about 300 priests^ who btudy the Great Vehicle. Tlieie 
are about five DSva temples, frequented mostly by Pa^u- 
pat a heretics. 

Not far to the south of the city is an old saiiffMrdmeL 
Here TathSgata in old days preached, exhibiting the 
profit and delight of Ins doctrine, and opening tlie mind 

*" PtnLni hsA A country called gi^ap SuvAstavddi t aho in ih« ^roup 
Vftnm (iv, 2, 103 ; i v. 3, 93), ft-(im KachchhAdi, m which GiUidharft ftUo 
'ver of the ftiune name, m the b iiidu'ii;)! 


of his hearers. By the side ol it are traces where the 
four past Buddhas sat down or walked for exercise. 
The common report aays ott the western frontier of this 
countTy 13 the kingdom of Ki-kiang-na (Kikana?). 
The people live amid the great mountains aod valleys 
in separate ciaus, Thej have no chief ruler* They 
breed an immense quantity of sheep and horses. The 
shm horses are of a large si;Ee, and the countries 
around breed but few, and therefom they are highly 

Leaving this country and going north-west, after tra- 
versing great mountains and crossing wide valleys, and 
passing a succession of smaller towns, and going 2000 li 
or so, we leave the frontiers of India and come to the 
kingdom of Tsau^ku-ta. 

Note- — The retnaimler of the section, noticed on pp, 24S;, 249, 
records a uiiasion sent tti the same kin'^ of Ceylon, AlibunflT, bj 
the Emperor of Chinn (Gb'ljfijig Tau), uuuer the direction of the 
<fnaucU CJh'hmg Ho ; hi« object was to olTer i if cense and flowen. 
Havirsg arrivt^Jj he exhorted the king to respect ihe leaehiug of 
Bu*itlha atid to eipel the heretica. The king l^iiijT eutagetl, <lmrt4 
to slay him^ but Ch'hiug Ho btiiii( aware of the pltit, e^capd. 
Agftin the same atnbaesa^iar waa sent to receive the homage of 
foreij^n stateii, and came to Ceylon (Si-lan-shan^kwo, the countij 
of the Seibnj mountain). The xin^ rebelliously refiiseil 10 pa^any 
respect to the eiubassage^ and collected 50*000 soldiers to bloek th« 
way arul to de^^tmy the tihips. Ch'limjr Ho hu^ing learned the 
purpose of the kitigj sent seci'etly by a circuitous way to the ©hipt, 
and got 3000 aoldiera hy m^^ht to march on the royal city, Bmng 
aurrouiiih^Ll hy the enemy *8 troops, they defended tlie city for six 
da^ej and then having treated the kinj^ with coutuiuely, tbey 
opened the ^^ates in the morn jiv_% and fought ibeir way fi^r tiittfnJy 
li ; when the daylight begun to fail, they offered up pi^iyers to thtt 
aacrcd tooth, anil siuddealy an unusual light ehoue hclore theta nad 
ligljted thani on their way. Uaviu^ reached their ahipa, they 
rested in ])eiice, and arrived at the capital in the ninth year of 
Ytingdob (A.n, 1412), the seventh mouia, and ninth day. ~ 



OonUaim an aeamnt of iufcniy-iioo tonniriet, wi, (j) Tfiu-ku^fJta ^ 
(2) Fo-H-ihi*sa-fa7ig-na; (3) ^An-ta-h-pn ; (4) Khet^h-ti-to; 
(5) Httmh; (6) Mung-kin; (7) 04i^ni; (8) HQ-h-hM; (9) JTi- 
iindk-mo; (io)Po4i-Ai); (u) i?t-T?v>-l(i4o ; ( 1 2) P(?-to-cA^n^-na ; 
(ij) In-po-kin; (14) jrm*£(iw;-na/ (15) Tfl*«n3-j«t-^i<;-ii; {t6) 
jSAt-]t*t-n*y (i7)i'Aaji3-i7u/ (18) /ir'w-y<iri4ii; (19) I/-*iwi; (20) 
irt«-«Aay (21) Ck>-hiu^kia/ (22) iCtV»a-*a-na 

TstJ-KU-CHA (TsA0k6ta}, 

This country^ is about 7000 li in circuit, the capital, 
which is called Ho-ai-na (Ghazna), is about 30 li round. 
There is anotlier capital, Ho-sa-la,^ which h about 30 li 
. round, IJoth of tliem are naUirallj strong and also for- 
tified,' Mountains ami valley a succeed each other, with 
plains inten^eniug, fit for cultivation. The land is sown 
and reaped in due season. Winter wheat is grown in 
jjreat abundance ; shrubs and trees grow in rich variety, 
aud there are flowers and fniits in abundance. The soil 
is favonrable for the yo-kin plant {tmmitric) and for the 
?dn{/-kiu;* this last grows in the valley Lo-ma-in-tu,* 
In the city Ho-sa-lo is a fountain, of which the water 

^ For some reference to the country 
T^tikat% tiif^ anUf voL i p. 62, n. 
218. Gimninf^lmm irtentlBea it with 
the Ara^hoftia of cltiaHical writers 
{Ant, G^f. tif fiidmf p. 40), 

' The idetitificfttioQ of Ho-fii-nn 
with Gha^tii waa first lUAde by M^ 
V. de Si Martin ; he &Un priijK«i^<l 
to ri:r«toi¥ Hd sa-in to Ha£Jlr% bub 
G«nemt Cunningham retnarkii that 
Ihij name, aa Applied to tha district 

in <|ii^ioiif in not older than the 
time c)f Chinghtz Khjui ; he, there- 
fore, propooea Qnxaristan, nn the 
Hehnand, the Qzoln of Ptolemy^ as 
the eqnlvalent of the Cbineie sjm- 
bola itbkLj IcK;. cit,) 

^ For the atrength of Ghaani nee 
Cnnmngham {op, dtj pp 41, 42). 

* Bintju^ ns^safajticlfv ( JyUen). 

^ R^mOniiu? (Julieu^ 


divides itself into many branches, and Tvliich tlie people 
utilise for tlie purposes of irrigatioiu The climate is 
cold ; there are frequent Itail and snow storms. The 
people are naturally Itglit-hearted and impulsive' they ore 
crafty and deceitful* They love learning and the arta, 
und show considerable skill in magical sentences, hat 
they have no good aim in view. 

They daily repeat several myriads of words ; their 
writing and language difTer from those of other couutna. 
They are veiy specious in vain talk, bnt there h little 
body or truLh in what they say. Although they w^orsliip 
a hundred (many) spirits, yet they also greatly reverence 
the three precious ones. There are several hundred 
saii^hdrdmas, with lOOO or so ]iiiest3. They all study 
the Great Vehicle. The reigning sovereign is sincere 
and honest in his faith, and is the successor of a long 
line of kings. He applies hiujself assiduously to religioas 
work (merit) and ia well instructed and fond of learning. 
There are some ten shipas built hy A^6ka-rllja, and several 
tens of Deva temples, in which sectaries of various de- 
nominations dwell together. 

The Tirthaka*^ heretics are very numerous^ they worship 
principally the Deva Kshuna (T'seu*na). This Deva 
spirit formerly came from Mount Aruija ('O-lu-nao) in 
Kapi^, and took up his abode here in thd southera dis- 
tricts of this kingdom, in tlie Mount SunagirJ He m 
severe or good, causing misfortune or exercising violence* 
Those who invoke hirn with faith obtain tlieir wishes ; 
iliose who despise him reap misfortune. Therefore people 
both far off and near show for him deep reverence ; high 
and low alike are filled with religious awe of him. The 
princes, nobles, and people of this as well as of foreign 

^ The ^ymhols Wai-tao may denote 
the ^rtbakASf as Julititi sucinB to 
suppose J or they may be Bimply 
equsd to "oulj th© greater part are 
Wai-tao " the aymlKiJa tc^ii-tiio iwe 
gt^aeranj applied to the Tirtliakas, 

for which eee £itel» Jian<S>ook, sub 

^ For thia inoiiiitam see unle, v^^L 
L p. 62. It txtdij be restorvd to 
K^huaa Hi la or Hiltit 

Book xil] 



countries assemble every year at a aeason of rejoicing 
which is not fixed, and ofifer gold and silver and pre- 
cious objects of rare value {choke trifles), with sheep, and 
horses, and domesiic animals j all "which they present in 
simple and confiding trust, so tlmt tliougli the earth is 
covered with silver and gold, and tha sheep and horsea 
till the valleys, yet no one would dare to covet them: 
they consider them as tilings set apart for sacred pur- 
poses. The heretics (Tirthakas), by subduing their minds 
and mortifying their flesh, get from the spirits of heaven 
sacred formula. By the nse of these they are frequently 
able to control diseases and recover tiie sick. 

Going from this northw^tirds 500 li or so, we come to the 
kingdom of Fo-li-shi-sa-t'an^-na 

Fo-li-shi-sa-t'ang-ka (Pab^osthIma, or YakdasthAna ?J 

This kingdom ® is about 2000 li from east to we^t and 
1000 li from north to south. The capital is called 
U*pi-na (H up i an),® and is 20 li round. As regards the 
toil and the manners of the people, these are the same as 
in Tsu-ku-cha ; the language, however, is different. The 
climate is icy cold ; the men are naturally fierce and 
impetuous. The king is a Turk (Tn-kieuh)» They have 
(or he has) profound faith for the three precious objects 
of worship ; he esteems learning and honours virtue {oTt 
the virtuous, i.e., the priests). 

Going to the north-eaat of this kingdom, traversing 
mountains and crossing rivers, and passing several tens of 
little towns situated on the frontier of the country of 
Kapi^a, we come to a great mountain pasi called Po-lo* 

the country of the Porlua, a warlike 
trib«;,in this dittjutian U'* 3^ n 7 ; BrlL 
i<ajlK , X i V, 18). Bab« r ( itfr ai. * p- 1 40 ) 
mentiotiH the P^irAcbiA aiuong the 
tribes of Ari^haniHtAtt, Ptk>Jemy 
ll(u» twapJaces» P:ir9ian& [ c. i8» 
lb 4) suid Por^iiL (i^., a. 5J> and al^a 

the tribtfs Furaioi and Par^tii^tnt (ifr., 
If. 3J^ somewhere in thb viciaitj. 

^ Hupiftn or Dpbn, a little to th^ 
north of Charikar, iti lai 35' 2' N., 
long:. 69" i' K f at the cntrfiuc^ of a 
pasE over the tior|h-«Aat tind o( the 
pAriighiLu range. 


si-na (YarasGna),^^ wliicb forms part of the g:reat snowy 
mountains* Tliia raouutain pass is very high; the preci- 
pices are wild and dangerous ; the path is tottUDti% and 
the caverns and hollows wind and intertwine togellter. 
At one time the traveller enters a deep valley, at another 
he luomits a liijh peak, which in full summer is blocked 
with fi^ozen ice. By cutting steps^ up the ice the traveller 
passes on, and after three days he comes to the highest 
point of the pass. There the icy wind, intensely cold, 
blow3 with fury; the piled snow fills the valli^ya IVa- 
vellers pushing their way throu^^h, dare not pause on their 
route. The very birds that fly in their wheeling flight^ 
cannot mount alone this point, but go afoot across the 
height and then flv downward,^, Lookin*r at the maun* 
tains round, they seem as little hillocks. This is the 
highest peak of all Jambudvipa, No trees are seen upon 
it, but only a mass of rocks, crowded one by the side of 
the other, like a wild forest* 

Going on for three days more, we descend the pass and 
come to 'An-ta-lo-po (Andar-db),!* 

'An-TA-LO-PO (ANDAJi-iB), 

This is the old land of the Tu-ho-lo country,^ It is 
about 3000 li round; the capital is 14 or 15 li round. 
They have no chief ruler ; it is dependent on the Turks 
(Tuh-kiuehy* Mountains and hills follow in chains, with 
valleys intersectiug them. The arable land is very con- 
tracted. The climate is very severe. The wind and the 
enow are intensely cold and violent ; yet the country is 
regularly cultivated and productive i it is suitable also for 
flowers and fruits. The men are naturally fierce and 

1" This paas over the Hindu Kash 
^tb^ pjLropainiffus or Indian Can- 
cAtUft) is probably the samtj as the 
Kb«Wftk Pms djea«7ibed by Wood 
{Otui, P' 374)^ He fouDd it id be 
1 3,000 feet tn height* 

^* A^ tieuwfi fioaring birds. 

^^ See Book i., n, 146 
^ ThAt is, of the Tokhlri ] 
See Book i., n. i2U 

" That ii, on the TQi-kish tribe 
from the bordem of OhkuL thjit h»d 
oven^D this diiifcrict (iee note, tm. 




yiolent. The common people are tinrestmined in their 
ways, and know neither wroDg nor right. Tliey do not 
care about learning, and give themselves only to the 
worship of spirits. Few of them believe in the religion of 
Buddha. There are three sailjhdrdmaB and some teus of 
priests. They folknv tlie teaching of the Mahasaiighika 
(Ta-choBg-pu) school There is one a^iipa built by ASoka- 

Going north-west from this we enter a valley, skirt 
along a tnonntain pass, traverse several little towtis, and 
after going about 400 li we arrive at K*woh-si-to- 

K'woH-si-TO (Khost).^ 

This also is the old J and of the Tn-ho-lo country. It is 
about 3Cxx> li in circuit; the capital is about 10 li rouiuh 
It has no chief ruler, but is dependent on the Turks. It 
ig mountainous^ with many contracted valleys ; hence it i3 
subject to icy-cold winds. It produces much grain, and 
it abounds with flowers and fruits. The disposition of the 
men b fierce and violent j they live without laws. There 
ftie three mUghdrdmas, with very few priests. 

Going from this north-%vest, skirting the mountains and 
CTossiug the valleys, and passiug by several towns, after 
about 300 li we come to the country called Hwoh. 

This country is also the old land of the Tuh-ho-lo 
country. It is about 3000 li in circuit ; the chief town 
is about 10 li* There is no chief ruler, but the country 
depends on the Turks. The land ia level and plain. It is 
regularly cultivated, and produces cereals in abundance. 
Trees and shrubs grow plentifully, and flowers and fruits 
(o/i'aTWUs JHnd^) are wonderfully abundant. The climate 
la soft and agreeable; the manners of tlie people simple 

^ SeeBook i^ n 145, » Bee Book L, u, 35^ 


and Loriest, The men are naturally quick and impulsive; 
they clothe themselves with woollen garmeDt^* Many 
believe in the three precious oljecta (qf worship)^ 2.nd a 
few pay t!ieir adoration to the spirits. There are ten 
miighdnhftas with several hundred followers (pricsis)* 
They study both the Great and the Little Vehicle, aod 
practise the discipline of both. The king is of the Turkish 
ckn ; he governs all the little kiugdoms to the south of 
the Iron Gates. *^ He constantly shifts his dwelling, like 
n bird {his hifd-dwdling), not constantly occupying this 

Going east from this, we ent^r the Tsung-ling moun- 
tains.^* These mountains are situated in the middle of 
Janihudnvlpa. On the south they border on the great 
snowy Tuonntains ; on the north they reach to the hot sea 
{Lake TtmiiTtu), and to the " Thousand Springs ; '* on the 
west they extend to the kingdom of Hwoh ; on the east 
to the kingdom of U-cha (Ocb). From east to west and 
from north to south they run equally for several thousand 
li, and abound in many hundreds of steep peaks and dark 
valleys. The mountain heights are rendered dangeroua by 
the glaciers and frozen snow. The cold winds blow with 
fury. As the laiid produces a great quantity of onions 
therefore it is called T'sung-ling ; or b^use the crags of 
these mountains have a greeni^t-blue tint, hence also the 

Going east loo li or so^ we come to the kingdom of 

llmsTG-Kts (Munjak). 

This coimtry ^ is an old territory of the Tu-ho-li conn* 
try. It is about 40O li in diruiL The chief city h about 
15 or 16 11 tonmi Ibe soil and mannei^ of the people 
ttsttnUe to m gr^t extent the Hwoh countiy. There 
ii no chief mkr, Imt tbej depend on the Turks, Going 
)%ortb we coaie to tbe coquI^ of 'O-li-nL 




O-u-Ni (Ahreng). 

This country** is an old territory of Tu-ho-lo. It 
borders both sides of the river Oxus.*^ It is about 300 
li in circuit; the chief city is 14 or 15 li round* In 
character of its soil and manuera of the people it greatly 
resenjbles the Hwoh country. 

Going east, we come to Ho-lo-hu*** 

Ho-Lo-HU (Ragh). 

This country ^ is an old territory of Tu-ho-lo. On the 
north it borders on the Oxus (Fots*u, Vakshu). It is 
about 200 li in circuit The chief town is about 14 or 15 
li rouod. The products of the soil and the manners of the 
people greatly resemble the Hwoh country. 

Going eastward from the Mung-kin country, skirting 
along high mountain passes, and penetrating deep valleys, 
and passing in succession various districts and towns, after 
a journey of 300 li or so we arrive at the country of Ki- 

Ki-u-si-MO (Kheishma or Kishm), 

This country ^ is an old territory of Tu*ho-lo. From 
east to west it is 1 000 li or so ; from north to south it is 
300 li. The capital is 15 or 16 li round. The soil and 
the manners of the people are just like those of Mung- 
kin, except that these men are naturally hot-tempered 
and violent. 

Going north-east we come to the kingdom of Po-li-ho 

This country ^ is an old territory of Tu-ho-Io From 

* For thj« cotintry aee Book l, n, Roshan (Y. St Martitii p. 42 1 J. 

14V '^ Bee Book I, ii. 143* 

•1 The ¥o't*m iY tkkshu). ^ Sec Book L^ n* 14U 

^ The JapaoesQ gives Kn-ra-ko. ^ S«« Book L, a. 140. 

After JulifiB it repreB^nta Boh or 



east to west it is about loo li, and from north to south 
about 300 11 The chief town is some 20 li or so in 
circuit The produce of the soil and the ttiantiers of the 
people are like those of Ki-li-si-ma 

Going east from Ki-li-si-mo, after tm\'ei^iiig mouu tains 
and crossiof^ valleys for about 300 li, we come to the 
couutrj of Hi*mo-ta-Io, 



This country *^ is an old terf itory of the country of Ta- 
Iio-la It 13 about 300 li in circuit. It ia cat up by 

mountains aud valleys. The soil is rich and fertile, and 
fii for cereals. It produces much winter wheat Every 
kind of plant flourishes, and fi'uita of all sorts grow in 
ubundance. The climate is cold ; the disposition of the 
men violent and hasty. They do not distiiiguish between 
wrong and right Their appearance is vulgar and ignoble. 
In respect of their modes of behaviour and forms of 
etiquette, their clothes of wool, and skin, and felt, they 
fire like the Turks. Their wives wear upon their head- 
dress a wooden horn about three feet or so in length. It 
has two branches (a double branch) in front, which signify 
father and moLlier of the husband. The upper horn 
denotes the fatlier, the lower one the mother, AVhichever 
of these two dies first, they remove one horn, hut when 
both are dead, they give up this style of headdress. 

The first king of this country was a SAlcya,^ fearless 
and bold. To the west of the T'sung-ling mountains niost 
of the people were subdued to his powt*r. The frontiers 
were close to the Turks^ and so they adopted their low 
customs, and suffering from their attacks tliey protected 
their frontier. Aud thus the people of this kingdom were 
dispersed into diflereut districts, and had many tens of 
fortified cities, over each of which a separate chief was 




placed The people live in tenta made of felt, and lead 
the life of nomads. 

On tbe west side this kingdom touches the country of 
Ki-li-si-rao, Going from this 200 odd li, we arrive at the 
country of Po*to-chang-iia (BadakabUn). 


This kingdom^ 13 an old territory of the Tu-ho-lo 
country ; it i^ about 2000 li in circuit, and the capital, 
which is placed on the side of a mountain precipice, is 
some 6 or 7 li in circmt It is intersected with njountain'? 
and valleys, a vast expanse of sand and stone stretches 
over it ; the soil is fit for the growth of beans and wheat ; 
it produces an abundance of grapes, the kbamil peach, 
and plums, &c. The climate is very cold. The men are 
naturally fierce and hasty ; their customs are ill-regulated ; 
ihey have no knowledge of letters or the arts ; their ap- 
pearance u low and ignoble ; they wear mostly garments 
of wooL There are three or four mnyhdrdmas, with very 
few followers* The king is of an honest and .sincere dis- 
position. He has a deep faith in the three precious objects 
of worship. 

Going from this south-east, passing across mountains 
and valleyB, after 200 li or so we come to the country of 
lE-po-kin (Yamg&n), 


This country® is an old temtory of the Tu-ho-lo 
country. It is about 1 ooo li or so in circuit. The capital 
is about 10 li round. There is a connected line of hilb 
and valleys through the country, with narrow strips of 
arable land. With respect to the produce of tbe soil, the 
climate, and the character of the people, these difler little 
from the kingdom of Po-to-chang-na^ only the character 
of the language differs slightly. The king's nature is 

• S«>« BookL, n. 13& 

^ Se« Book L| n. 137. 


violent and impulsive, and he does not know clearly the 
difference between right and wrong. 

Going from this south-east, skirting the mountains and 
crossing the valleys, traversing thus by narrow and diflS- 
cult ways a distance of 300 li or so, we arrive at the 
country of Kiu-lang-na. 


This country^® is an old territory of Tu-ho-lo; it is 
about 2000 li round. As regards the character of the 
soil, the mountains and the valleys, the climate and the 
seasons, it resembles the kingdom of In-po-kien' (In- 
vakan). The customs of the people are without rule, 
their disposition is rough (common) and violent; the 
greater portion do not attend to religion; a few believe in 
the law of Buddha. The appearance of the people is 
displeasing and ungainly. They wear principally woollen 
garments. There is a mountain cavern from which much 
pure gold is procured (dug otU). They break the stones 
and afterwards procure the gold. There are few sang- 
hdrdmas, and scarcely any priests. The king is honest 
and simple-minded. He deeply reverences the three 
})recious objects of worship. 

Going north-east from this, after climbing the moun- 
tains and penetrating valleys, and going along a precipi- 
tous and dangerous road for 500 li or so, we come to the 
kingdom of Ta-nio-si-tie-ti. 

Ta-mo-si-tie-ti (Ta>la.sthiti ?). 

This country ^^ is situated between two mountains. It 
is an old territory of Tu-ho-lo. From east to west it 
extends about 1500 or 1600 li; from north to south iis 
width is only 4 or 5 li, and in its narrowest part not more 
than one li. It lies upon the Oxus (Fo-t'su) river, which 
it follows along its winding course. It is broken up widi 

^ See Book i., n. 138. « See Book i., n. 135. 

hills of tliflerent heights, whilst sand and stoaes lie scat- 
tered over the surface of the soil The wind is icy cold 
and blows fiercely. Though ihey sow the ground, it pro- 
duces but a little wheat and pulse. There are few trees 
(/oirM trees), but pleuty of flowers and fruits. Here the 
sJieit horse is bred. The horse, though small in size, yet 
easily travels a long distance. The manners of the people 
have no regard to propriety. The men are rough and 
violent; their appearance low and ignoble. They wear 
woollen garments. Their eyes are mostly of a blue 
colour,^ and in this respect they dilTer from people of 
otlier countries. Tiiere are some ten miighdrdrnm, with 
iTery few priests (relpjious foPiKucTs), 

The capital of the country is called n%van^t*o-to. In 
the middle of it k a saihjMrdma built by a former king 
of this country. In its construction ^ he excavated the 
side of the hill and tilled up the vriUity, The early 
iMngs of tliis country were not believers in Buddha, 
tut sacrificed only lo the spirits worshipped by unbe- 
lieTers; but for some centuries the converiin^if power of 
I the true law has been difihsed. At the beginning, the 
sou of the king of this country, who was much loved by 
lum, fell sick of a serious diseiise ; be employed the utmost 
akill of the medicine ai*t, but it brought no benefit Then 
the king went personally to the Dfiva temple to worship 
and ask for some means of recovering his child. On this 
the cliief of the temple, speaking in the name of the 
epirit, said, *'Yonr son will certainly r*^ cover; let your 
mind rest in peace/' The king having heard it, was 
greatly pleased, and returned homewards. On his way 
lie met a Shaman, bis demeanour staid and remarkable. 
{Astonished at his appearance and dress, the king asked 
him whence he came and whither he was g^Jing. The 
^Shaman having already reached the holy fruit (o/anArhat), 
idesired to spreaii the law of Buddha, and therefore be had 

^ Pihf either blue or green, like ^ Id con stmc ting and shaping its 
like devp itea. ^tirta and haUa. 


ti—me j liiis depQfiEii€&t aod appeamnee ; so replying he 
8tid« 'I am ft diacsple of Tathf&gata, and am called a 
Byfaka." The king, who was in greafc anxietj, at once 
lAed hm, * My soe is grievously afflicted ; I Bcaii^ely 
tmom whiter he is liraig or dead, {WHl h€ raa?r<?r/") 
The Shaman miA^ "You might raise (from the dead) the 
^piriti of jimr mnoestors^ but your lored son it is difficult 
to ddm^r Tlie king replied, **A spirit of IieaveQ has 
■MHud use be will not die^ and the Shatnan says he will 
die; it is difficult to know what to believe, coming from 
lh€si nmlats of relfgioa**** Coming to his palace, he found 
that his lored mm wis already dead. Hiding the corpse and 
nmkii^ no foneral pfeparaiiorm, he again asked the priest 
of the Blva lemfde i^pecting him. In reply be said, " H13 
win noC die; he will certainly recover/* The king io a 
iige aeised the priest and held him fast, and then upbraid- 
ing bini be said, " Yon and your accomplices arc mon- 
atMttt dieats ; yon pretend to be religious, but yon practise 
lying. My son is dead, and yet you say he will certainly 
veoofrer. Such lying cannot be endured ; the priest {maMtr) 
of the temple shall die and the building be destroyed." 
On this he killed the priest and took the image and dung 
it into the Oxns. On his return, he once more laet the 
Shmnan ; on seeing him he was glad, and respectfully pros- 
trated himself before him, as he gratefully said/* Hitherto 
I have ignorantly followed (my ^uidc), and trod the path 
u{ false teaching. Although I have for a long time followed 
the windings of error, now tlie change Iras come from this**' 
1 pray you condescend to come %vith me to my dwelling." 
The Shaman accepted the invitation and went to tlie 
palace. The funeral ceremonies being over, (fli£ kinfj) 
addressed the Shaman and said, ** The woild of men ia in 
confusion, birth and death flow on ceaselessly j my soa 
was dck, and I asked whether he would remain with me 
or depart, and the lying spirit said he would surely re- 

^ EwH t*uh ik^ jin, men wha rvprave tht imskL 

*• /,tt from this interview* 





cover; but the first worcla of indication you gave were 
true and not false. Therefore tlie system of religion you 
teach is to be reverenced. Deign to receive me, deceived 
as I have been, as a disciple," He, moreover, begged the 
Shaman to plan and measure out a saHghdrdrndt; then, 
accordiiig to tlie right dimensions^ he const ructed this 
building, and from that time till now the law of End dim 
has been in a flourishing condition* 

In the middle of the old mTlghdrdjna is the vihdra built 
by this Arhat. In the vihdra is a statue of Buddha in 
stone above the statue 13 a circular cover of gilded 
copper, and ornamented wiih gems; Tvhen men walk 
round the statue in worshipj the cover also turns ; when 
they stop, the cover stops, Tlie miracle cannot be ex* 
plained. According to the account given by the old j>eople, 
it is said that the force of a prayer of a holy man effects 
the miracle, Otliers say tliere is some secret mecbanisra 
in the matter ; but when looking at the solid stone walls 
of the hallj and inquiring from the people as to their 
knowledge (of mich mtchani^i), it is difficult to arrive at 
any satisfaction about the matter. 

Leaving this country, and traversing a great mountain 
northward, we arrive at the country of Shi-k'i-ni (Shikh- 

Shi-k'i-ni (ShikhnanX 

This country ** is about 2cmx^ li in circuit, the chief city 
IS 5 or 6 IL Mountains and valleya follow each other in 
a connected succession j sand and atones lie scattered over 
the waste lands. Much wheat and beans are grown, but 
little rice. The trees are thin, flowers and fruits not 
abundant. The climate is icy-cold; the men are fierce 
and intrepid, Tliey think nothing of murder and rob- 
bery; they are ignorant of good manners or juaticep and 
cannot distinguish between right and wrong. They are 
deceived as to the happiness and misery of the future, 

** See Book L, n. I J3 


and only fear present calamities. Their figure and 
appearance are poor and Ignoble; their garments are 
made of wool of skin ; their writing is the same as thai ct 
the Turks, bnt the spoken language i3 different. 

Passing along & great mountain to the sonth of Hit 
kingdom of Ta-mo-si-tie-ti (Tamasthitil*^, we come to the 
country of Sliang-mi, 

Shang-mi {^AmbhI ?). 

This country*® is ahont 2500 or 2600 li in circait. 
It ia intersected with inoimtains an J valleys ; with hdb 
of various heights, Every kind of grain is cultivated; 
beans and wheat are abundant Grapes are pleniifuL 
The country produces yellow arsenic. They bore into 
the cliffs and break the stones^ and so obtain it. The 
mountain spirits are cruel and wicked j they frequently 
cause calamities to befall the kitidgom. 

On entering the country, sacrifice is offered np to tliem, 
after which good success attends the persona in coming 
and going. If no sacrifice is offered them, the wind and 
the hail attack the travellers. Tlie climate is very cold; 
the ways of the people are quick, their disposition is 
honest and simple. They have no rules of propriety or 
justice in their behaviour j their wisdom is small, and in 
the arts tliey have very little ability. Tiieir writing is 
the same as that of the kingdom of Tu-ho4o, but the 
spoken language is somewhat differenL Their clothes 
are mostly made of woollen stuff. Their king is of the 
race of ^^kya,^ He greatly esteemg the law of Buddba. 

■^ TamiiHthiti, ftceonding to Eitel 
{Natidbookt «* v. \ wna '* tiii ancient 
province of Tukbiira, noted for 
the ferociirua c]mrtu:t«r of lU in- 
hjibitanta.'" But this is probably 
derived from Jiilien'B reatorntion 
in the text, which he givea d<iubt- 

*^ ThLa is the coimtry over which 
one of the baniiihed S^kjuk jouths 

reigoed (Be© ttitiet p. 21), It i* rt- 
stored by Julien to SAoibhi m the 
pa^j»age before 11s, but to S&mM, 
vol ii p« 31^. Eitel [op. tiL,^w4 
sp^ikkn of thi4 kmgdom as fonmled 
by refugees cif the Ssikja family, »Dd 
situated ae&t Chitral| lat, ZS' iS 
N.t And long. 72'' 27* K 
^ See prev'iuus note. 

Book xn J 



The people follow his example, and are all animated by 
a sincere faitlu Tliere ai6 two mi^hdrdm^is, with very 
few followers. 

On the norfch-ea&t of the frontiGi- of the country, 
skirting the mountains and croesin*r the valleys, advan- 
cing along a dangerous and precipitous road, alter goiug 
700 li or so, wt3 cotiie to the valley of Po-rai-Io 
(Pauiir).*^ It stretches icoo li or so east and west, and 
100 li or so from north to south; in the narrowest part 
it is not more than lo li. It is situated among tlie 
snowy mountains; on thi^ accounL tlie climate is cold, 
and the winds blow constantly,^ The snow falls both 
in summer and spring-time* Night and day the wind 
rages violently^ The soil is impregnated with salt and 
covered with quantities of gravel and aand. The grain 
which is sown does not ripen, shrubs and trees are rare ; 
there is bnt a succession of desert without any iuhabiiants. 

In the middle of tlie Piliuir valley is a grt-at dragon 
lake (K^gahrada) \ from east to west it is 300 li or so, 
from north to south 50 li. It is situated in the midst 
of the great T'sung ling mountains, and is the central 
point of Jambudvipa.*^ The land is very high; the 
water is pure and dear as a mirror; it cannot be 
fathomed ; the colonr of the lake is a dark blue ; the 
taste of the water sweet and soft : in tlie water hide the 
haU'ki fish (shark^^ider), dragons, crocodiles, tortoises; 
floating on its surface*' are ducks, wild geese, cranes, 

» Pitnir, according to Sir T* D. 
pursy th {lirport of Miuion fo Yar- 
katuL, p. 231* n. ) lis a Khokandi 
Turki word signifying *'dei4crt/' 
Fii^r a dt^McripUon of ttiis d^triot 
&iid ite vvatfcriiheda» see Forajth 
{op. cit., p. 231)1 alfto Wofid'a OjeuM, 
chap. x%L 

*' Thin no dmibt referv to tba 
SiLrik-kul l&kci othGnvisu called 
Kul-i-P^Jiiir-kuliLn, the Uke of the 
Great Piinir ; bcc ante, voL I p. 12, 
a. 33. The \^Teat Na^a Uise is 

hrada ; Rdvaria also dwelt on 
Laiika-gfti (PoUmka 1)^ and p<M* 
sibiy frutzi him in denved the 
Arabic nainv for AdAm'ff Pt^akp 
Mi>iJnt Rah wan* The remurk in 
the text "that it cannot be fa- 
thomed ** h a mutak&. Wood 
found Boundinga at 9 fathoitiiH ((^ntv, 

^ Hii^en T:9«iaiig^^a viait woa 
iiurtug |h« HuiiimBr ni<>ntLi» (pro- 
bably of A»i\ 642) ; it! the winter, 
the lake ia froztm ta n thlokneaa 
of two feet and a half (Wood'a 


and so on j large eggs ara fouad concealed in the wild 
desert wasteSp or among the marahy shrubs» or oa th« 
sandy islets* 

To the west of the lake there is a large stream^ which, 
going west, reaches so far as the eastern borders of tie 
kingdom of Ta-mo-si-tie-ti (? Tamasthiti), and there 
joins the ri%^er Oxus (Fo*t'su) and flows still to the west 
So on this side of the lake all the streams flow Tvest- 

On the east of the lake is a great stream,** which, flow- 
ing north-east, reaches to the western frontiers of tlja 
country of Kie-sha(?Kashg&r), and there joins the Si-to 
(^ttl) river ** and flows eastward, and so all streams oa 
the left aide of the lake flow eastwnrd. 

Passiog over a mountain to the south of the Pamir 
vallej% we find the country of Fo-lo-lo (Bolor) i ** here is 
found much gold and silver ; the gold is as red as fire 

On leaviug the midst of this valley and going south- 
eastj along the route tliere is no inhabited place (no mm of 
villafjc). Ascending the mountains, traversing the side of 
precipices, encountering nothing but ice and snow, and 
thus going 500 li we arrive at the kingdom of K'ie- 


This country*** is about 2000 li in circuit; the capital 

OxuM^ p. 236>. But in the fiiitnmet' 
the See on the lake l» broken up, 
lind thc' hills in it^ neighbourhood 
clear of tnow ; thii (Aocording to 
the atatement of the Khkghi^ 
who acoompatited Wood) takes 
p1a<:ie as enrlj ii« tbe end of June, " M 
which time the water ewariBA with 
aquaUc birds" iop. Ht^^ p. 239)5 
this confintiB the remark in the 
text. For the other ri^marki, «ee 
Ha too rf>lo, bocik L chap. JCXJiii., 
And Ynlo'§ nrttoB. 

** *' The sti^ry of an eastern out- 
flow from thtJ lake ii no dotibt ft 
legend ccsnnected with an anekiit 
Hindu belitif (see CktUmy^ p. 347 )» hut 

Bunies m modem titii€sheu%i mdcfa 
the game }^U*wy " (Yuk* Jlfoto Pokk 
vol* L p. 166), 

** For Boine rcmwk» oa the Stti 
Hver see auttj vol. 1. n. 54. Jdien. 
in a note found on p.^ 5 "J, ¥0L lit, 
correctfl the name to AitA, m^ftniAg 
** cold ;" hjM authority id ih© Chine* 
D ii5ti< ma r y, I-tsukat^f -in- i, 

^ Perhaps the same as Balt^J 
Tibetan kingdom. Be<« Ounill 
bam (quoted by Yu!t\ J^, J*., xii 
p. i6iiK 

^ Julian i«gtoi^ea tiM tmabek 
Kl^^'p'ttti'to to Kbavandh*'do«ibc- 
fully, V, de St. ^lartEn in hi« 
Mimoin (p. 426/ reatoriiii tt l«i Kat- 





roets on a great rocky crag of the Diouatain, and is backed 
by the river Sitl It is about 20 li in circuit. The iriouo- 
tain chaios run in continuous succession, the vaileya and 
plains are very contracted. There is very little rice culti- 
vated, but beana and corn grow in abundnnce. Trees 
grow thinly, there are only few fruits and flowers* The 
plateaux are soppy, the hills are waste, the towns are 
deserted ; the roanners of the people are without any rules 
of propriety. There are very few of the people who give 
themselves to study. They are naturally uncouth and 
impetuous, but yet they are bold and courageous, Tlieir 
appearance is common and revolting; their clothes are 
made of %voollen stuffs. Their letters are much like those 
of the Kie-sha {? Kasligar) country. They know how 
to express themselves sincerely, and they greatly rever- 
ence the law of Buddha, There are some ten mfighdv^wmB 
with about 500 followers. They study the Little Vehicle 
according to the school of the SarvSstivyas. 

The reigning king is of an upright and honest charac- 
ter J he greatly honours the three treasures ; his external 

chu, and In Fa-hian (p, 9, ti. 6), I 
have adopted tbit revtoration. Col 
Yulo, however (Wood's Oxttitt xlvni. 
It t)( vpeaks of Karchu an '*a wiU- 
o'-thi? wh^, ivhieh never biul unv ex- 
j«tent?e.'* Oti the other hand, he 
my»f ** We know thiK ftti^te (t.^., K&- 
blaidhm the fCk-panto of the text) 
to be idleTrtic4il with the n*o*ienv 
temtory ot BaHktJ, other wise calied 
Ttish Kurghftn from its chitf t*>wn " 
iop. KL| p* itlviii.); ft rid agam, "As 
for K&rchiif which in an many maps 
occupiei? a pMMiitioa on the waters of 
the Yarkand river, it was an erro* 
neone transliteration of the naioa 
Hatcbdt or Ketchfit, which appeared 
in the ( Chinese) tabteic of the hvter 
Jeftuit survey oFi to the lioyth of 
Sarikol and won by thetn apparently 
JStended &9 a loose apprtjxJinattnn to 
%ho pofliitloti of the frontier of the 
Dam Rtiite of Kanji'tt or Huuz*** {op. 

cit., p. Iv,) It wonld appear from the 
above extracts thatK'ie-pa^n-to mnst 
be identified with Sarikol and Tush 
Kurghan (atoue^lower), and niTt with 
thi^ Kie-cha of Fa-hian, I am un- 
able^ however, to trace Fa h fan 'a 
route to " Kie cha or Ladak,'* aa 
atattd by Yule (o/j. et£., xL), and 
Cnnninghain {Ladal\ qtjoted by 
Yule, ibid-)', for if Kie^chu beLadak, 
how can the pilgrim describe It aa 
in the middle of the T'^unff-Ung^ 
mountalna (chap, v,}, or say tliat a 
jnum^^j of one month ^'i^^ijtwtird 
aorusB the T'simg-ling mountains 
brought hUn to Korth India {chap, 
vi.) ? Dr. Eitel Identifies th^ K'i<*- 
cha i>f Fa -hi an with the Kiwioi of 
Ptolemy {Hundb^tf s, v. JChtda] ; 
M. V. de St* Martin observtf* {Mi' 
moire J p, 427) that Ka>^hgiir and tt« 
territory correspond with the Caiia 
r^tQ Sciflkiee of Ptolemy, 


loanner is quiet and unassuming; he is of a vigorous 
mind and loves learning. 

Since the establishment of the kingdom many succas- 
sive ages have passed. Sometimes the people spt^ak of 
tliemselves as deriving their name from the Clu-na-ti- 
po-klu-ta-lo (China-d6va-g8tm)» Formerly tliis country 
was a desert valley in the midst of the Tsuog-Iing moun- 
tains. At tbia time a king of the kingdom of Persia 
(Po4a-sse) took a wife from the Han countfv. She had 
been met by an escort on her progress so far as this, M?hen 
the roads east and west were* stopped by military optna- 
tions. On this they placed the king's danghter on a 
solitary mountain peak, very higli and dangerous, %vliicli 
could only be approached by ladders, up and down j 
moreover, they surrounded it with gnards both night aatl 
day for protection. After three months the disturbaiicea 
were quelled {tJuyput doimitJm rohhcrs). Quiet being re- 
stored, they were about to resume their homeward journey 
But now the lady was found to be enceinte. Then the 
minister in charge of the mission was filled with fear and 
he addressed Ids colleagues thus : ** The king's cammaads 
were that I should go to meet his bride. Our company, 
in expectation of a cessation of the troubles ihat en- 
dangered the roads, at one time encamped in the wilds, 
at another in the deserts \ in the niormug we knew cot 
what would happen before the evening* At length tbe 
influence of our king having quieted the connLrj% I was 
resuming the progress homeward when I found that the 
bride was enceinte* 1'his has caused me great grief, aad 
I know not the place of my death. We must inquire 
about the villain who has done this (secrdly), with a 
view to punish liim hereafter. If we talk about it and 
noise it abroad, we shall never get at the truth.'* Then 
his servantj addressing the envoy, said, ** Let there be no 
inquiry ; it is a spirit that has liad knowledge of he;; 
every day at noon there was a chief-master who came 
from the sun's disc, and, niounted on horseback, came lo 

BOOE xil] the descendant OF THE SUN GOD. 301 

meet htv" The envoy saiii, "If this be S0| how can I 
clear myself. from fault? If I go back I BboU certainly 
be put to death ; if I delay here they mil send to have 
Hie punished. Wliat is the bi^st thing to do ? " He 
answered, " This is not so complicated a matter ; wlio is 
there to make inquiries about matters or to exact pun- 
ishment outside the frontiers ? Put it off a few days (from 
morning to evtiiiru/)" 

On this he built, on the top of a r<^cky peakj a palace 
with its surrounding apartments;*^ then having erected 
an enclosui-e round the palace of some 300 paces, he 
located the princess there as chief. She established rules 
of ^oveniment and enacted laws. Her time having corae, 
slje bore a son of extraordinary beauty and perfect parts. 
The mother directed the affairs of state ; the son received 
his bonoiirable title ;** he was able to fly through the air 
and control tlie winds and snow. He extended his power 
far and wide, and the renown of his laws was everywhere 
known. The neighbouring countries and those at a dis- 
tance subscribed tlieraselves his subjects. 

The king having died from age, they buried him in a 
stone chamber concealed with a great mountain cavern 
about 100 li to the south-east of this city. His body, 
being dried, has escaped corruption down to the present 
time. The form of his body is shrivelled up and thin: he 
looks as if be were asleep. From time to time they 
change his clothes, and regularly place incense and flowers 
by liis side. From that time till now his descendants 
have ever recollected their origin, that their mother (or, 
tm their mothers side), tliey were descended from the 
king of Han, and on tlieir father's side from the race uf 
the Sun-deva, and therefore they style themselves *'de- 
ficendants of the Han and Sun-i*od/* *® 

^ This may be the ori|^m of the 
term Task A'ttrtjkaftx «tone tow^'r. 
** That h, the son of the Sun- 

^ Ther^ h Id thia etory a aott of 

rcBettiblance to the tale abtiut Syd* 
wiish the Pirtiian and Afrtlttjab tibe 
Turainan, The latter gave to the 
royal refugee hiadauiLjhtet- KaraugiR, 
with the provincea of Khutan and 


The ineiubers of the royal family in appearaiiee re- 
eemble the people of the Middle Country (Cliina). Thej 
wear on their heads ft square cap, and their clotbes are 
like those of the Hu people (UlL*hura}. In after-ages 
these people fell under the power of the haibatiacL^ who 
kept their country in their power* 

When A^ka-rUja was in the world he built in this 
palace a skiiKL Afterwards^ when ihe kiug changed his 
residence to the north-east angle of the royal precinct^ he 
built in this old palace a mtghdrdnut for the sake of 
Kumaralabdha (T*oug-shiu). The t-owera of this building 
are high {and Ushjath) wide. There is in it a GgQfe of 
Buddha of majestic appearance. The venerable Knm&m* 
labdha was a native of Takaha^ill From his childhood 
he showed a rare intelligence, and in early life gave up 
the world. He allowed his mind to wander through the 
sacred texts, and let his spirit indulge itself in profonod 
reveries, Daily lie recited yipoo words and wrote 32,000 
letters* In this way he was able to surpass all liis con* 
tennjoraries, and to establish his renown beyoiul the ag^ 
in which he lived. He settled the true law, and overcame 
false doctrine, and distinguished himself by the brilliancy 
of his discussion. There was no ditficulty which he couW 
not overcome. All the men of the tive Indies came to see 
him, and assigned him the highest rank. He compel 
many tens of iddra^. These were much renowned and 
studied by all. He was the founder of the SauirSntika 
(King-pu) school. 

At this time in the east was Aivaghdsha, in the soutli 
I>Ava» in the west Nigdrjuna, in the north Kumira- 
l&bdha. Tirese four were called the four sons that ilk- 



Chin or Mdchin iH&bicbfll l\ They 
■etUed At Kiuig, «oiii« dUtmioe 
north-eAst of KbuluL S«e BeUew, 
Bimr§ ^ KuMhgSr (clw|k ill, For- 
w^'bM^gH), TIm f&me of KAtk< 
hntto (C^Ttti) m m hero child nf the 
iUn M«nu to ftgret with the uumcU' 
Koui Ittrtb And oonqiieitA uf tb« child 

whose hiTtb ii nftmiWd in the teit 
I mmj add tb«t a Guntidantlon atUm 

cinmraBtaiicea ccmnecttnl iftilh thv 
history of ihe Persiim {IrmniAn' Aiid 
Tutmnian tribes eonlfirini me in the 
tjpinioti that the Tn-htJ-lu <if Muko 
Tiimng r\^funj Ut the TurAumti pe«>pK 
mnd not in the Tuxka (to-caUieil^ 





mined the world The king of tliis country, therefore, 
having heard of the honourable one {Kumdraiahdha) and 
Ilia great qualities, raised an army to attack Takslm^Ia, 
and carried him off by force. He then built this saiighd- 

Going south-east 300 H or so from the city, we come to 
a great rocky scarp in which two chambers are excavated, 
in each of which is an Arhat pltmged in complete ec3tas3% 
They are sitting upright, and they could be moved but 
with difficulty. Their appearance is shrivelled, but their 
skin and bones still survive. Though 700 years Jiave 
elapsed, their hair still gi'owa, and because of this the 
priests cut their hair every year and change their clothes. 

To the north-east of the great crag after going 200 li 
or so along the mountain-side and the precipices, we come 
to a Ftiuyaidld (a hospice}. 

In the midst of four mountains belonging to the eastern 
chain of the T*sung-ling mountains there is a si)ace com- 
prising some hundred A-*n7<y {ihoitsand acres). In this, both 
during summer and winter, there fall down piles of snow ; 
the cold winds and icy storms rage. The ground, impreg- 
nated with salt, produces no crops ; there are no trees and 
nothing but scrubby underwood. Even at the time of 
great heat the wind and the snow continue. Scarcely have 
travellers entered this region when they find themselves 
surrounded by vapour from the snow. Merchant bands, 
caravans, in coming and going suffer severely in these 
difficult and dangerous spots. 

The old story says : ** Formerly there was a troop of 
merchants, who, with their followers, amounted to 10^000 
or so, with many thousand camels. They were occupied 
in transporting their goods and getting profit They were 
assailed by wind and snow, and both men and beasfs 

As this time there was a great Arhat who belonged to 
the kingdom of Kie-p*an-to, who, taking a wide look, 
saw them in their danger, and being moved by pity, de- 


eired to exert his spiritual power for their rescue; but 
when he arrived tljey were already dead. On this he col- 
lected the precious objects that lay scattered about aud 
constructed a house, and gathering in ilus all the wealth 
he conld,he bought the neigldiouringlaud and biiiU hoase^ 
in the hordtring cities for the accommodation of travellers, 
and now merf^lmntmen aod travellers enjoy the benefit o( 
his hetieficeiice* 

Going north-east froni this, descending the Tsung-ling 
mountains to the eastward, after parsing dangerous defile* 
and deep valleys, and traversing steep and dangerom 
roads, assailed at every step by snow and wind, after goiu^ 
lOO li or so, we emerge from the Tsang^ing mountainf 
^nd come to the kingdom of U-sha, 

U-SHA (Och). 

This kingdom is abont loooli in circuit; the chief town 
is about 10 li round. On the sojith it borders on the 
river SitL The aoil is rich and prodnctive ; it is regularly 
cultivated and yields abundant liarvests. The trees and 
forests spread their foliage afar, and flowers and fruiU 
abound. This country produces jade of different sorts 
in great quantities; white jade, black, and green. The 
climate is soft and agreeable ; the winds and rain follow 
in their season ; the manners of the people are not much 
in keeping with the principles of politeness. The mea 
are natn rally hard and uncivilised ; they are greatly given 
to falsehood, and few of tlem have any feeling of shame. 
Their language and writing are nearly the same as tbos^^^ 
of Kie-sha, Their personal appearance is low and rtpub^H 
sive. Their clothes are made of skins and woollen siufT*, ^^ 
However, they have a firm faith in the law of Buddha 
and greatly honour him. There are some ten mtgkd- 
rdmas, with somewhat leas than rooo priests. They 
study the Little Vehicle according to the school of the 
Sarvlstiv^daa. For some centuries the royal line hai 

BOOK Tit] 




been extinct They liave no ruler of their own, but ara 
in dependence on the country of K'ie-p*an*to* 

Two hundred li or so to the west of the city we come to 
a great mountain. This mountain is covered with brood- 
ing vapours, which hang like clouds abore the rocka. 
The crags rise one above another, and seem as if about 
t^ fall where they are suspended. On the mountain top 
13 erected a st4pa of a wonderful and mysterious cha- 
racter. This is the old story i — Many centnries ago this 
mountain suddenly opened; in the middle was seen a 
BhikshUj with closed eyes, sitting ; his body ^vas of 
gigantic stature and his form was dried up ; his hair de- 
scended low on his shoulders and enshrouded his face. 
A hunter having caught sight of him, told the king. 
The king in person went to see him and to pay him 
homage. All the men of the town came spontaneously 
to burn incense and offer flowers as religious tribute to 
him. Then the king said, "What mtin is this of such 
great stature?" Then there was a Bhikshu who said in 
reply, ** This man with his hair descending over his 
shoulders and clad in a Jcmhdi/a garment is an Arhat 
who has entered the mmddki which produces extinction 
of mind. Those who enter this kind of samddhi have 
to await a certain signal (or period); some say that if 
they hear the sound of the ghan(^ they awake; others, 
if they see the s?hining of the sun, then this is a signal 
for them lo arouse themselves from their ecstasy ; in the 
absence of such signal, tliey rest unmoved and c^uiet^ 
whilst the power of their ecstasy keeps their bodies from 
destruction. Wlien they come from their trance after 
their long fast, the hody onght to be well iruhbed with 
oil and the limbs made supple with soft applications; 
after this tlie ghanid may be sounded to restore the 
mind plunged in samddhi" The king said, *' Let it be 
done*'* and then he sounded the gong. 

Scarcely had the sound died away, but tlie Arhat, re- 
cognising the signal, looking down on them from on high 

VOL. H, U 


for a long time, at lengtli said, ** Wliat creaLares are j*M 
with forma so small and mean, clothed witli bnown 
TOhes t " They answered, '* We are Ehiksli us ! '* He saiii 
**And where now dwells my master, KMyapa Tathi- 
gata?" They replied, "He has entered the great ni- 
ndi$a for a long time past/' Having heard this, he shut 
his eyes, as a man disappointed and ready to die. Then 
suddenly he asked again, "Haa S&kya TathSgata come 
into the world ? ** " He has been horn, and havinj 
guided the world spiritually, he lias also entered ni* 
rvdna" Hearing this^ he bowed Ins head, and so r^ 
mained for a long time. Then rising up into the air, 
he exhibited spiritual transformations, and at last he wa^ 
consumed by fire and his bones fell to the groaod. 
The king having collected them, raised over them this 

Going north from this country, and trnversing the rockj 
mountains and desert plains for 500 li or so, we come Co 
the country of Xie-aha,^* 

oe I 
Qi? I 

KlE-SHA (KASnGAll), 

The country of Kie-sha is about 5000 li in circmL 
It has much sandy and stony soil, and very little loam. 
It is regularly cultivated and is productive. Flowers 
and fruits are abuudaut- lis manufactures are a fine 
kind of twilled haircloth, and carpets of a iiue texture 
and skilfully woven. The climate is soft and agree- 
able; the winds and rain regularly succeed each otlien 
The disposition of the men is fierce and impetuous, and 
they are mostly false and deceitful They make light 
of decorum' and politeness, and esteem learning bai 
little. Their custom is when a child is horn to com- 
press bis head with a board of wood/^ Their appear 
aiice is common and ignoble. They paint (murk) iheii 

» Anciently cidJtrd Su-H : tbia (i^rikriUti). The aoond Su-li U «ai^ j 
t^ u the name uF ita diJef citj ; rupt — CA. I'dL 
1^ foU name k ghi^U>jd-ti-tti-tt ^^ See ¥i>L i p, 19, a. 6a 







bodies and around their eyelids,^* For their writing 
^^ii^iiitn cfiaraders) they take their model from India, 
and although they (ie., ike forms of the Idtcn) ore some- 
what mutilated, yet they are essentially the same in 
form,^^ Tiieir languaLje and pronunciation are different 
from that of other countries. They have a sincere faith 
in the religion of Buddha, and give themselves earnestly 
to the practice of it There are several hundreds of sa- 
iighdrdma&, witli some 10,000 followers ; they study the 
Little Vehicle and belong to the Sarvastiv3,da school 
Without understanding the principles, they recite many 
religious chants ; therefore there are many who can say 
throughout the three Pitakm and the VibhdsM (IH-p'o- 

Going from this south-east 500 li or so, passing tlie 
river Stti and crossing a great stony pi'ecipice, we come 
to the kingdom of Oho-kiu-kia." 

Cho-£Iu-kia (CiiAKtrKA? Tahkukg). 

This kingdom^ is some looo li or so round; the 
capital is about 10 li in circuit. It is hemmed in by 
crags and mountain fastnesses. The residences are 
numerous. Mountains and hills succeed each other in 
a continuous line. Stony districts ^ spread in every 
direction. This kingdom borders on two rivers j" the 
cultivation of grain and of fruit-trees is successful, prin- 
cipally figs, pear,=?, and plums. Cold and winds prevail 


** This is the only trat>sibtioti I 
can give, Jiiiien renders it, '' Th^y 
faave gT«ea pyt^balk ■/* but his text 
ntnst differ irom rnine. 

■• This paiftRge, too» h very r>\>- 
•cure ; Julian liiki Qiijittt.'d it, A^^ 
mn alteniiitive tninslation of tKef 
whrtle piMAag^^, this may Li^ offered : 
"They paiut tbefr bt^dies and their 

** Anciently called Tak-ku. 

*^ V, de St. Martin identifies 
Clio-km-kiA with YiirkiiVTig^ bnt he 
givtiri no authority. Dr. EiUJ 
^Ho-ndbofjk, t. n I'tihai-ul-a) 8tatt?«t 
Ihiit "it iH au ancient kingdom in 
Little Bukbaria, probably th<' nn dern 
Yarkiang. " The distance and b€ar- 
is^ ituui ILidhj^dx would point tu 

eyelid-i; for their modeli in theofi Yarkund. 

Iigures (painted letters J th«ty tako ^ Compare W. H, Bellew'a ac- 

(tbotte of) India; althmigh they count of this neighbourhoods K^h- 

thus disiBgure themntdvta, y^t they utir and Kfuikgir^ p. 36s> 

fvtain great vigour of form (or ^ Probably th« Y&rkand mv^ 

boiy}.'' Khotan riverth 


ihroiigliout the year, Tlie men are passionate «inJ cruel] 
they are false and treacherous, and in open day practise 
rgbbery. The letters are the same as those of Xlu-sa- 
ta-iia (Khotnn), hufc Uie spoken language is different 
Their politeness is very scant, and their knowledge of 
literature and the arts equally so. They have an honest 
faith, however, in the three precious objects of worship, 
and love the practice of reli-:ion, There are several tern 
of saHf/kdrdmns, hut mostly in a ruinous condition ; there 
are some hundred followers, who study tlie Grea^ Ye- 

On the southern frontier of the country is a great 
mountniu, with lofty detiles and peaks piled up one on 
the other, and covered with matted underwood ami 
j tingle. In winter and all throuj^h the year the moun- 
tain streams and torrents rush down on every sida 
There are niches and &toue chamhers in the outside; 
they occur in regular order between the rooks aiiJ 
wooda. The Arhats from India, displaying their spiri- 
tual power, coming from far, abide here at rest. As 
many Arhats have here arrived at nirt'dfia^ so thenj 
are many st'dpa^ here erected. At present there arc 
three Arhats dwelling in these mountain passes in deep 
recesses, who have entered the mmddhi of "" extinction 
of mind/* Their bodies are withered away; th^ir liaJr 
continues to grow, so that Shamans from time to lime 
go to shave them. In this kingdom, the wricings of tlie 
Great Vehicle are very abundant. There i^ no place 
w lie re the law of Buddha is more iiouiishing than dd& 
There is a collection here-'^ of ten myriads of verses, dmded 
into ten parta From tlie time of its introduction till n(>w 
it has wonderfully spread. 

Going east from Uiis, skirting along the high tnouii- 
tain passes and traversing valleys, after going about 
800 lij we come to the kingdom of K'iu-sa-ta-ini 
(Kustana — Khotan). 

• Serieti of B*cr**d booki* 


BOOK xn.] 




K*m-SA-TA-NA (Khotah). 

This country is about 4000 U in circuit ; the greater 
part is nothing but sand and gravel (a sandy wasU) ; the 
arable poition of the land is very contracted. What 
land there is, is suitable for regular cultivation, aud pro- 
duces abuudnjice of fruits. The maGufactures are car- 
pets, haircloth of a fiae quality, aod fine-woven silken 
fabrics. Moreover, it produces white and green jade* 
The climate is soft and agreeable, hut there are tornados 
which bring with them clouds of flying gravel {dud). 
They have a knowledge of politeness and justice. Tlie 
men are naturally quiet and respectful They love to 
Btndy liieratiire and the arts, in wliicli they make cou- 
sidemblc advance. The people live in easy circumstances, 
and are contented with their lux. 

This country is renowned for its music ; ^ the men love 
the song and the dance. Few of the in wear garments of 
skin ifdt) and wool; most wear taffetas and white linen. 
Their cKternal behaviour is full of urbanity ; their ctistoms 
are properly regulated. Their written characters and 
their mode of forming their sentences resemble the Indian 
model; the forms of the letters ditfer somewhat ; the differ- 
enceSj however, are slight* Tlie spoken language also 
dilfers from that of other countries. They greatly esteem 
the law of Buddlia. There are about a hundred saA^M- 
rdmas with some 5000 followers, who all study the doctrine 
of the Great Vehicle, 

The king is extremely courageous and warlike \ he 
greatly venerates the law of Buddha. He says that he is of 
th e race o f Pi-sh i- m e n ( Vai I ni va n a) D S va. 1 u old ti ni e 3 th is 
country was waste and desert, and without inhabitants. 
The Deva Pi-shi-men came to fix his dwelling here. The 
eldest SOD of Aloka-rdja, when dwelling in Takshaiil& 

• Cbmpara the rem Ark of Fa-hian 
(qbap. i\i\ '''They love roHgiuus 
iuui*ic»" Fur the prudmita mid 

g-eneral abundance of the district 
jN^ynd Kbot+in cod suit 3/arca /'o^m, 
YuIo'b notes. voL i pp^ 1 74, 175. 


Iiaving had his eyes put out, the King Asolca waa very 
angry^ and sent deputies to order the cljief of Uie triljes 
dwelling there to be transported to the north of the snowy 
mountains, and to establish themselves in the midst of a 
desert valley, Accordingly^ the men so banished, havinj^ 
arrived at this western frontier {of thehingi&m)^ ptit at their 
head a chief of their tribe ai^d made him king. It was just 
at this time a son of the kmg of the eastern region {Chind^ 
having been expelled from his countiy, was dwelling in 
this eastern region* The people who dwelt here urged 
him also to accept the position of king* Years and montbs 
having elapsed, and their laws not yet being settled,*" 
because each party used to meet by chance in the hunt- 
ing-ground, they came to niuiual recriminations, and, 
having questioned each other as to their family and so on, 
they resolved to resort to armed force* There was then 
one present who used remonstrances and said, '* "WTiv do 
you urge each other thus to-day f It Is no good fighting 
on the hunting-ground ; better return and train your 
soldiers and then return and fight" Then each returned 
to his own kingdom and practised their cavalry and 
encouraged their warriors for the fray. At length, being 
urrayed one agaiust the other, with drums and trumpets, 
at dawn of the day, the western army {Iv^d) was defeated, 
Thcjy pursued him to the norili and beheaded him. Thi^ 
eastern king^ profiting by his victory, reunited the brokai 
parts of his kingdom {consolidattd his power), changed his 
capital to the middle land,*^ and fortified it with walls; 
but, because he had no {survey id) territory, he was fiUed 
with fear lest he should be unable to complete his scheme, 
and so he ptu claimed far and near, *' Who knows how to 
survey a dominion ? " At this time there was a heretic 
covered with cinders who carried on his shoulder a great 
calabash full of water, and^ advancing to the king, said, 

^ Lt,t the mTitual relatiuiifl of the ^ That b, according to Jolkn 

%w0. The pw«B^ respectiDg the (note, p. 225), "the land betw«a 

** western frootler " refers to the the eiuterrt and western stated'' 
frontier of the '* weeteni kiugtium.'' 


BOOK xn.] 




"I understand a method" {a terrUorf/), and so he began to 
walk round with the waier of his calabash raiming out, 
and thus completed an immense circla After tbia he fled 
quickly and disappeared. 

Followmg the traces of the water, the king laid the 
foundation of bis capital city; and having retained its 
diatinction, it is here the actual king reigns, Tlie city, 
having no heights near it, cannot be easily taken by 
assault. From ancient times until now no one has been 
able to conquer it. The king having changed his capital 
to this spot, and built towns and settled the conntry, and 
acquired much religious merit, now had arrived at extreme 
old age and had no successor to the throne. Fearing lest 
his house should become extinct, he repaired to the temple 
of Vai^ravana, and prayed him to grant his desire. Forth- 
with the liead of the image (idol) opened at the top, and 
there came forth a yoimg child. Taking it, he returned to 
his palace. The whole country addressed congratulations 
to hira, but as the child would not drink milk, he feared 
he would not live* He then returned to the temple and 
again asked (the god) for means to nourish him. The 
earth in front of tJie divinity then suddenly opened and 
offered an a]>pearance like a pap. The divine child drank 
from it eagerly. Having reached supreme power in duo 
course, he shed glory on his ancestors by his wisdom and 
courage, and extended far and wide the iufluence of hi& 
laws. Forthwith he raised to the god {VaUravana) a 
temple in honour of bis ancestors. From that time till 
now the succession of kings has been in regular order, 
and the power has been lineally transmitted. And foi 
this reason also the present temple of the Deva is richly 
adorned with rare gems and worship is puncumlly oflered 
in it» From the first king having been nourished from 
milk coming from the earth the country was called by its 
name {pap of the earth — Kustana), 

About 10 li south of the capital is a large mil^hdrd^ia^ 


built by n former king of the country in honour of Vairo- 
chana'^" (Pi-lu-clie'iia) ArliaU 

III old ikys, wlien the law of Buddha had not vet ex- 
tended to this country, that Arhat came from the country 
of Ka^mtr to this place. He sat down in the middle of 
a wood and gave himself to meditation. At this time 
certain persons beheld him, and, astonished at his appear- 
ance and dres^, they came and told the king. The king 
forthwith weut to see him for hiniselL Beholding hia 
appearance, he asked him, saying, ** What man are you, 
dwelling alone in this dark forest?" The Arhat replied, 
"I am a disciple of Tath&gata i I am dwelling here to 
practise meditation. Your majesty ought to establisli 
religious merit by extolling the doatrine of Buddha» 
building a convent, am! providing a body of priests." 
The king said/" What virtue Ijas Tatliagata, what spiriliml 
power, that you should be liiding here as a bird praciis' 
ing his doctrine (m* rules) ? " He replied, '* TathUgata b 
full of love and compassion for all that lives; he lias 
come to guide living things throughout the three worlds; 
he reveals himself by birth or he hides himself; he comes 
and goes, Tiiose who follow his law avoid the nece^ity * 
of birth and death ; all those ignorant of his doctrine are 
still kept in the net of worldly desire/* The king said. 
"Truly what you say is a matter of high importance." 
Then, after deliberation, he said with a loud voice, " Let 
the great saint appear for my sake and show himself; 
having seen his appearance, then 1 will build a monaft- 
tery, and believe in him, and advance his cause." The 
Arhat replied, " Let the king build tlie convent, then, 
on account of his accomplished merit, he may gain his 
The temple having been finished, there was a great 
assembly of priests from fur and near ; but as yet there 
vas no ghantd to call together the congregation; oa 

^^ In Chinese Pin'cKi\t^ " he who 8bin«» m every place," otj "the oi^fy* 
inhere glorloiu." 




which ihe king said, "The convent is finished, hut wkere 

■ is the appearance of Buddha?" The Arhat srud, "Let 
the ki^g exercise true faith and the spiritual api>earance 
%vill not he far off!'' Suddenly in mid-air appeared a 
figure of Buddha descending from heaven, and gave to 
tlie king a gJia^td (kien-ti), on which his faith was con- 
firmed, and lie spread abroati the doctrine of Buddha. 
To the south-west of the royal city about 20 li or so 

Vis Mount Goi^rtfiga (K'iu-shi-ling-kia) j there ore two 
peaks to this muuntain, and around these peaks tliere are 
00 each side a connected line of hills. In one of the 
Talleys tbere has been bnilt a san^hdrdma ; in thia is 
placed a figure of Euildhn, wliich from time to time 
emits raya uf glory; in this place Tathdgaia formerly 
delivered a concise digest of the law for the benefit of 
the DSvas, He prophesied also that in tliis place there 
would be founded a kingdom, and that in it the principles 
of the bequeatlied law would be exteuded and the Great 

_ Vehicle be largely practised. 

f In the caverns of Mount G6lrlfiga is a great rock- 
dwelling where there i^ an Arhat plunged in the ecstasy 
called "destroying the mind;'' he awaits the coming of 
MaitrSya Buddha, During several centuries constant 
homage has been paid to him. During the last few 
years the mountain tops have fallen and obstructed the 
way (io the carcrn). The king of the country wished to 
remove tlie fallen rocks by means of his soldiers, but 
they were attacked by swarms of black bees, who poisoned 
the men, and so to tliis day the gate of the cavern is 
blocked up. 

To the south-west of the chief city about 10 li there 

K|s a monastery called Ti-kia-pVfo-na (Dirghabhavana ?), 
in which is a standing iigure of Buddha of Kiu-chi.*'* 
Originally this figure came from Kiu-ehi (Kiiche), and 
stayed here. 

■* Thia ii reati:>red by Julien mountftmst,*' ftnd U now CAlIed Tu- 
to Kucha itexti tfi loca) ; i^ Chme^e sihik (TTu^h kurgti^a), 
ifiote tciUi m it was in tbe *^icf 


la old time there wa3 a miGister who was banished 
from this country to Kiu-chi ; whilst there he paid wor- 
ship only to this image, and afterwards, when he returned 
to hia own country, his mind still was moved with re- 
verence towiirda it After midnight the figtire suddenly 
came of itself to the place, on which the man left his 
home and built this convent 

Going west from the capital 300 li or so, we come to 
the town of Po-kia-i (Bhagai?); in this town is a 
sitting figure of Buddlia about seven feet high, and 
marked with all the distinguishiog signs of heauty. Its 
appearance is imposing aud dignified. On its head is a 
preclouB gem-ornament, which ever spreads abroad a 
brilliant light The general tradition is to this effect :-^- 
this statue formerly belonged to the country of Kaimir j 
by the inHuence of prayer (Jkeim^ re^isfed)^ it removed 
itself liem In old days there waa bh Arhat who had a 
disciple, a Sr&inaiitra, on the point of death. He deairad 
to have a cake of sown rice (tihm mmi)i the Arfaat by 
his divine sight seeing there was lice of this sort in 
Kustana. transpofted himself thither by his niifacnlous 
power to pToemra womt. Tbe ^r&mairfni havii^ eaten 
it, prayiN] that he m^l be inborn in this country, 
and in consequenee of kta previoiB destiny he was bom 
ihert as a kii^ig s aoik Wbea be had auoeeeded to the 
thfOM^ ht sttbdmed all tlid adghbotmng territoij^ and 
fmmig thft iMvy moma^biaa^ be atlMked Ealmtr. The 
kii^ of Kaiaitr iwwmMafl bis troops with a Tiew to 
resist the inv^dirs. On this lbs Arfaa£ warned the king 
Sgaibsl tbs use of fores^ mad «aa4. ^ I am aUe to testimin 

IbsB foii^to 
mk% bigM to m 

tbs kii^ of Kiistanm (Kla*sa-*ca- 
of se^ptnie (Uu 

; W0 failb, dd grmiaed to go on 

L ^ lbs biig m bis fomsr oos- 

soot xil] 



dition as a ^rlraant^ra, showed them to him. Having seen 
them, the king reached to the kuowleilge of hia previous 
[lives, and he went to ihe king of Kalmlr and made pro- 
fession of his joy and attachment. He then dispersed hia 
troops and returned. The image which he had honoured 
when a Sha-mi he now respectfally took in front of the 
army, and came to this kingdom at his request But liav- 
ing arrived at this spot, he could not get further, and so 
built this sailghdrdma ; and calling the priests logebher, 
he gave his jewelled headdress for the image, and this is 
the one now belonging 10 the figure, tiie gift of the former 

To the west of the capital city 150 or 160 H, in the 
midst of the straight road across a great sandy deseit, 
there are a succession of small hills, formed hy the bur- 
rowing of rats. 1 heard the foUowhig as the common 
story: — '* In this desert there are rats as big as hedgehogs, 
their Iiair of a gold and silver colour. There is a head rat 
to the cr»mpany. Every day he comes out of his hole and 
walks about; when he has finished the oiher rats follow 
him. In old days a genend ot' the Hiung-nu came to 
lavage the border of tbis country with several tens of 
2iiyriads of followers. When he had arrived thus far at 
the rat-mounds, he encamped hi^ soldiers. Tl^eu the king 
ol Kustana, wlio commanded only soma few myriads of 
men, feared that bis forc6 w^as not sufficient to take the 
offensive* He knew of the wonderful character of these 
desert rats, and that he had not yet made any religions 
offering to them ; but now he was at a loss where to look 
for Buccour, His ministers, too, were all in alarm, and 
could think of no expedient. At last he determined to 
offer a religious offering to the rats and request their aid, 
if by these means his army miglit be strengthened a little. 
That nii^ht the kiim of Knstana in a dream ^ saw a s^iunt 

** Yot theie deeert rats, which are 
pprubably the Bauie as the *' golden 
nU" of Hennlytcia *ml Nearkhos, 
Mn. SpitMia' Andcni India ^ p. 

216. For '*the dreiiin " and the de- 
etructiou of the Assyrian urmy in 
Egvpt by EDicttj MsQ HerodotUA, Bk, 
ii. chjkp, 141. 




rat. Avlio said to him, " I wkli respectfully to asaiat yoiu 
To-morrow morning put your troops in moveraent; atuck 
the enemy, and you will conciii^r.'* 

The king of Kustaiia, recognising the miraculous char- 
acter of this intervention, forthwith arrayed his cavalry 
and ordered his captains to set out before dawn, and at 
their head^ after a rapid march, he fell unexpectedly on 
the enemy. The Hiiing*ai2, hearing their approach, were 
overcome by fear. They hastened to liarness their horses 
and equip their chariots, hut tliey found that the leather 
of their armour, and their horses' gear, and tJieir bow 
strings, and all the fastenings of their clothes, had been 
gnawed by the rats. And now their eii*»mies had arrivtd, 
and they were taken m disorder, Tlierenpou their chief 
was killed and the principal soldiers made prisoners. The 
Hiung-nu were terrified on perceiving a divine inteqiosi- 
tiou on behalf of their etieniies. The king of Knstana, in 
gratitude to the rats, built a temple and offered sacrifices; 
and ever since they have continued to Hfceive homage and 
reverence, and they have oflfered to them rai-e and precious 
things. Hence> from the highest to the lowest of the 
people, they pay these rats constant reverence and seek to 
propitiate them by sacrifices. On passing the mouuda 
they descend from their chariots and pay their respects as 
they pass on, praying for success as they woi*sbip* Others 
offer clothes, and bows, and arrows ; others scents, and 
fluwcrs, and costly meats. Most of those who practise 
these religious rites obtain their wisbes; but if they neglect 
them, then misfortune is sure to ocotir. 

To the west of the royal city 5 or 6 li® 13 a convent 
called Sa-mo-joh {SamajHa^. In the middle of it is a 
iftilpa about 100 feet high, which exhibits many miraculous 
indications (sipis). Formerly there was an Arhat, wLo, 
coniitig from a distance, took up his abode in this forest, 
and by bis apiritual power shed abroad a miraculous 
light Then the king at night-time^ being in a tower of 

•■ JuHen h» " fifty or aixty U." 

BOOK xaj 



hh paJnce.''* saw at a distance, in the middle of the wood, 
brilliant light sijiniiig. Asking a number of persons in 
succession what their opinion wa'5, they all said, " Thero 
is a Srnmana who lias come ft'um fiir, and is sitting alone 
in this wood. Bj the exercise of his snpeniatund power 
lie spreads abroad this light," The king then ordered his 
chariot to be equipped, and went m person to the spot. 
Having seen the illustrious sage, his heart was filled with 
reverence, and after having offered him every respect, he 
invited him to come to the palace. The Sramana said, 
''laYing things have their place, and the mind lias its 
pla<^. For me the sombre woods and the desert marshea 
have attraction. The storey ed halls of a palace and ita 
extensive courts are not suitable for my tastes/* 

The king ixearing tliis felt redouhled reverence for him, 
and paid him increased respect. He constructed for him 
a miighdrdma and raised a siHLpa. The Sramana, having 
been invited to do so, took up his abode there. 

The king having procured some hundred particles of 
relicSj was filled with joy and thonght with himself, 
** Tbese relics have come late ; if they had come before, I 
could have placed them under this &tyLpa^ and then what a 
iniracle of merit it would have been/' Going then to the 
saf^lidrdmn, he asked the Sraniana* The Arhat said, 
" Let not the king b« distressed. In order to place them 
in their |>roper place jou ought to pre pare a i^old, silver, 
copper^ iron, aud stone receptacle, and plaee them one in 
tlie other, hi order to contain the relics. The king then 
gave orders to workmen to do this^ and it was finished in 
a day. Then carrying the relics on an ornamented car 
{oT^ stand), tliey brought them to the sail^hdrdtmL At tiiis 
time the king, at the head of a hundred officers, left the 
palace {(0 witness the procession of the relics), whilst the 
beholders amounted to several myriads. Then the Arhat 
with his right liand raised the stUpa, and Iiolding it in 
his palms, lie addressed the king and said, "You can 
BOW conceal the relics underneath/' Accordingly he dug 

•• Or, a double tower ; i bc^lveilere* 


a place for the che.^t, and all lieiii^' done, tlie Arlat 
lowered the sidpa without hurt or iaconveuience. 

Tlie beholders, exulting at the miracle, placed their 
faith ill Buddha, and felt incrensed reverence for his law. 
Then the king, addressing his miukters, said, ** I have 
heard it said that the power of Buddha is difficult to cal- 
culate, and his spiritual abilities diffieult to measure. At 
one time he divided his body into ten million parts; at 
otlier times he appeared among Dgvas and men, boldiag 
the world in the palm of his hand without distui-binij 
any one, exphiining the law and itB chamcter in ordinary 
words, so that men and others, according to their kmd^ 
understood it, exhibiting the nature of the law in one 
uniform way^ drawing all men {things) to a knowledge of 
it according to their minds. Thus his spiritual power w^ 
peculiarly his own j his wisdom was beyond the power of 
wordij to describe- His spirit has passed away, but his 
teacliing remains. Tliose who are nourished by the sweeU 
ness of his doctrine and partake of {drink) his instruction; 
who follow his directions and aim at his spiritual enlight- 
enment, how great their happiness, liow deep their insighc 
You hundred officers ought to honour and respect Buddhn; 
the mysteries of his law will then become clear to you.** 

To the south-ens t of the royal city 5 or 6 li is a con- 
vent called Lu-shi,^^ which was founded by a queen of a 
fomier ruler of the country* In old time this cotintry 
knew nothing about mulberry trees or silkworms. Hear- 
ing that the eastern country had them, they sent an em* 
bassy to seek for them. At this time the prince of tht* 
eastern kiogdum kept tlie secret and would not give tlir 
possession of it to any. He kept guard over bis territor}* 
and would not permit either the seeds of the mulberry 
or the silkworms* eggs to be carried ofl'. 

The king of Kostana sent off to seek a marriage union 

*'^ Lu'thi mt^nms *' stag -pierced ; '^ daughti^r tif the priDC« of the ^kn 
but it \s probably a. phonetic form in kingdom, 
thin pAAfiaggp nud iii the ujuO'ti of the 

bookitl] the LUSH! SANGHARAMA. 


with a princess of the cnstiim kingdom (China), in token 
of his allegiance and submission. The king being well- 
affected to the neiglibouring staiea acceded to his wialu 
Then the king of Kust ana dispatched a messenger to escort 
the ro^^al princess and gave the following direction : **Spi^ak 
thus to the eastern princess,^ — Our country has neither 
silk or silken stuffs. You had better bring with you some 
tnnlberry seeds and silkworms, then you can make robes 
for youi-self/' 

The princess, hearing these words, secretly procured 
the seed of tlie mulberry and silkworms* eggs and con- 
cealed them in her head-dress. Having arrived at tlie 
banker, the guard searched everywhere, but he did not 
dare to remove the princess^ head-dress. Arriving then 
in the kingdom of Kustana, they stopped on the site 
afterwards occupied by the Lu-ahi 8a4gltdrdma; thence 
they conducted her in great pomp to the royal palace. 
Here then they left the silkworms and mulberiy seeds. 

In the spring-time they set the seeds, and when the 
time for the silkworms had come they gathered leaves for 
their food ; but from their first arrival it was necessary 
to feed them on different kinds of leaves, but afterwards 
the mulberry trees began to flourish. Then the ijneen 
wrote on a stone tlie following decree, ** It is not per- 
mitted to kill the silkworm ! After the hutteiily has 
gone, then th© silk may be twined off {iJte cocoon). Who- 
ever offends against this rule may he be deprived of divine 
protection " Then she founded this saiighdrdma on the 
spot where the first silkworms were bred; and there are 
about here many old mulberry tree trunks which they say 
are the remains of the old trees first planteiL From old 
time till now tbis kingdom has possessed silkworms, 
which nobody is allowed to kill, with a view to take away 
the silk stealthily. Those who do so are not allowed ta 
rear the worms for a succession of years, /^ 

To the south-east of the capital abou£ 200 li or so is a 


great river® flowing north-west The people take advan- 
tage of it to irrigate their lauds. After a time this stream 
ceased to flow. The king, greatly astonished at the straoge 
event, oi-dered his carriage to be equipped and went to an 
Arhat and ajsked him, "The waters of the great river, 
which have been so beneficial to man, have suddenly 
eeas^d. Is not my rule a just one ? are not my benefits 
(mriiits) widely distributed throut;h the world ? If it be 
not so, what is my fault, or why is this calamity per- 
mitted ? ** 

The Arhat said, "Your majesty governs his kingdom 
well, and the influence of your rule is for the well-being 
and peace of your people. The arrest in the flow of 
the river h on account of the dragon dwelling theTeiC 
You should offer sacrifices and addresa your pmyers to 
him; you will then recovei" your former beneBis (/nm 
the Hvery* 

Then the king returned and offered sacrifice to the 
river dragon. Suddenly a woman emerged from the 
stieara, and advancing said to him, *' My lord is just dead, 
and there is no one to issue orders j and this is the reason 
why the current of the stream is arrested and the liasband- 
Tnen have lost their tisual profits. If your ci^esty will 
choose from your kingdom a minister of state of nobk 
family and give him to me as a husband, then be nt^ 
order the stream to flow as before." 

The king said, " I wiU attend witli respect to yonr 
request und meet your wishes/* Tiie Kaga {w&man) w$s 
rejoiced {to have obtained iim pr&mim of) a great ministflr 
of the country [om a husband). 

The king having returned » addressed his dependents 
thus, " A great minister is the stronghold of th© stale. 
The pursuit of agriculture is the secret of men's lift 
Without a strong support, then, tliere is ruin to the stats j 



• Probably the Kiwakasb river* 
Ita ssanrly and dry bed ia fttiU marked 
nith A dfittcd Hue on Blmwn tn&p 

(High Tnftory «nd YmrkMld). 
it tu^y be the KbQta]i'd4rm. 

BOOK xn ] 






M'ithout food there is death to tlie people. In the pre- 
sence of such cahimities what is to be done V* 

A great minister, leaving his seat, prostrated himself 
mid said, '' For a long time I have led a nseless life, and 
held an imporunt post without profit to others. Al- 
though I have desired to benefit my country, no ocoasioa 
has offered. Now, then, I pray you choose me, and I will 
do my best to meet your wishes. la view of the good of 
the entire people what is the life of one minister? A 
minister is the support of the country ; the people the 
substance, I beg your majesty not to hesitate. I only 
ask that, for the purpose of securing merit, I may found a 

The king having consented, the t!dng was done forth- 
with, and his request complied with. On thia the minister 
asked to be allowed to enter at once the dragon -palace. 
Then all the cliief men of the kingdom made a feast, with 
music and rejoicing, whilst the minister, clad in white 
garments and riding a white horse, took leave of the king 
and respectfully parted with the people of the country. 
So, pressing on his horse, he entered the river; advancing 
in the stream, he sank not, till at length, when in the 
middle of it, he whipped the stream with his lash, and 
forthwith the water opened in the niicUt and he disap- 
peared, A short time afterwards the white horse came 
up and floated on the water, carrying on his back a great 
sandalwood drum, in which was a letter, the contents of 
which were briefly these : " Your majesty has not made 
the least error in selecting me for this office in con- 
nection with the spirit (A^d^a), May you enjoy mnch 
happiness and your kinj:dom be prosperous ! Your mini- 
ster sends you this drum to suspend at the south-east 
of the city j if an enemy approaches, it will sound first 
of alL" 

The river began then to flow, and down to the present 
time has caused continued advantage to the people, 

VOL jj, , X 


Many years and montlis Lave elapsed since then, and 
the place where the dragon-drum wag hung has long since 
disappeared, but the ruined convent by the side of the 
drum-lake still remains, but it has no priests and is 

Three hundred li or so to the east of the royal city is i 
rrreat desert marsh, upwards of several thousands acres in ' 
extent, without any verdure whatever. Its surface is a 
reddish-blaek* The old people explain the matter thns- 
This is the place wliere an army was defeated. In oldj 
days an army of the eastern country numbering a lmndreil| 
myriads of men invaded the western kingdom. The king 
of Kustana, on his side, eqnipped a body of cavalry to the 
number of ten myriads, and advanced to the eaat to offer 
the enemy battle. Coming to tliis spot, an engan;emeot 
took place* The troops of the west being defeated^ they 
were cut to pieces and their king was taken prisoner and'^ 
all their oiEcers killed without leaving one to escape. The 
ground was dyed with blood, and the traces of it still 
remain (in tlie mlour of the earth). 

After going east 30 li or so from the field of battle we; 
come to the town of Pi m k (Pi-mo), Here there is a figure 
of Buddha in a standiug position made of sandalwood. 
The figure is about twenty feet high. It works many 
miracles and reflects constantly a bright light Those 
who have any disease^ according to the part affected, cover 
the corresponding place on the statue with gold-leaf, and 
forthwith they are liealed. People who address prayer 
to it with a sincere heart mostly obtain their wishes. This 
is wliat the natives say : This image in old days when 
Buddlia was alive was made by Uddyana (U-to-yen-na), 
king of KauSimbi (Kiao-shang-mi). When Buddha left 
the world, it mounted of its own accord into the air and 
came to the north of this kingdom, to the town of Ho-lo- 
lo-kia*^ The mi^n of this city were rich and prosperous,' 

^ BAghA or BAghaHi or perhaps Ourgb*. 

BOOR sri.] 



and deeply attached to lieretical teacliing, with no respect 
for any other form of religion. From the time the image 
came there it showed its divine character, but no one paid 
it respect. 

Afterwards there was an Arhat who bowed down and 
saluted the image; the people of the country were alarmed 
at bis strange appen ranee and dress, and they hastened to 
tell the king, Ihe king issued a decree that the stranger 
should he covered over with sand and earth- At tbis 
time the Arhat'a body being covered witli sand, he 
sought in vain for food as nourisliuientJ^ Tiieie was a 
man whose heart was indignant at such treatment; he 
had himself always respected the image and iionoured it 
with worship, and now seeing the Arhat in this condi- 
tion, be secretly gave him food. The Arliat being on the 
point of departure, addressed this man and said, *' Seven 
days hence there will be a rain of sand and earth which 
will fill this city full, and there will in a brief space be 
none left alive. You ought to take measures for escape 
in knowledge of this. They have covered me with earth, 
and this is the consequence to them.'* Having said this 
he departed^ disappearing in a moment. 

The man, entering the city, told the tidings to bis 
relatives, but they did nothing but mock at him. The 
second day a great wind suddenly arose, which carried 
before it all the dirty soil, whilst there fell various 
precious substances J^ Then the men continued to re- 
vile the man who had told them (about the mud and 

But this man, knowing in bis heart what must certainly 
happen, excavated for himself an underground passage 
leading outside the city, and there lay concealed. On the 
seventh day, in the evening, just after the division of the 

^ It wotilil »uem thfit his body In that cn^e it would be '* doitd Mid 

waB buried ujj to hh nt^ck* «?ai'th ; ^' but, if tbi^j be so^ "Khy did 

^* StoMH Jubea prefers subatitut- the people stili find fanlt with tbe 

in^ ^>ha4u In the text for Tmh-p&4>. prophet ? 


night, it ramed satid and earth, and filled the city.^ Hiis 
mail escaped tij rough his tunnel and went to the east, 
and, arriving in this country, he took his abode in Pima, 
Scarcely had the man nrrived when the statue also ap- 
peared there. He forthwith paid it worship in this place 
and dared not go farther (change his ahotk). According to 
the old account it is said, " When the law of 6akya 13 
extinct then this image will enter the dragon*palace." 

The town of Ho-lo-Io-kia is now a great sand 
mound. The kings ot the neighbouring coo d tries and 
persons in power from distant spots have many times 
wished to excavate the mound and take away the pre- 
cious things buried there; but as soon as they have 
arrived at the borders of the place, a furious wind has 
sprung up, dark clouds have gathered togetber from tb«i 
four quarters of heaven, and they have become lost to 
hud their way. 

To the east of the valley of Pima ^ we enter a sandy 
desert, and after going 200 li or so, we come to the 
town of Ki-jang. This city is about 3 or 4 li in cir- 
cuit; it stands in a ^reat marsh; the soil of the marsh 
is warm and soft, so tliat it is difficult to walk on it 
It is covered with rushes and tan^^led herbage, and 
there are no roads or pathways; there is only the path 
that leads to the city, throu*^h which one can pass with 
difficulty, so that every one coming and going must pass 
by this town. The king of Kustana makes this the gxiard 
of his eastern frontier. 

Going east from this, we enter a great drifting sand 
desert, Tliese sands extend like a drifting flood for a 
great distance, piled up or scattered according to the 
wind. There is no trace left behind by travellers, and 

" Tor an account of sand bui-i>d vol. iL, Appendise M. ; and rdm vot* 

cities, and particular] V of S^A^Aikf »ee L chap, xxxvit. tmd nvtt I. It ia 

BeUew* Kashmir and f «i%^p pp. probitblj the ilan^vtfi of Sun^ Yun, 
370, 371, Also for Pim&t probably ^ Tim^ wm probably tha Pein o£ 

nmi Keri% «ee YulSf M^vo Fdot Marco Polo. See YuJe, ut *upra. 





oftentimes tlie way is lost, and 30 they wander liithef 
aud thither quite bewildered, without any guide or 
directiou. So travellers pile up the bones of animals 
as beacons. There is neither water nor herbage to be 
found, and hot winds frequently blow. When the3e 
vnnds rise, then both men and beasts become confused 
and forgetful, and then they remain perfectly disabled 
(sick). At times sad and plaintive notes are heard and 
piteous cries, so that between the sights and sounds of 
this desert men get confused and know not whither 
they go. Heuce there are so many who perish iti the 
jouriiiiy. But it is all the work of demons and evil 

Going on 400 li or so, we arrive at the old kingdom 
of Tu-bo-lo (Tnklilra)J* This country has long been 
deserted aud wild. All the towns are ruined aad un- 

From this going east 600 li or so, we come to the 

cient kingdom of Che-mo-t'o-na/* which is the same 
the country called Ni-mo. The city walls still 
stand loftily, but the inhabitants are dispersed and 

From this going north-east a thousand li or so, we 
come to the old country of Navapa (Na-fo-po), which is 
the same as Leu-lauJ^ We need not speak of the 
mountains and %' alleys and soil of this neii*hbouring 
connf-ry. The habits of the people are wild and un- 
polislied, their manners not uniform j their preferences 
and dislikes are not always the same. There are some 
things difficult to verify to the utmost, and it is not always 
easy to recollect all that has occurred. 

^* Thiit WftA probably the cttrt^me somo intercflting notes on this place 

Mcnit of the old kingdom of Tu-ho-lo 
tovi^atdH the east. When thti Yue^ 
ehi spieatl codtwania they diapos- 
Beased th« old Turaoian population. 
^ This Tj the Tfio-rooh of Sang' 
jutL It mu»t biive bs^a neax- Sor- 
gbiik i>f Prtjev^alflkj'a map. For 

BHii KingsmiUf China HetieWt voL 
Till. No. 3, p. 163* 

'* Alio (iUled Shen-ahen ; aee 
China JUviet^, \qq, eit, Kin^jHrniU 
maken Navapa equAl to NavApaf«| 
L€.^ Neiipoll& 


But the traveller has written a brief summary of all 
he witnessed or heard. All were desirous to be in- 
structed, and wherever he went his virtuous conduct 
drew the admiration of those who beheld it. And 
why not? in the case of one who had gone alone and 
afoot from Ku, and had completed such a mission by 
stages of myriads of li ! ^ 

^ M. Julien renders this pas- 
sage : " How could he be compared 
simply to such men as have gone 
on a mission with a single car, and 
who have traversed by post a space 
ol a thousand li?'* But if the 
symbol Ku be for Ku-tsCf i.e., "the 
ajicitnt land of the Uigurs*' (see 

ToL L p. 17, n. 51), then I think 
the translation I have given is the 
right one. Respecting this land of 
Kau-chang, we are told it was called 
Ming-fo-chaa in the Han period, 
and Ku-sse-ti (the land of Ku-sie) 
during the Tang period {vitL the 
map ^ed Yu-ti-Uun4*n). 



M^fennees *<» (Ae IntrtHlxtf^hn are indk-^td By hl^Gkfyurtt^ 



AU^a i^O-po-ife}, in Chinese Wu- 
wa% free frota fear, ii, 1 n^ 

A hha.jM^ i r( visi II n ( *0 - p'c 1 - y e - k' U U- 
ohn-pu) «elji#iiiatic nchortl^ ii, 2^7, 

Abhayigiri vibim, i. 7S, 7a» 76. 

A bbayniiidacla — the re rii . » ver of 
do.ibLs~^vaiakit4i4viim. I 60 n. 

Abhidh^rmajMna-praBthiHa S'^stra 
{ 'O- pi- U- mo-fa. c hi- lull) of KA- 
triynDa, i, J75, 

AmMdhatmakMa J?d4t}*^ {'Opi-ta- 
mo-ku-ahe-lyn) of Va«ubftndhu, i. 
105, no II., 193; ii. 36Sd. 

AbkidAarmakdMha * mahd^ihkdihd 
$yjim, J. 155 n., 175 n- 

^ hk idkarmafTi(aht ( *0 * pj - ti < m - 
fftajifj) a^etioD of traTneendeiit&l 
doctrine formed under the dire*- 
tton wf Maha-Kjyjapa, L 1 17, 155 ; 
ii 164, 

A hkidharttmprnhim^ a -pddn -A^dstra^ 
in Chinemj Chung -BEe*ffn-*o-pi-ta' 
m&-ltinj of Vafltiinitni, L 109. 

AbhWia t^maprakdia-MMh^iiA S'Mra 
(*0-pi-ta-mo' mirig-ahitig-lun), L 

Ai^tkUurmavtbhdthd S'dMm ('0-pi- 

tftr-tno-pi-pVslia-lim)! i. 155, 
AbbjaiUiirjkA rihAra, ii. 267 tu 
aifhijMtf sii miraculoui puyirerfli i. 

104 11., 149. 
AblijutgatarAi*^tho great August 

king— Avaldkite^van^ U 60 n. 
Ab-i-PiAnj Hver, i, 41 n* 
AchAlii or Acb4ra ('O-che-Io) Arhat, 

itt CbiiiisM SQ-Ulug, Ii. aiS, 2C7 n,. 

258.368. ^ w .^ 

Ad^m P»4fck in C^jlgn, i 126 n, ; f 

ii. 232 n., 297 n. 

AdbhutA'^ma atflpa (Ho-pu4o-»hi- 
I «ii-tu-poj, the stUpa of exiraor- 

dinnry *t^jne (K"l-te-alii), i 127 o, 
AdirAjjv, I. 201 n. 
AJiftLLjlti, AdLHhtllau(^ capital of 

Kawiiilr, i. (58 ii! 
Adj/fUmandr^dj in Chitjeae Nei-ming, 
^ »* 79, 153 »' 
ABpawtra^sfe And^rAb. 
AfghanB, natives of Pakbtu, th« 

UuKTtH/ni o^ iJerodotcM :ind the 

AivAkaB of SariiBkrit geograpliem, 

Afgln^niitAu (Ru-hi or Lo-Li), i, 

3«; 4311,, 51 n. 
AfrftejAb, iL 301 n. 
Agni ('Q-ki-ui) country, L 17^ 

" fire- lin lit," ii, 36, 
Agrsipura iiioiiaatery at M.ithun^ i 

191 n. 
I Ahi, tUe cloud-jmake, i. 126 n. 
Aliiclihfttra or AbtkAhC-tTa{'0-hi'shi- 

ta ]f>), i. iqg n., SOO, 20I. 
aJt6riUra (l-ji-i-ej, dny^ and -night, 

L 71, 
AbretTgoT Hftzrat Imftm ('0'li*m)ii 

42 n. ; ii. 289. 
Ajonta r-K^k tempi w, i. 52 n,, jL 

32 n., 257 f. ; Ajan^A freecoea i. 

^3 "-t ii* 235 n. ; macription, ii, 

21$ II. 

Ajita^itru ('O-abe-to-aheHu-bi), in 
Gbiiieae TiVVl-dng-jun, king, 1,17 
64, 55, 59 ; 258 njii, 2 n.. 65 n,' 
70 u., 77 n., ii3ji- 85, 90 n., 150, 
f6o, 161, j66, 167, 179. 

A j itak at ^, A ci I c h b u til i ti iii nirbalese 
nooonnu (O^cUii'to-kiu), i. 9g. 

Ajitavat; ("O ibi-tcp-fa-ti), iii Chineao 
Wii-ehii.g, ii, 32, 39 lu 



jiij, I «7; ii, 46, 52, 128, 129, 
Ajilna, ur NagaraliArtt, L 95 o. 
AktHefi avt^di^atitna { W u -soy eu-cU'u- 

tiDg), ii. 54 n. 
Akni ('O-ki'iiiJ country, L if. 
Akeni mouut^mfi in TnikifftAnp L 

29 n. 
altJiajfavad, baujiiD tree, i. 232 li. 
Ak«u ( Piifa4uh-kia)t 00 ud irj of Lit lift 

Bukh&rui, i. 19 ; 24* 
AUkbdii]ii rftJA q( Gurjjara, i. 165 u* 
AJjikBhiiTiHka Builflba, u 182 n, 
Al-cbacb or T&abktikfid» l 30 n. 
AU-\jiiimr? ('A-li-lun-riai-'rlij, king 

of Ceylnn, it. 249, 2S2 0, 
A-li-f i^fi-ntti-Vii — All-bun&r {? ), 
Atmgrxr river^ in Kftbul, i. 90 lu 
AllftbAbilii or Pi-ayiga, i* 232 n, 

ftlm«-b*iwl (jwMi) of Buddb*, u 47, 

See ^Mjfra. 
A-Uj furest, i* #3. 
alpbiibetj Iniiirtn, i. 77, 
Altyu-tA^b muunUiuB, U tj n^ 
Auuil^ {Ngftn-mo-l«; fi nitj i* 88, 
Amali (^O'mo-lo), tiie Auiro, i- 89* 
AmAk fruit, ii, 95 n.^ 96 n. 

emblictit il. 95 p 96^ 11 8, 136 n. 
Ainjvkkn 5Efipji^ iL 96. 
Amaltikamkitt in Cbinefte pOi&'p'inff, 

pure diib or viLB«, ii. £57 VU| 

205 D, 
Auinraiidva'it Tib4r(i,, il. 1 74 ^* 
Aniiini'Siifaba, ii. 137 n» 
AmArAvatl aciilptured atApA, i. IT ; 

47 tj^, 11:1 n., il. 309 D., 221 11., 

322 n. ; iMQ«t iptiuue, ii. 220 iu 
Amaxmia, L 35 n« 
AtjibapMl, i. 09 ; ii. 69 d. 8«« 

amber {ku^tk^i^ disb„ ii. I29« 
4iH^ (Kgati*iiii*lo),tbti Utnariud, i. 88, 
^Nm ^'An*tn<>4f>), in Cbiueu* iV^ai, 

Mtmgifera indica or iiiATigg ^tt^e, 

i. 196, 2261 236 ; ii. 45, 66 ; Amm 

gfuve, i. {^3 ; ii* 167, 16S, 
Anira girl ot~ lady, ur Auirajtdllp i. 

C3, 03 ; ii. 68, 69. 
AnvtitiAnkA (*Au4a-iBtt and An-mo- 

lo-ii)u)| ii. 68 u. 
Au^7ti6daiia (KiiQ*lu-faii-waug), H. 

Aitifitear, L 165 u. 

AililuvaTmau ^Au-abu-fB-mu^i id 

Cbineto Ewai»g-cbeu, a king of 
Nepiil, 11. 8! 

Aoiu-darya (Mu-bo), Ox^ua rtTeff l 

12 n., 33, 36 n., 3S ti., 41 n. 
An&gfimin, iiixiut? of tbitd Buddbt«t 

^ order, I 0]» ^ 

AttagtJtidi, iL 254 n. 
Auaitis Of AnaiiiU, BHbyloiiiAQ god- 
^ dt«a, ii. 1S3 It. 
Aoanda (*0-tirin and 'O-nan-tVj, i 

S3, 33, 39, 49, 33, fi«, HO, 09, il ; 

53i 134 "■* I49i iSo, !Sj, 191 Ii*. 

ii^ 5r 35i 39. 40. 69, 70. 73* 75* 76» 

77* 90, I54p 16a. 163. 164, 179; 

bt^eomea ttu Arbat, ii 163. 
AiJaiidapiira ( O-nan-t 0'pu4uJ» iL 

Afv^tbapindada or An^lbapindiki 

na^ku^^Ujb il 3n.,4"7, 9- " ^ 
Atiavatapta (^0*neu, 'U-t»bu4«, tfd 

0-o*-p'o-tm-tob Jii Cblnean Wo- 

ji?l)-no-cb'i, A UkCf Lit, 13 P«i 

13 u., ii. 6, 15s ; dra^oa kiog, i 
|[ n,, ii. 41. 

andtina^ imperriiHuency, u 11^ 

'Awa4 dvBpQVf h 14 n. 

Aniinriib or InduAb (An^tU'ln-p), 

iu Badrtkab^ti, perba|ia ilie A5- 

^T^ra of this Qtefk^^ i. 43, ii 2£6i 
And bra ('Ati-ia-Iij) eouutry, ii» 2l7f^ 

220 a. 
AAg» ooiititrj, lL 191 lit, 201 a. 
ajigvsti^a^mlipfti'va^ iti Cbiti«ie eAi> 

t#i>, 4 finger's-brendtb, i, 7a 
A&gulanAljaa (Yang-kiu-li-ian lo^ 

in Cbipeae Cbi-maD, i. 4i L iL 3. 
Aniiuddha i^O'ui-Jin-t,\>), i, 39; it 

38, 40. 
mtiti/a^ urrris.inty, L 22 J* 

'An * «bi - fo - yu - eba — AffJijiij* 

An>filiu*fii-iTio— Atbluvarmaut ii Sl 
^Au-ta4o'pu — -AudHriLb. 
*An-t^4o— Atjdbm, ii. 21 7* 
Aiita of Herocjoiutt mid N«tikb«ii, 

ii. ri5 lu 
^nu ( 0-iiiiJ* ^1^ CbLti«c« Si'th'Ut an 

atoiu, i. 71. 

i. 149. 
AnurAdbapura, 11. 347 u. 
Antiruddbrit is. 38 ti. 
A pallia (^Q-(H»'lo4o), a dtagou or 

ut^fi^ i. I22f 123, 12611. 132. 

^^^^^^^^^^^mDEX. ^^^^^^3^^^^^^^H 

4ip€Tipi&p, K.T.K it. 205 n, nj-rig, 123. 146, 160, 164, 165, ^^^H 

At.liftaf, ii. 184 tt. 167, 175, 177, 183, 1K4. 195, 199, ^^B 

Apolloniu* of TymMf I 136 n, 30lj 204. 205* 208, 210, 2iJi, 227, ^^H 

a|}rict< Clii^e4e Aan^ or m*i, u S8* 

229, 230, 257, 267, 271, 275, 279- ■ 

Aptun^tra^aiiH — niglit - obUitjitig 

2S1, 2S4, 302, 309. 310, ■ 

foreat, h M U. ; tu ix 

AHdka-flt>wer tree, ii. 24^ H 

Arabi, i 176 0. 

AAAkft (aorrowlea*) kitigdom— Cey- ^^M 

Ar4d^ KaLam^ ('0^1>m-kia Un), il 

Ion, il 24S. ^^^1 


AMkdvaddna, il. 65 t). ^^H 

Aniii^rabbikfchM, i. it 2 n. 

Aipiunia, a satrapy of lUkfcnX L ^^^| 

Ard«iii maater s }>i)til, ij, 55, 


ArdbvUiint^ AiiAliitA, or An&iCJ», 

fyaeuiltly, qi]in<]iif?Tiinnl {pafk^tt- ^^^H 

BiibylaDiiiTj goddeaSf ik 225 n* 

l^^r^id and pajUcAatYirdAjid pari- ^H 

Axb>ui" or Arhat t*U-lu-haiO^ Ch. 

«AaiJ», i, 21 u. ^^^M 

K Wu-bio, tiue tit Ingh r^nlc in the 

■ B4U<idha bier&rcbr, i. ei, 65, SQ, 

■ iT, 68, 7€, 9S i 152 u. j tbe uija^ 

.\Bt«a^ Hanti, king of Gandbarii, ^^H 

I 109 u. ^^H 

AMtbi|iriri^B<>ne-tuwi), L [86 n. ^^^| 

teiiona arbat, ii, 305* 

Astro iioiiiy, L. 7t, ^^^B 

vrmy in Iiidiu, i, S2. 

aiuddhi^ iinpLiritjT, U 223 ti. ^^^H 

Arrab or Ard, towiij ii. 63 n. 

Attur&A ('O-eii-loX ii> 14^- ^Hi ^^3* ^^^| 

ArnnA ('U-l u-iiAu)jiiiouutain,CbQbd!^ 

225 ; Aatira cave, ii 156, 1 57. ^^^| 

^ Dukhtaran (t), i. 61 n., 62 ; iL 2S4, 
m ArupAiibAtit wurld, i 2 th 

A4vngbtkba B6dbJBaUva ('O-sbl pa- ^^H 

kiu^«ljFi-pu-ftH), in Cbiueae Ma- ^^^| 

Ajjm Asaogi^ ii. 171 n. 

Cling, i; 57 n., 143 n, 160 n., ^^M 

Jj^adAn B6dl]]saUvA, i, 190 n. 

182 D., 236 n. ; li. 32 n., 37 n., ^^H 

Jtr^ ZanMmedm i/ut^ul vamt-Sil tra , 

3S n.| 95* io^» loi. 30a. ^^B 

ii. 352 n. 

AavajiU fO-sbi-pVabi), in CbUif^e ^H 

1 Arj 11- P^ r^ V ika ( H ie- t'ftu u), i , 9S 11. , 

Mil sbing, i. 58 ; ii. 55 n., 150, ^^M 

■ ^*^5". . 

I5E, J75, 17S. ^^M 

B Arjaa^imbaf Buddhist patri&rcb, i* 

Aivaprnti (Mii-cbn), b^rd of botsai^, ^^^H 

lig n., 120 11, 

i, 13 c 14, 16. ^^H 

AsAdbiirati* ('U-ib©-U-ui), conveat. 

A4vaifu.ja (An'Bbi-fQ'yU'ebe),t3Juiilb, ^^^^| 

K 22 Q. 

I 72; ii. 136. ^^^1 
Atali, A^ari ^Xl-diVli), near MiitlAu, ^^H 

AfiAAAg (*0-4«rtg<kia), BCdbUsLitvn, 

IQ Cbiueae Wu^obti-p'u^aB^ L gS, 

ii. 265* ^^^1 

105 0,, 226^229, 237, 

Atharv&vida or Athan^dn^ ('O-U- V 

AaMdhA ('Aii-#bji-cbft) motith, L 72. 

pVi-tia), in Cbineae Chtn-4hut H 

Aabtfv d^r^ba, i. 51 ; ii. 31 n. ; 

Jangtmi^ and Shu-lujif L 79 u. H 

iwbt^a hfxihi trtJtf, ii. 117. 

Atliena. li. 259 d. ^H 

^t^cn^tm^jA^f (jJA'kiaWu), i, 104, 

dtinan, Ii. 231 0. ^^^H 

149 ; ii. 143. 

Atm5]Ankb^E'a ruma, L 20 ] n., ^^^^| 

A*t atr«?aiii, ii. 44 0* 

202 ^^^1 

AfliU-9labi, i. 49 ; iL 1$, 16. 

AtjHnabi^kfiU ('O-tbi-p'o-Gbi lo), ib ^H 

275-277. ■ 

AArtiak^tA, i, 13 d,; iL 6S u. 

Aub^-ata, town on the Talui nrer, ■ 

Ai»6kn>r4J4 ("O-fibu-kiLiX in Cbineae 

i. 29. ■ 

Wu-w«i, date wf^. i* 56 11. i workft^ 

Audi], AyAdliyA, i. 2I0 n. ^^^H 

kc, i. IT, 31, 40, 50, 51, 55, 57, 53, 

Ara^lhdmijdfaka, I. 151 n. ^^^| 

87; 67,9*, no, 112, 1131125, i;:7, 

Aval6kir.iB^viira Bodbie^;ittva fO-fu- ^^H 

■ I37» J3S, 139. 140 tr., 144, 146- 

lu^be -to-i'Kbt-'fa-lo-p'u-Ba)^ in ^^^^| 

1 I4S, 150. isr, 171, 17s, 177, 17S. 

Obiii«ii9 KwjiD-t^z'-tBAi, Kwaii^ ^^^H 

180, 186, 187, 200, 20J, 22 If 223, 

yin^ Jtc, i. 39, 81 ; 60, II4 tht ^^^^ 

i24, 225, 230, 231, 237, 240 ; ii, 4, 

127, 1 28, 160, 212; ii. 103, n6, ^^^^ 

Sn, 7, fj, 19,11,24-27. 29-32, 

129, 137 n., 172. 173. 214 a-f ^^H 

33 ".* 4<^i 45' 46. 6», 64, 65, 67, 

224, 225, 233 : J«^ a b<>rrP, ii. 242. ^1 

_ 75t&J, S5. **6, 8S-96, 113, lis, 

Avan<Li ^'U'foiU'Qb'ii), ii. 2Sa ^^^H 

^^^^^^^33o iNDEX. ^^^^^^^^^^B 

Feitomtloti of P'i-cben-|>Vpu-lo, 

^^^^^^H CbinefiH SUU&u^^sse^ ojomtsterj^ 

iu a72 iL 


BAlniHr (Pi-lo-m«4o),«»piUl of Gufj. 

JMim, ii. 27a 

Bill! 4jr B^ltkUn, Bolor (rPa*lu* 

^^^^H 11. to. 

l*Oi i- t^$ *i* ; u. 29S. 

^^^^^^H Aviddbi^kiuTia ('O-pL-to-kie-Li-n*^, 

BAl^ft (hib-bih^km) OF Bai, naOM 

^^^^^^^1 it] CtiineH Pti -cbwai]g-yu!, 

of A toWD, i. 10 ; 24. 

^^^^^^H mnDMtery, iL 6i| 6s, 63 q. 

bttmbti for»it, ii- 147 n., 16 L 

^^^^^H Aviddbftk»rnitpiira ('0-pi-Vo-kie-lA- 

bambuirtttdeii (P^tii^aua), ii. 161. 

^^^^^^H iia)f in CbiQej9« Pu>chwaDg-'rb, 

BAmiyin tFati^yeTi-ua), town of Af* 


gbaniit4ii, i, 39 u,, 49, li 2I ; 

^^^^^^B Avur, iL 231 n. 

imagea j^t, L SJ, 55 n- 

^^^^^^^H Ayaiuukliii. See H&rainuklLA, 

B%i^ poet. i. 210 ti> 

^^^^^^^1 ui/ana {fiinj)^ tw^dc^tida^ S«« 

BAii&rJis (Po-It>-fii-s*eX i, iT* TO : 47 


i].p 134 II., 137 Ji. ; u. 43. 44, 46 n*, 

^^^^^^^H (chti)^ L 95 n. 

47 »'*» 61 n. 

^^^^^H Ay 6cib jA ( 'O-y 1 1 -to) ur Kfkiilii Audb, 

Bahqu (Po^Dal eottatij, i. M. 

^^^^^H i. 106 ti., 224 f', 239 EL., 240 u. ; 

^^^^^^H ti., 209 tu 


^^^^H ^jwitI^ CO-jun m Obtuese 

Bitrftbar bain, iL 136 n. 

^^^^^^H JfiH^-JtM aod Bfrnn-lun^ i. 79 ti. 

B*rsgl<io village, iu 167 n. 

^^^^^^^^ ^^uj^ mat (dtan^-U), longAhed, il 74. 

B«r%iii, iL 45 IK 

^^^^^^^^^1 AEhdnlidi a draguEi, L 51 ti. 

Eapdya^a, BbjirAch, ti, 259 n. 


Bttireu ridg« (Cbib-litig) di^triet, I 
Bnati district, Vu 14 n* 

^^^^^^ BXbXtalt, fcinnUiii of £lApAtr», i. 


bdeUtntn^ gnrjgnta^ ii. 265 n. 

^^^^^^^1 Ikd^ktili&it (Fu-fco-abuDg'tin]^ tlm 

B%iilm— HuUk, several plftCft <'l 

^^^^^H Bavdff^Tfwe <>f Strabo, the OiW* 

ibit» finme, i. 95 n> 

^^^^^^^ 3d^af5a ai Pttjlcmyj L 42 lu ; ii. 

BebAr bill, it l^il n. 

B^jVadilon the KfislinA, 11 , 221 tv.« 


^^^^^H BadlA. Se« BImUL 

233 i>. 

^^^^^^1 liA^MTiixb Lakp, i. 13 ; 17 u. 

B«ia-i4gi>t], c^ipiul of llifl £>Liv 

^^^^^1 Ikghliiifc Bftitbelftn (Pu-kin-kDh a 

kbitAi, i z6 D. 

^^^^^^^H district north of tbe Ojcu^, 

BerHr^ iL S09 lu 

^^^^^m 43^ 

Bfltik (Fa-tij, i, 35, 

Mrtffdufo, ij. 203 u. 


Bbadrii (Pt^-lob m ObineM Hl^ii, a 

^^^^^^^^H hahiro— l^di, DnbelievfTB, i 9 1 n. 

devote*, ii* 55 n> ± a tnee fp'o-fu* 

^^^^^H Bdbli/LrhUU Sti0 VAibbira, iL 155 n., 


^^^^^^1 t8t 

^Aadra^ln^pi (Hi«ti-kifs), the k^lpi M 
of the »gi-8» L W, Tft ? iL 13, iS^ f 

^^^^^^^1 Bairat ur Vjritaf 1. 179 n. 

^^^^^^^1 Bai^wiliA, tbe country <jf tbe E&ia 

19, tt6, 132^ Ibc. 

^^^^^^^1 HAjfmt^, 

BbAdrapMin( PVt*-lo-po-t'o) tnontk, 

^^^^^^^m liikrdr, 138 LI. 

i. 72. 

^^^^^H tiakbria (Tti-bia, VuAm), i. 14 ; 37 u., 

Bbadrarucbi (Po-t*o-Iodiii-clti) BKUt- 


Bbu, iL 263 t^ 275, 

^^^^^H middibyti-rftj^i {Fo-lo-*i>-ti-to^, in 

Bbagatpur (CbimipdJ, ii, 1 91 ti,j 

^^^^^^^H CbltieAe Ye<i-JLh» kin FT r>f Hiai^- 

192 n,, 20I ru 

^^^^^^B dba, 119 ti.f 16^-170; ii. t6S, 

nh%yndi'vi| it. Si n. 

^^^^H 1^.173 

^^^^^^H lUJiya, ii. 61 

BUjindirj (P'o-tii), L 210, 

^^^^^H iMkb (Pu-Jiu'loV town of BAktna, 

BlLir^gava BdLhniana, ii. 259 Ik, 

^^^^H L ii 1 39 0., 43t 44 Km 4^} 49 "< 

Bb^u^b, Bh4rukn<?hchba, B)iiin]li> 


^^^^^^^^^^^^TNDBX^^^^^^^^^ 351 ^^^^^B 

W^eh^iftvft or Ba^t^^^i (F(>-lu-kie- 

Borddhonk1it!» ii. 1^4 n. ^^H 

■ ehVp'o), ii. ass "m 259 11., 

^<»rpl^. ii9/ ^^B 

■ 360 Q. 

BrabmA (Kao), i. AS ; ii. 35 n„ 1 15. ^^B 

■ Bbaj^kumvAimi (P*(>.««-k(e-lo-fn- 

127, V 

■ mo}, in Chinese Yib-cbeu, king of 

BralimacbAra, ii. 35 n. ^^M 

K&Eii>iitipA, iL 196. 

Brabmocb^ri i>4 (Fj^ti-cbi), in CblnPM ^^^^ 

Bhati itr HndhL^ ii. 20 n. 

Tuing-i, 1. B7i ftod courteBaii, ii. ^^^| 

K Bb^^l^fkiA piocoMttirj at YAlablil* li, 
■ 267 n. 


Bi-HbTOHdfttta (Fan-Hbeu), kmg of ^^H 

Kusamapura, i. 207. ^^^f 

Tuing-piti, ii. 323, 224 0,, 225 n. 

Bmbmadiitiorija (PiLn^jU'Wang), 11, ^^^| 

BbdwoJpur, ii. 265 ti. 

Ih 73- ^W 

Bbida (Pi-tu), i. 36, 

BrabDiadeva. or rftjX ), 2lSj n. 22, ^H 

aTJbAM(Pi-fc**ij), ii. 5, &c. 

123, 126. t33, I4S, 14S, 1S4. ^J 

bkilihunU, I Z9. 

Briibma-gnjA, ii. I13 n. ^^^H 

iMmiL (Pi'tiKiJ Durgi, tetuple of, i. 

Bmbmakdvikiifl ( laii-t'ivii), Brabmi ^^^| 

113, H4J n. 21411, 

beavetie, i. 40. ^^^1 

BhogiulSvI, ii, 81 f». 

Brmb ni an lui itn , ii . 7 r n . ^^^| 
Btihtnnn c:)fjt« (P u-bi-men), iV SS, ^^H 

Bli6*iay*rmau, iL 8t n. 

Bbiiila, diUib of, ii. 17 n., 20 n., 

9S, 100, 104; 69, 82, 89; \mh%^ ^^M 

29 n. 

Hevipg, M. ^^H 

BbitvniiL^vam in Orissii, Lit 205 n., 

BrAhmao ^^^E* )>' ^71- ^^^| 

206 11. 

BrAbma^ itifipired bj demon, ii* ^^^| 

Bt^iffit iirTT^nfft?, the Vip|l4 riYer, 


I T65 Ji, 

Brflbmanna^ notliiQg' IcDOwn of, L ^^^| 

BiMflT^f river, 1. 147 n. 


Biddbakajii, Ci.rruptiim of D|lb»dA- 

Brihmiimpiiru, town of Mfltwft, il, ^^^H 

ra^jai ii. 62 a. 

262r 26s n, ^^H 

Biju&r 10 liobiLkhftnd, L 190 n. 
BiK^pur, IL 62 n. 

6rabiLi:iptjrii (PVlQ<bIh-ma<pu-lo), ^^^| 


bimha^ Btyontfi fp^fiTtdit, ii. 102 n. 

Briihaijir&, Durgi, ii. 214 11. ^^^H 

Biuitiili-a rilj.t \Pln-pi'8O'k0, i. BX ; 

Hrubmpri conv<rri% iL 224 ti, ^^^H 

ii, 2ti., 85, 102, 148, 1$^, 465, 166, 

Urabtnarftgiri (, ii. ^^^H 

177,188, 189. 


BindiaaAr-i riijjt, i, 2 ti., 140 U. 

BflUndArnnyit, if. 62 n. 

Bingheu], tbe Mutigul Miu-bulftk, i. 

ho*jm^ BiiddbiL*«, preiervett at Balkhf 

27 n., 2S f). 

J. 45- 

birUit (fu^)p i. too. 

Biiddbiibbodra (Fa-fcVj-pa-to-lo), In- 

Bij&s liver— VipA^ i. 167 Ft., 173 n., 

dian ^ramanft, i, 13. 

i?7 i*^ 

Buddtiit-charUa^ ii, t6 n., 54 n., 

WciAt, i, 138. 


Bdrlbldbs^rma^ patriarchj i. 119 11. ^ 

Biiddbaddsa (Po-t 0. t*o .«o), In 

t20 rt, ; lL 25 1 P. 

Cbineaa Fo-ttse, i. 230. 

B^hidrumfi {i^\%-%uzhy%\ Chinese 

Buddhadbartim, 28 th patrirtrcb, i. 

M r<2A-/Av, 1. 106 ; 47, loi, 142; ii. 

105 n., l6S 0. 

■ 54, Jl5-i»7- l^U I2ji I27i 132, 

Buddba.gaya, I H3, 134, J37, 138^ 

■ 133* *35- '74. 333, 224, 

142 t). ; ii. 13 n, ^^^H 

■ BMhimmida ( l''^l-ti.tao.cb^mg), in 

Buddlia-:^!:ijll I u script ion, i. 9 ; 224 n« ^^^H 

V CbineAct 7'£iD-rA'a7i5r^ ii. Ji6. 

Budd b fig 1 1 pt4^ -rij a {Fo-LV>kii:^-to)i, in ^^^^| 

nadbisattYa (P*ii-ti-ftki,to), i. «1, S3, 

Cbintr^ne Kio-ini and Klu-bu, a ^^^^| 

7S, 9S ; tbf great eartb, 1 1. 

king, 1, 168 n. ; ii. 16S. ^^^^ 

BAtibiviJiilm (Fn-ti^aau), i. Tfi, 

BtiidlKkiii, iL 147 n. ^^^H 

Bukb&rn. (Pti.ho), i. 3^, 35 n. 

Buddba^e htiir mid iiaiitt, t. 22 1, 230^ ^^^H 

Bulur (Po-lu-lo) or Balti, B^iltbUn, 

236, Ii. 173 J twtb, i. 159, 160, ^^M 

i. 03; 135; ii, 298, 

222^ ii. 249; in Ct-ylan^ii. 24Sj ^H 

Bykr (Po-U-bo), ii. 2S9. 

249 i imrtgH of, i. 21, 50, St n^ ^^^™ 

^^^^^^ 332 JS'DEX, ^^^^^^^^^^M 

^^^^H T02, 202, 231a, 23s, 236, ii. 2tS, 

ChikraTartlii - rlja (Cb'o^ii - hn^^B 

^^^^^H 2 J 7, 25 2« 322; p&tra ur b«ggmg- 

wang Of Laii'^atlf ), m flnircr**! ■ 

^^^^^H difeh, L Tt ; 9^ 99 u. ; «j«l.,iI1, L 

in.*y*n:b, L i, 204, 205 ; iL 124, ■ 

^^^^^H 0; t^ahitetl igiire of, i. I03 ; 

172. ■ 

^^^^^^B rube, T. 96 ; «Uadow, i 31 ; 94 ; 

Cha-kiu-kia— YarfciawgJ 11,307. ■ 

^^^^^^H abuti TiJiurk, L 9f ; akuLi-buue, ). 

Cbalukyaa elatm u* bti of Uie met? wf H 


Hint!, i. 1 1 1 r% ■ 

^^^^^^H BudilbiL l6kJ3niit)i^ ii. s62, 263. 

CLampA (Ciieii-po) or Cbacipipiiri, H 

^^^^^^K BuUdUojiLihliii (Fo'tViUiiig-bo)t ^^- 

i. 71 ; 215 n. ; ii. 187 G.^ 191 L, ■ 

^^^^^H ctple of Ananj^a, i. 237, S3& 

192 n, ■ 

^^^^^H Buddbflp&Uu, Buddbij^t teaoh^r, i. 

Champakji (Cheti-po^kia), i. 23 1, ■ 


CbampAjiagar, ti. 191 11. ^^^B 

^^^^^^B B 1 tdd h n V ana ( Fi>.t*o>f a-na) moiin tain , 

Champion ]tik«, ii. 59. ^^^H 


ObAn4i, Durg&, ii. 214 q. ^^^H 

^^^^^H Budatimu (Northern}, i, 9. 

Cbfiud^ ii. 209 Q* ^^^B 

^^^^^^B BudflbiHt biiokSf it. 2t6 11. ; in Chlti^, 

CbaiKiA town, il, 254 n. ^^^H 


Cbajid.iU (CUen*tA4o), low caito, £^ 

^^^^H BihiaiiiKt ^cbooW kc, I So. 

S8; r40. 

^^^^^^L Buddhidb triiidi Unildba, D]iafiti% 

ChaTKliiii Kniiika— Kanithk)*, I 56 n. 

^^^^^H and Sft£g1jii, u 50 11. 

^c?f«£jfan^m (cbeurtuii'tiup^u). hd* 

^^^^^^^H btiililLngfi, tudLaii, u 73. 

diii-wtJijdp ii. 232. 

^^^^^^^H Bnkhilriri, ii, 307 u. 

CbundrabLftga (Clieti-t*n-lo-p*0-kiaj, 

^^^^^^H bvlak {Turkish ) pu-to, OAtnpiog* 

dieta-iqi of the, i. 150 ti. 


Cbatidfagui, ti. 232 a. 

^^^^^^H BvXrtti of Ptolemy, i. 135 ti« 

Ob*ndrigtiptn Maurya, I 17 : taS n, 

^^^^^^V^ BalimgLiir i. 19. 

c4(imfnt»tdil/i» (^U£A-n^i-<!A«ir, t 

^^^^^^H B u lu M n ^tl an r& j a, ii . 230 ti. 

g*m, it 152, 253. 

^^^^^^^H Burmt, 

CbiiJidniklrtti, a BaJtlbiat t*«clii*r, 

L 190 u. 


Cliaiidt-apilLla (Uy-yii^b), a deiroiK» 

ii. 171. 
Cbaudraprabbii rILja (Cb^n-U^lo^po* 

^^^^^^^H cadmia nf Pliny, it. 174 m 

^^^^^^^B CnUminn, at tbn moutL of Llie Id- 

la-p'o]^ in Chiiie*e Tuehkwiog, 


i. 138; ii. 213. 

^^^^^^^H cJiUndar (ibti royal), L 6, 9 ; Hiudii, 

tJtang, a meostirv of ie> feet, i. 47* 


Cbaug'an, ejty» i. 12, IS. 2S 1*., 83. 

^^^^^^^^ cjktnpkojr^karp^m^ ii. 232. 

Cbang-K'ieni Marqiiait Fu-WAn, L 

^^^^^^^^v cjii][}ibdieni, i. 14 u. 

I n.j 5 ^-i ^ ^' 

^^^^^^^^P Cftpma, CapiitfleiiD, and CapbuKi— 

Chiing-kwanjtfj prefecture', h 82, 8i 

^^^^^^^B KftpbH, L 54 n., 56 n* 

Chatig-tai, brother uf Hiueti Tiiaf^g, 

^^^^^^^B Caap 1)111 Sea^ L 36 »« 

i- 3* 

^^^^^^^B oaiitefi {t-arna), Indkn^ i. 69, S2 ; 

Cb^ug-yf^b, fortified tow a m Kaii- 


Hiib, i. IS, is. 

^^^^^^^B cmatratiiiii, 23. 

Cbuiig'Yueb, author 4>t preface and 

^^^^^^^H u4— dfii (wij-t*u), i. 146. 

introductian to Htuen T^IulU]^* 

^^^^^^^1 €iwm of AfiC^^A^^^^^"^! ^- 59 °' 

Si-^ti-ki, u t n. 

^^^^^^^P c;«r««U^ grow til nfj IL So^ 

Chanua or Jlna B6dhiitttti«t tl 

^^^^^H C0vlntir SimbaK U iSS. 1S9 ; 



Clmttiehl (Chen-che^, s womtn, 119^ 

^^^^^H Ciof^t^it^ elephatilfl, ii. 49. 

^^^^^^B CbijcbAtii&u (Cbi Dgob-yijti*ti^), 

dal-wtjod, ii, 532. 
Cb&rikar (Sha-lo^kfa ty, villigv BOir " 


^^^^^^^ Ctt iitr% (Cbi*U-1o}, niontb, L 72. 

Opiio, i. 57 n., 59 ti* 

^^^^^B CI'Aj tCbf^^^bi), Tafthkaiid, i. 30, 
^^^^^B €li'«iA« (Ch«-ki«) peopEe, i, 33 u. 

Cbaritrapura (Cbi^'ti-td-to), ■ea{>ort ^ 

of Otkala. in Cbim^^ F^bing, il ■ 

^^^^H ilw T«ikk«, 

205, 230 n.| 233 EL ■ 

^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^t 


H *'dmHty-witTiout-]nt«rmi*iiiuM/* ii. 

Ch'-bdog Tii«, emperor of China, IL 


■ 167. 

2S2 n. 


■^ Ch^iikal nr Chircliik river iu Tar- 

Cbi-^Vijn&rjit, 11.940. 


kUiAn, i. 39 Ti.p 30 ti. 

M^ktipiftjnl*t, Ii. 33. 


Clmttan— HimAliiya lake, iL 49 n. 

Cbih-kia— Cbaka^ poo pie, i, 33. 


difirwr ri^iAyM* (fwie-shill'do], fiiHr 

€b!ii4in^, Barren Pns4, I M, 85. 


i|»irUiml ^;iciJh.u*H, il 691 

Ohi-i, Buddliiit pllgriuj, i, 224 ti. 


ChAu iUniinty ( i 122-256), whonfs 

Cbi'in Lin, i, 18. 


family name wm Ki, i. 2 11, 

Ch i-Kmj-ta ng-fo- to- n i — VaJrapSif i- 


CbAtibam taounds at MiLtiiurft, h 

dMratti^ ji. 36, 22$. 


iSt It. 

Cbi-ki't'b,— JuHen ftnppoK-s to be 


cA{2tt-^ui^ — red-eolotired, i. 1 66, 

ChikdhfL or Chittur* li. 271. 


t!liau*hu-li, convents, L 21* 

Chikitsiividi^df Cbin, l-fanrf-min^, i. 


chau-iaHf wcicsded bridgea, ii, 149 ti. 

78* 153 n- 


■ CUeha DukhUriin muuntaia (*U-hi- 

chiliiiCitHiTi {i(j4iin)f i. 1 n., lO. 


■ TiafX i^ 61 TI. 

Chilk» LAke, IT. 206 D. 


■ Cbeka or Trtkka (Tae-kifl), kingdom 

Cbi-modo— Malttkiltiip ii. 231 h., 


of Amr^taar, i. 193, ii. 274, 375. 

232 n. 


Cbe-ttio*t*o-na or Ni-oio country, iL 

Cbitia, date of importabton of Bud^ 



dhtsi bi^uki into, i. 10. 


CUe-meli— AlEflii, i. 24, 

Cbiim (Cbi-iia-kwS}, I 8, 10, fil, 


Clierokerit^ tuwti in TurkUtiii, 1. 

103 i 57 "., S^ 217; ii. 196, 


39 «* 

J02. 319- 


— ^ CUisuil> ri?or, tlio ChiindrabhAga, L 

chtftdni \cU\'UJi-mX in Cbineae 


■ 165 »i. 

kan-cJii-lai — tbe ppacb, i, 174, 


r chm-eh'ing-i^o, Bpociet of rice, i. 

Cblnapati (Chi-im-pi>ti), country in 



the Panj4b, i, 1670., 1 73!, 


Cbon-dhn— Gb4aipur^ ii 44, 6 1- 

chtnaTdJap%Ura { Cb i - u a- lo - sb e-f o-U- 


Chen-ohu-na, capil*! of Fu-H-ehL ii* 

lo), in CbiueBe hait-wafiti-Ueu—' 



the pear, L 1 74. 


^Hienghiz Kbili>, L 2Q n., 35 n., 56 n. 

Ching'im, i. 108. 


Oben^KwHa T'^i-Toung, t^uiptsrar, u 

CbinchJ, a conn*?!riiii, ii. 9 n* 


1 n. 

CbiQchimand, i. 4T ; ii. 9 n. 


CbeD-mu-na — YaraiuiA river, i. 1S7. 

chin-ckii^-t\iiij di»b, ii. 1 29. 


CbeD-po — ChanipA, i Tl ; ii. 191* 

Ciiiutf or Cbtnigari^ — -Ciilutipati, i. 


Chen-i^h^to'r fi>r K'woh-neh-to. Stfe 




Cb-hing Ho, a ennncb, it. 2S3 n. 


Cbefi'Hbl, common name of Hineij 

Cbing-kwong, i. 93. 


Tiiuig, £, 2, 

Cbu]g-iiai)g— Suiniimtlytt lohotil, L 


CbeO'lA- lo- po - ln-p^o^Chandrapn- 
■ bba, i 138. 

200, 207 ; ti. 2, 44. 


Chinff-m I n^- lun — th e V^kant nam 


f Clieti-tt>kiA — Chlmn^nka, iL 30. 

of Pftiiini, i. 114. 


Cbercliern of Miir<]o I*ulo^ «Ame as 

CI 1 i - ngo b -y en - n a — (3bagb4n iAb. 


Shen-abaD, j. 12* 

Chi n 'kin -nnm — KAdcbanEini^t^ wif« 


Che «lii, i, 29 n*, 30, 31. See T»ab- 

of KuD^la, i. I4r n. 



Cb'in-na — JiuM, ii, 2lS n. 


cheHtnut (2^), i. 6S. 

Vh itiv n d^va ^y6trit { C Id 1 ui- ti-p* -k iu- 


Clie*ti, utone civ*", i, Tl- 

tadotj ill Cbinene 


Cb«t]> Aui, ii. 6S D. 

chongi ii. 300. 


Cliliatidakii (Clien^ta-km), Biddbftr- 

(ikin*tu.-kia—tu\dtd:a frHit, i. SS. 


tba'a ebn^rioteerj L fil ; ii. 29 n, 

Chirchik river. See CiiutkitL 


30y 102 n. 

Cbi'taio-^ChaitrA. < 


CbbnluoA, ii. 7S n. 

CbitrAl, 1. 119 tl.. 135 n. ; ii. 29611^ 


Qihatrapatl, IodI of tbe pflmard, in 

Chi ssntf 't Hfjij — Siibbabi. 


H Cbiti«ae P'ao-chn, Inrd of trea- 

ehitfipdit^Mln^ ii. 3 n. 


■ BUrei, L 13 n^ 14, 16. 

Chi-yeu, i. 18, 33, 38* 


^^^f 354 ^^^^F ^^^^^^^H 

^^^^H Chi' jueb —J Mn achRUd ra, 1 1. 1 7 1 . 


^^^^H Cbdiii country or Cbuija (CUu-ti' 


^^^H y^, So'h), ii, :22;, 249. 

^^^^H Chuw dynjiety, L 94 ; 217 i>* 

D^DjiLi montet— DAiatii6l£a,u itit^ 

^^^^H Chu or CUui river (Su-yeU), 1. S9 ; 

DsUiio tribe, i. 37 n. 

^^^^H a6 11., 27 U., 29 n. 

D^dLfililu or TiirtMj i, 29 u^ 

^^^^H Chuh-Vimg, r»ue of tb« ^'tUr«fl 

Dai-Qftklf JApansM ni^me of Toilni' 

^^^^H A07«rt9igiifif*' i. 7 D. 

TAnii, i. 59 n. 

^^^^H CliU-ku~[io— Yiukmn^ kingdom, L 

Dakfibina (Ta-Uido)— DekluUiflOUa- 


try, i! f B. J 

^^^^H Chu-Ii ye— Chvil3ra ot Cti6lji, li. 337. 

Dal^hindifana (Nab - hing), ib« ^H 

^^^^H CbuiHla (Sbyu i'oi, ii. 32. 

ujttrcii of tbe fiuQ tu tbe «outli, ^H 

^^^^H tV*iinfj-s>t^*fiin*p^'o-ih^^Vihkdtha- 

i. 71 n* 1 

^^^^H ptiikamnii-pdda i'4ilra, i< 161. 

DAmdaioft mound, tseor Mn-tbtui, i J 

^^^^H Okunff-ti€-fm-*0'pi-ta'mo ^^ Abhi- 

lS2n. ^^ 

^^^^H d^r«n£tprdbi-(f nd-jic£c£a ^iktra^ i. 

/Miia|kt£i (Shi-ohu), re1i]^i0u« patvDif, ^H 

^^^H 109- 


^^^^H dEU-cba-abi-Io— TakihEiiLli, L 33. 

DandarikiL tTati-tn-In kin T) motin* ^H 

^^^^H Chu-«i>Iung^ % pilj^m, i. 10. 

Uiu, iiizn. Sra Dant^yaki. ^H 

^^^^H Ch\i-ti-6e-ku^Jj6tLBhbh il 167. 

dantaiM4hi (Un-l^-kift -ae-cb'Aj, in 

^^^H Chw>mg, 1. 05. 

CbincAe th'i-mo^ Buddbn'^ tootb^ 

^^^^H C^/t if^nf^ - ^fi n * t a * ahinp - Mng - lun — 

deanerp ii. r73- 

^^^^H MaJidmtm »^rdlankdra(tka^ i 

D&tiUldka (Tau-u4o'kiik} mouneiin, 


in Q-^ndhirji, i. f 13. ^_ 

^^^^^H circle aign, iu 9a 

DiLTvh ur Dimili<i'idm{Hi-nio-to-lH ^H 

^^^^^H 01 ril Ad tti i 1 1 i i b i-atiiitif i^Bj, 

iu Badakiihili}, L 42 t]« ^M 

^^^^V GkttBe« (flae-aiiig), four, t)f Eving 

Daraij-Gaz, i. 39 n, ' 

^^^^H beingi, i* 150 n. 

Dftrail or D&ril (Ta-li-lo), old ^piUl 

^^^^H oWuliuuttH of KJodufl, i. 77. 

of Udyftiia, i. 134 ; Talley, L It. 

^^^^^H glimate »f India, L 75, 

Fiilril, rivefj L 1». 

^^^^^H dotbingt i. iSo. 

Dard country, i 13 t 1 19 ti., 134 tu 

^^^^^H Cloud^atoiiti TMuuiitam flaAgb&rAmA, 

liiLrgluiuiikba, a BtiiUm^n, ii« 179. 

^^^^M 103. 136 u. 

Dariua, inBCriptioa of, L 6t ti^ \ 

^^^^1 ctHsk (wMul gf tbeWKukkuta p«da, 

Dariika, ii, io2 tn ^H 


Diirunta in KAbul, i. 91 n, ^H 

^^^^^H Ci'ck'et-focit-motmtaiDj i, 64 ; 33S n. ; 

D&rvik& district, i, 15011. ^H 

^^^H ii. 13 n., 22 n., 14^ 144, 145. 

D^rwAis iu Kumidbai i. 41. ^H 

^^^^^H Cock<gardrLi su^bAdlniti, iL 142 Q, 

i^ajbiAia^i ^^^ra (Sbi-ti'kiti|1, i ^H 

^^^^^^1 fjummerce of Inriio, j, S9. 

22S. H 

^^^^^H Cuufuciu^^ i, 94 ; 4 u. 

doia^N^ (ali^i-I^), TeEi-pow«r, u. yti^ ^H 

^^^^^H CotuiUuititiovEik, town, L 26 tu 

55 '■-« 75- H 

^^^^^H ooppflr^ nativti (teou-nhib), 1. S91 

date fruit {Unu), i. S& ^H 

^^^H 177, 194, 19S. 

Duulatlbdkl, ii. 255 n. ^H 

^^^^^1 Cophene (Ki-ptt))» L 100, 

Dautin, ii. 65 Gu ^H 

^^^^^F earned inn {ma-nao) dkh^ iL 129, 

Daiin^^A'l^l'i^'^^S vi11ag«^ L 229 ^ ^H 

^^^^^F courttiAfLu itpd BmlituaGb^rinBf ii. 

Deer-forest (Ln-yeU ii, 45. ^H 


Dfter'fe«t*daLigbtcr or gjrU E 7' ^1 

^^^^^H oreaturei, four kinda of« Vu 36 1* 


^^^^^H ere til all nn of Buddlm'i Uydy, IL 

Deer-king birtli, iL $1. ^H 


"deer park/* (L 48 n., 55. 

^^^^^B criminals, i S3 1 

Degw&nij villAgdi il. 65 u., 66 n. 

^^^^^V p croflier {nek cbenng), i, 96 n. 

DeUaa, I 49 ^^ 

^^^^H crjAiol ditib (po-eA*i)i i> 177 » i^* 

D^iiitr Eflpi, t be i niu gatec, i* 36 n 


demoTi'itiBpired Br^cnatii, Ii loo. 

^^^^H ourouma {tfu-km) ginger* L 54 n. 

"depoflited bowa «.nd cttibi^" toMcr 


of, and origin of naii^e, L 63- 

^^* ^^1 

Bftrabbjifa, king of YMah], ii. 267 n. 

dlionna, Cbtneae Fa^ tbe kw, i. 6& ^ ^^^H 

Berbeiidj near the Oaipt&o, i. 36 n. 


Derbent^ i. 36 n» 

DbartDiigupijia (T^an>wu-te and T^iU]> ^^^^^| 

dessert of drifting sAud^ i. S^ ; IL 

mo^kio*tct), iti Cbiueise Kii-mi-pu ^^^^^| 



"l>e«ert" (Kwang^je) WbAra, 1, 

dhttrmakd^ii, body of Ibe Uw, L ^^^^H 


204 ^^^^H 

deserted towti b Turkeat&n^ i. 28. 

(thannakd^a fFa-ebin], tbe spiritual ^^^^^| 

DSvus, Brilititn^iuaL god«, i. Si, 7S ; 

esaencp nf Buddbo, ii. 37 n« ^^^^H 


DbarmakAti or Dbnrtiingnptd (Ta* ^^^^H 

D^Vft BiW3biBattV4(Ti-p'ti), in ChineflC 

ino-kiu*t)), aSbao^nn, i, 76. ^^^^M 

TVfu i. iSS 1, 231 ; iu 97-99, 

DbaruiakfiU^tra or KiirukftL^Lra, u ^^^^B 

210, 227, 303 ; toixndi the ffhan(dj 


ii. 99. 

DhannapiU (Tn'mn^po-lo), in Cbi^ ^^^H 

B4v& tnoanUiin, U. 114. 

neae U-fa, ii. no, til, 171, 223 ^^^H 

Dfivuriljw, a 123, 

f., Z2S n., 229, 230, 237, 23S, 239p ^^H 

DSvji r4jjia, fuur* ii. 1 29. 

^0. ^^^^^H 

D«TjidattA (Ti-p'a-ta-t<3), In Chiiiefle 

Dlmrinapattnna^ ^rdvaatl, ii. 1 n. ^^^^^^^^M 

Tittn-ahu, i, 47, 48, 69, 61 ; ii- 8, 

D/iaTmti*pifabi collected, ii. 162. ^^^^^^^| 

9t 17*50, l5o^I53■ 'SS. aoi. 

dharmaiarirn (fu-abe-li), ii- 146. ^^^^^^H 

D6^«'^niH'iniiA^;ipujitao^ ii^ S n. 

Dhartnil^kn, li. 90 ti. ^^^H 

DAva Mlim l*i&uiia, i. 59. 

Dbarmattkfa, error for Dbiirmatf4ta, ^^^^H 

D^vanaiDpujutiBsn, king of Cejlati, 


1 ohijiit 250 B.c,^ ii. 247 ti. 

DlinrmatrfttA (T)t*md-ta-k-io), \n ^^^H 

D§Ta|p&d4ri, li. 142 11. 

Cbini?»i? Fn-kUn, aiitbor <if tli9 ^^^^H 

D^Taiftrm ri ( Ti-p'o-ahe - in 0), jiutlior of 
Vij^4Mya S4»ti'a, L 240. 

Sa m tf iikldbh idharmn ^^"thtTU, i . gS^ ^^^H 


Devfci^ija (Tiyu^ai^im), i. 191 t 

Dhartii»yarddbana, mn of AMika, u ^^^^H 

Develop met! t (GreAt) flerieB uf writ* 


iDgB, i. IS. 

Dharm5tt&m or Uttarmlhai-ma^ ^^^^H 

dt»w (swetiL}^ Ctittiese itan^u, Sans. 

f u n df*r of tbe Sa u tr &ialk a eoboolp ^^^^^| 

amfita^ L I» 


dew*dij«1i, i, 67* 

dha$U3tt tbe eigbteen, 1. 95 n. ^^^^^| 

' mw&l&hillH, ii. 214 n. 

Dhilviiika, priet, perhaps autbor of ^^^^^| 

Dba]iii.ii4thieti, JuUtiu'a restoration 

Ndg<ttniiiida.i i. 21 j n. ^^^^^H 

of Ta-ii*o-fiili-teh-tij wbicb see. 

DbrAbb.iia, i^ilAditja YL of Tula- ^^^H 

Dbaiuek, tbe grettt tower 0^ ii* 

bhl, ii. ^^^^1 


DbniVApa^a (T'u4o-p'o.po-ttiK in ^^^^^| 

Dliaiii^nltntikti, tL 22 T n. 

Cbiof^Ae Cb^aiig-jnt, kitif^ of YaIa- ^^^^^^| 

. DlnwtA-namlo^ ii. 94 "* 


Dhmvasdna I. of YaUbhl, li. 267 n. ^^^^^^ 

DharaQllc6tA ^n the KfTabnA, ii. 

Dhruvnsena II. f>f YaUbiii, It. 267 ti ^^^^^ 

22Q f., 225. 

Digauibara J tun as, NirgrantbiU], i ^^^^^H 

cl&iKiiu, Cliineie iton^i a measure of 

55 11., 144 n,, 145 n. ; ii. 20$ ti. ^^^^| 

4 i^'ubits, i. 70. 

Dioara (Ti-na-po)f I>inii|iati, IL 27 S ^^^^^| 

Db&nyaka^nka, DhiLii^^vAtlpui^, or 

Dfpa&karH BuddUa, in Cbine^ F^n- ^^^^H 

Dhiinjakafaka, ii. 220 u.j 221 u. 

aaug-po and ZbeQ-tHtig-pu^ i. 3& ; ^^^^^| 

Bb4rtt, ^DbiriDiigani, ii, 260 u., 

91 Ti,, 92, 93. ^^^H 


DlrgbabbAranA (? Ti-kia-p'o^fo-na), ^^^H 

Dhdrani, ii. 226 lu 

ntoniuitf^rj, ii. 31 3, ^^^^^H 

Dliamnikdi^, Dbaiijaka^ka^ li. 221 

Mrtjh^gatiut ^ j. 79. ^^^^H 

n», 226 u. 

I>irgbanakb^ in Chinefie Cb^ini;* ^^^^^^1 

cbao, author of tbe Dinfiianfikhdy ^^^^^| 

foXa (Riu-cbcu'^tfliaiiiz)^ ii, 165. 

pa rivrajaka 'paHpfleh eh ftd, iL 1 79. ^^^^^B 

0har.i*5iia, I. of VjiUbbi, ij. 26S n. 

ditteu^iona, Buddbiflt^ i, Sl« ^^^^^^H 

Dlmron^Qti II. of Yakbbl, ii, 26S n. 

diti^b, KukiU, ii. 9. ^^^H 

<)itcb of Bhtitlft, lu tj n, 

ditch of ^r!gtipt% il. t$2. 

dirtflmn of SuHrat {ihiM)^ 11, 39^ 

41, 160. 
Dongarftiir, ii. 260 n» 

Dr«goii-p»kce^ i. 5. 

Dtagoti'chApel, I 41. 

Iliftri4^ (Ta-lo-pi'ci/a), equnUy, \l 

32S, 131 n., 253. 
dre*a of thft Hiiid4ft» i ?S ; Tttj^X, 76, 
Drtiii8i(Ho)» i. 21011,; ii. 41,6511. 
IhOfi* iiftp* (Piuii^-fiu-tu-pri), iL 65* 

riiioi^^a convent, ii. 267 ti* 
fliiAib4o, in Cliineae K'u^ sorrow^ i, 

isj; ii. 105 n, 
DukbuU^ fiLiber of SatDoka. i ill q. 
Ihiigg, ti. 224 P. 
Jhirgfid^vi fT^o-kia-t'leu-shm) or 

BhltnidCv!^ i. IIJ n., 114 n, 
DvdrnpAti (To'lo-po-ti) San do we, iL 


EastkuK H»a Chi da, i. sS, 

«i^lit dragotiB, tlie taleuted «otib of 

Siiiij 1. 4. 
eigiit aafraocbiAemciutAi iL I43. 
flight Vjijrapi^iBij iL 2a. 
ICki^piirviitii i«,igl)ftriiu», i\ iSi n. 
Eka^flftgri (To kiotiflu ma) ^Hlliihi, i 

KlAfrntrn (I-lo-po-|A-lo), L S8 ; 137 ; 

ii. 4t. 
Ekphitut birtb, ii. 49. 
iflqihtiot, tba perfutu^^ t 5 | wild| 

Elephnnt iitrength — PLlui&ra 9tiip&| 

Ktiif lake^ ii. 2t7 n. 
Kniku or Mundii^ rock or ^ute, i. 
ET>hthalifceii( Ye-tha)^ i. 16, 18, 90, §1. 

145 n, 
EukrftLides, B^irian king^ 1. 37 u, 
Exe&libur, 11, 56 n. 
ejelMiU of Biiddb^, L 9^ 

F(i-^i'lun — Abh idh^rtnti j^dn a-pra. 

^Ana *S'dttrth u 175. 
Fii-Uietj, Chinese travelter, 3 99-4 1 4f 

A.D., i 11 STj 5* 


Fa^la-na — Vara|iii or Varnu. 
Fji-lit-pl— VaUbbi, ii. 266. 
F)il^iii|^, Cbiiiese pilgrim, i. 10. 
Frt-lutig, **cUy of deimrture,'* 

the Orlasa coaat, ii, 205. 
F^f» tttid Sit, hiwlm of Chifie 

legendorj histoTy, i 3. 
Fhu — BmhniA, i. 20 J j ii. 1 27, 
Fnn, Stiftfikftt^ i. Tl. 
Faij triUsa—TibetaJia, i. 17311- 
Fau-bidg— BrAhmjini ii, 35 ti. 
Farv-Bheu^Brahmadatta^ L 207 ; J 

/a'*fAft-i(— cfA^nrtoJisrtfiB, it 1 44 
F(*'*be-lo — Vajrftj ii, 170. 
fiiii^t dajH, i 2t. 
fau-pijh, ciipuln^ iL 5t* 
Ffi -han — Fer^ti Anah , 
K-I.dh^4i {VaJHail), ii, 44, 66, i6a 
F*'oii-tboii, a pngoda. L 101, 
Fergbioab (FeMianJ, proTiTioe «n«l 

town of TurkietAii, i. 30, p u, 
Fire-titjnguiihing Bttkpa, ii 34, 
FiruKpur or FinizibJd, ii, 194 u, 
F[*h-»non4t*r sfcory, ii. 79, 
tivp groat coiumandiDHDtJt, i. tft 
fivefold spiritual body, ii, 94. 
Five Indies, i, 9. 
Fiyu kiDia (tbo)^ SUjin^hfto, Clni*n- 

bio, K40-Bin|t« Yao, atid SbiiOt 

who followed Hwiuig'ti, i* 7 tl, 
ftvo #Jt-£ifi(iA4XJ, ii. 94 b, 
five vidifdt, ii 42, fOi, 
Fo-hi, empeTor, i, 2 o. 
Fo-L'w6-ki dJActivertd bj KlapTotk 

litid traixalated by R^tuiual, L 11; 

new vertTODf i. 33- 8A. 
Fo-Hn, Bjauiniitie empire, u« 27 S, 

F».-li-tbi— Yfljji^ ii 44, 77, y%, 
Fu- 1 i- shi-aa * i*aQ|^ - na — ^fTJ j iatb Asa* 

PiititJBtbAnii, t. 56 «♦ ; it* 2^5. 
Fo-lu-fiba — PimtebHpura (Ptabl- 

war), i. 33^ 33. 
Fo • shwiii, " river of reiigiow 

tn^nt," the MftbAbhadT^ i 1S8* 
Fo-Bba-fu— the YiMTjalia (Po-lu<«h») 

oE Hiueo l^fiUng, i 102. 
Fo * Uj * fa ' oa- thiin — Buddlia^iiUJa 

mountiuti, ii. 145. 
Fo't'o*kio>to — Buddbagiiptafija» ii. 

Fo-t*o-to<io — BuddbAaa, i. jja 
Fo>U'u — read Po-t^su* ii, 3S9, &e. 




four contiDentu, !♦ lO, 1 1. 

foor DflT»»Hkjju*, 11. 129. 

taviv Eiiude^ nf life, ii, 2E4 n, 

four kiiidit of creature*, ii, 261, 

Frnprant DiouTiUin^^ u II. 

Fu/the, frtmilj-, u 2B. 

Fuh-bi or P^*n4t i»ne of the ** Uira* 

ftovereipTia/* h 7 n. 9 n. 
fu'iing—Mtidi^ ehma, \u 19411. 
Iiiiie'ri of ail AiLut, i. 76 f. 
funenls, I, S6^ 
Fu - fehe - an - Jr;i - lu — FujoHiiinirii 

Ayaalimtit, ii, 74, 75, 

GAJAPAn (Siat5g - cbtil, lord of 
elephiitita, i. 13 n.. 14, 15, 16. 

QandkkA river, ii, J4 jj., 66 xu 

Q>iiid«kl, Little, river, il. 32 n. 

Gftiidiirie or Gandnrit &t)d QaQikri- 
ti», i. 97 n., 98 n. 

OittJd^iiiHvlpa, ii. 138 n» 

f/ttndhahati i f h i ft n g**i an g ) , perf u ra e 
islrpb&iit, i. 5 u, ; ii. 13$, 

OmndhAra (Kien-iVlo), Peabiwar 
con « try, cimiitry *if *be Yai£uf- 
wAahM, u 16^ 31, 93. TS. &&, 1^3^ 
103, 106 ; 56, 57, 63, 97, 98 n,, 
r09TL, 13611., 151, 153 11., 1561 J. 

Gdiij^il (KiQg'kiii}, river, 1. S6 f. 
See GaFigfB^ 

Gifigmiw4ra (King-kirL-bu-Dien) or 
GK&j^Aiiiri HandM4r«i, 1. 188 d^ 

Gnngeii (King-kia) livt^r, MnbiL- 
bbmlrft, K Ift^ 33, 67, Tl ; 1 1* 86 f,, 

IS8, 197, tqS, 201, 206, 207j 2J4, 

Zij, 218, 222, 223^ 224, 225, 229, 
330; ii, 44, 64, 71, 77, 81, 82, 
1S4, 1S6, 190, 191, 192, 193,20611. 

Gangi (Kiug-k'i), a dragon, i, 122. 

Garbvvdl, u 198 I J. 

Giirjiuiapati, ii. 61 u, 

Garjpur, ii, 61 u. 

G>irmEi (Hwilb-!o-iTia)t L 39. 

ffdiJta (kift-t'u), Cbuiffls jo"/7, nnd 
fmi'j-Mtiiif;^ H fttanza, i. 124 11, 

Oaiida, old mpital of B«ogid^ i, 2 10; 

Gjiuiatnjit (Kiqo^tA^naio), Sramana, L 
07 i ii. 8, 35, 151. 

GiiyA (Kia-ye), L 51 1 tL 95^ 112 n*, 

M3» "24 "m 136 n., 137 ^-f '42 »; 
Chinese iiiaeriptioDfl at^ i. 10. 
OityA -kilay n |rn ( Ki a-y e - k )a-Bbe-po)t 
ii. 113, ii4j 13a 
VOL. It 

Gaji, Gboz, or DarAb-gaB (Kle-ebi), 

i, 39 n., 48, 49. 
GhAgbri river, i, 225 tj. ; \'k 64 a. 
ghanfd (1ctD-t*i), i. 66 ; ii. 96^ 
ghaHfti Hounded, ii. 162. 
Gblzipur fChen^cbu), ih 61, 62. 
Gbiizna ^Htid-im], town of Af- 
ghan iBidn, ii. 283. 
GborbAndf lawn, L S^ n. ; Hvert 1, 

67 n. 
Obfiftba (K'lu-Bba), Chi^eai! Miaii< 

ing, i. 142, 143 n. 
GL^bira (Kiu-»bi-lo), a noble, i. 

Ob6Hhirnv?inn vihdra, i. 68* 
Gboer4 \u Bill Mr, i, 91 11 , 
winger itfutln}, I 54, 
Giribbajii, JL 161 ii, 
Girjokp ii, iSa n. 
GiriirmJA (Sban-cbjng) ii, 149 n., 

15S, i6f 0, 
Girn4ra, MrMiiit Ujjanta, it 269 o. 
Gfldbanya (KHii-t^o-ni), one of tbe 

four dvipftB, i. It, 
GoiiUy& river, ii- 2<>7 n. 
G6dft¥jir! river, ii, 207 «., 309 n., 

217 n, 
Gogardaebt river, L 42 n* 
Gdkanlhsi T (Kn-bwSn-cb*A) oottveDt, 

i. 1S6. 
Gdldfltsi^er^ a king*B iian><', u 2a 
Odld river, ii. 39, 
Giitkonda, ii. 354 n, 
GolJaK, ki<ig, r. 16. 
Gdmatt river, 237 n. 
G^matl, prieRta of, i. 36. 
Oflndifvjlnft, ii, 209 n, 
Gilpa {ILiu-pii), ivn iirbjit and autlkor, 

J, 240. 
GopHbi, cavi-, 1. 107* 
GijiaUt (Kiti-pn-ln), a f^rngon, i, gj ; 

filno tmiue of KukftlL * 

G6pAlt (Kiu^pO'li), ii 9 n. 
Gorakbpur, L 32 ii. 
ff&Mrthachandantt (niu - tf% - sltan * 

fanjt cuvv*fl.ljcad sandaUwivod, j. 

44; ii- 145, 148. ]n Tibetan^ 

aQiong tbe Mongols, gurtht^a ; 

if. 145 n, 
Gddfii^gii mnunt (K'iu-?bMin-kia), 

ID Cbiueae Niu-kiu mount, ii, 313. 
GAvisaim (Kiu-jti-ehwacg-Da), in 

Nortel ern India, h 199. 
gradual doctrine ft>ien- kiau), i, 2iQk 
l^rapH fpo-t4m\ L 88. 



Orsiit VeliieJe. See H^bAjlVna, 
Gr^dhraHwArmipenuigj U. iSo n, 
GfldhraktktA - parvnU (Ki-li-tUiKjo- 

wjd T'e*u-t'a!, i. QQ, SB ; 6 ti ; it, 

46, 47".! I5^f "53- 
fffffittpiili, in Cbitit'se Cliang-cue, 

houi^tbolder, il J 60, 187. 
Oriikma (Uhtgt<), hut firMon, L 

Ifw^ul^ — bdelUiifn, ir. 265 ii, 
Gllha§^iii^ king qI ViLklihl, iu z66 

(iuiiiixiiati (Kiu-Bn-mo-t') Bddlii- 

MtivA, Cliiae«e Tih-bwiu, \\. 104, 

io|, 106, 107^ loS, 1^9. t la 
Ou^f«{»ttibba (E.tu-nA'pu-k'pV}, in 

€liin«ifl Te-kwung, I if I, 192; 

Qiipta urij i. [6S a. 
Ourjjftim, kiugiioOT in tbe KoHli 

P«&j&b, I 165 n. 
Ourjjurm (Eiu>cb«-]o}, QiijtrA^ JL 

aog, 371. 
Gurtipi-lftgiri (E'lu-liu-po-t'o^bHti}, I 

iQ Cbmoie T'*un-Uo-*UftD, ii, 1 

GtiablLi^B^ tftaa« m Kusbinft. *nd 
Ke^i^ti 56 El, 

HAfBAK* tcMfTii, L 45 tu 

liAir otrc!«^-^e 4rm%^ oi]« of tfar 

tbtitf -Ifro ttiarfe« uf » BuddbA, 1. 

It 67 tt. 
Hutr-jind-iiatl rebc tt^p^, ii. Sex 
HajljAk fi*H^ near Bkmij^, i 

Hihodatt^ in J^|vt^ i 59 n. 
UiMl, m LiltU B>4kb»i4, L 17 n. 
BflB WNti^trx. i M, 4S, Tl« T^ 18, 
t% ftp ati, ft I u. joo-joi. 

Hul prndd, 201 (or 1061 SkCk to 9 

Xw Mi^i Mm, If. 
Bi4M(l»H4«Mf«.& tSs. 

Hare JdUika^ ii. 59, 60 n, 
Hiridw&m ictwn* i. 197 11., 19S d, 
Hantntrriilfi — Tiiltlit - \ - Sulsdman 

roauoUm m Kft^mlr, L 15s n, 
HAriU or H*rlti (Ku-lt-tiJ, in Ciii- 

iif deitioiiii^ L I [0 11. 
H&dtipiitrA, tbe Ch&liiVja fojaI 

famiij, &e, r III lu 
HarmAt«li& ijI Diodfirna, JU 262 n. 
H *r§b i^viuidh«i3 !i ( H*i-li -ih A-f 4 -t'ltn - 

ua), Ht'tJMiTig^ i. 2 JO f. ; Ji, ao6 ti. 
Heuiau-Abildl, 8 tni1«a Dorib cif 

Sbtb-db4ri, i. 136 d*j 137 n.^ 

HAAfAiiAg&rft— Fnftbka]ivaa,l logiu 
H utjgMU — H Atbi*gijdd<} (BiiiJg- 

to-kan), II. 17 n. 
Arfifa, a cubit^ CbiQew dUt, I* Jot 
Huti — Atlesy kiAg of Okndfa' 

I log Tu 
Hiuitin4|H)n, i. i$6n. 
** U4t.hi>kiiDd/* iL 17 n, 
H4janmkbiL('0-2r€-mii'kbi), e«yaiiiT7 

in Nortb loditt, i 229. 
Hjizim (Ho-sadu) e>ut!Lry^ J47 n, 
HMcnt-Imitii^ 5ee Ahrujg ; heada 

nf cikildrt'U fl&tteiie4. 
hell^ the biwc««^ Wu-kan-U*jcili, 

L 172, li5 o.; oa« tiud« bj A&ka- 

rij«, it. S5, S£L 
HdaiMid (Lu-nx>-m-iit)^ EL 383. 
Him^imia^ cald teaatjii. L 72 a. 
Hfliidnift or HeMdrctt, ike S«l!aj 

riv«r, t7S u, 
Bihmdf4 £dMn (rn-miDg-loA)^ i, 

ySi 153 a. ; ii 218, 219, J30V 263. 

His, cBsl^ii iiid vreftem, L 9 &. 
Wmn iiioiiiitiiiii% i* M. 
ijmg - liii - koag * ekla^ '^j of 
Kilted %om^tm,* 1. S3 n, 

ch»Qt^" tiiltt, IL ijj. 
Biidi m-Ul d^ ia KiM. i M ; 
91 a, 95. 

H iiay » f -Am or H^ms-ti, ca- 
p<w*r» 2697 »c^ i 3 a, 7 B. 

Bi^ (Hi-UV Mwirtw, i E2J. 
ffi^li lli#ii>Lii; tl^m 




Iwe - slmti - liiaj Dftrnh - 1 - aim in 
laUisljAo, u 42, 156, 157, ii, 
±1, 290. 
HitiiavRntftCoimlrjt i, 12S n., 134"- 
^tnajAiia or LftsM?r Virbicit-, L 24t 
jm, 3&, SI, 3§, €1; 24 11.^ 75, 
104, ii2t Itg 11, J 139 h., 172, 
174. JJ^h 179. J So. !S4, 187, iQO^ 
J 91, 192 2CO, 202, 207, 224,225, 
22S tu, 230, 231, 3^6, 239 J ii. 
6f, 67, 7S, Sit 100. iSt. 184, tS6, 
1S7, 191, 195. 201, 247,254,257, 
a6j, 266, 267 n., 26S» 270, 272, 
27s, 276, 277^ 27s, 279, 2S0, 2S8, 

HindM(b}i or Snowy Mountaina (q. 
v.), tb€p Puropamiaus of tbe an- 
cietitfl, i. 39 tu, 49, SO, 52* 53, 54i 

2S3 lu 

itio'Jin — tlioBo stiMljLiig to bfictiine 
jSTfttnun^R, i 152 lu 
Iil»i n^ ?i par V u ui ( M an - T 1 a -po-f a- to), 
Mongir, JL 1S5, 186, 187^ 

ly^vatl (Hi-ki-nti-U-tl), CUi- 
Kio-ho nnd Yn-kln-boj tbe 
GandAkt rirrr, 1. 03; IL 32 n.^ 39 11. 
Hiasar pro vine**, L 39 n. 
Hi'fln^ tribe t«f Turk^j i. 40* 
Hi-tsjing — HaraLavardbjiiia^ u 2 JO f. 
Hiuen Tsimng, A«D» 599-664, caljofl 

ya, find calUd Ui rriBelf M6ki»b{i-H§Ta 
Aud MftbAj^tiadfiva ( V'lV, p- 248, 
J, A. S. Bm^-t voL 11 p, 94 f), 
i. 13^ 14» 16 ; t II., 2f 9 ; eulngium 
oti, L 2-6; at KAmarJlpn, iL 196, 

Hiang'Tiu, T^1rk^ i. IS; aoti* 37 u. ; 
ii. 315,316. 

kiun-lu — perfume Ir^e, i£. 265. 

ko — the eigbty inft^iior mark^ i>n a 
Biiddbft, i MS ^^* 

Ho-haii — Kuan ciiuiitry, i, 34- 

ft/i-hfca — water-lily, i, 96 n, 

Ho-bn — Kb 11 Im, 

H f> * li -aba >f A-t^aii-na — H^resbiivar- 
dbatia, i 2IQ^ 

H«-li-ftib'ini'km — Kb^arajtm, i. 35. 

Ho-lo-bvi^H.igb ill BadakliHb&D, i, 
42 ; ii, 249. 

Hu-lo-hu-lo — mhiila, 

Ho-]o-4bQ-pU'l<ii — ^Rdjapurf, i* 163, 

ni> - lo - ftbe - fa - t*nti -nt— Rijyavwr- 

d bail A, L 2 to. 
Ho'3o sbe-ki-U'ki^BJIjngTlbn, ii» 43* 

Hu*mo— OrDniK, ii, 27K. 

Hu-ntiii, L. 18, 

H u 'p 1 1 -t o-abi— Adbb n ( SAjna. BtApa, 

Hiir - PtirvaU — Hm-pArvata, m 

ICoAmtr, L 158 n. 
Loraea (excellent, nAfit), L 2a 
buFfaa {divine), ki^i, a furui nf 

AvAldkit^4varn, ii. 242. 
Hu-fiada — capital ui T^ukiLfa, li. 

Hn.fii-na — Ghaenfi, Vu 283. 
Hu*uaD'fu or Ltj-yatjj5,iowu>i. 15, 9L 
Ho-yuu, a pilji^ririi, i. 10. 
fffUlattadhdrant (Sin*t*»-lo-Di), ii. 

Hii— Uigbttr people, i. SS j 33, 33, 

76 ; in 302, 326. 
H 11 -ia- p'u-aa — Dbar m ap&la B6d b i^ 

Mittva, IK 110, 171, 22 J. 
huh— A tree, ii, 32. 
Hulu river (Buluughir ?), L Ifl; 

Hviniiytlu, empeiflrt L 49 n, 
H It - UI lug- p' u 'Sa — Pr^lili &pilaB6db i - 

sattvA, it* 48. 
Atin man, tbe rlllft di riding flelda, 
, ii. 2t n. 
H u iifi (tif By^iDti u** wi iters }—Yetba, 

EphtbnlitFB, i, le. 
Hiipi&n I^Hu-pi-na)* Bee tJptan. 
Hu'ftba — Wakbab «ir Oxua riv«r. 
H u -sill -kiea — Juij^&na. 
hu-Um'ti — a tre«, 11. 265. 
Hu-yif^U — (.'baiuJmpAla,. ii, 171, 
Hwu^cbaii, all ialatid in tb« kingdom 

of Hwa^aiUj L 2 n. 
Hwa-koDg — Kusumapura, J. 207 n. 
HwBiTg-ti, first emperor of Cbiniif 

L 2 n.t 7 n., 8 n,, 216 n. 
H¥fIiti-tVi-tn, capital uf IVmo-mU* 

tcb-li, ii, 293, 
Hwan-yueii, a difttrict io Ho-naii, 

Hwd Sjtngj a pilgrim, i. 10.64^ 106, 

Hwo or Hwob — Kuniluz eoiiiitj'y, i, 

39,42, 43; i). 2S7, 288,289. 
H wtlh-lo-tQo — Gurtiia. 
Hwui-kiti, a pilfn^im, i. 23. 
Hwtii-king, Uuddbiftt pilgriui, 1. 

33, 3€. 38, 31. 



Hwui-Jib, L 30. 
Hwm-t3| I 2&, 51* 33* 

lot oioimtaiDi^-MuaJirtj i* 1ft. 

Indar&b or AntUrAb (^Au-U-lo-po), 

Indus river, i, 39. 103. lOT, 
Indiiyftdri liilU, i^^ ^57 ti- 
lug. m*r of H'i-Titui, '* 4- _ 

I 2 

liunxluetimi to tlifl Si-yM-fe), i. 7* 

/ft-(«-l'<— record* of Indiii, h- oi n. 
iiiuiidatioo mirFtclci ii. IJt. 
Imi-RateB-K^^bluehn.L 36 37< 39^ 
Trttji-wUecl kh^fC, i. ft*. 
Uftjab, tttwti iu TurXlitAn. 1. 29 0^ 
lAftvk^kulp Tvtrkiah iiatoe r>f Lake 
temiirli or Lop-nttr, L 111 25 *^» 
aS n*, 2g It- 
IfittKlBUut SulT^aWa. 1. 3* "^ ^, 
lAvAT^i (I-sbi-fii-i-) TBtl-tBii!, ^tithor 
of thtJ '(;-pi-ifl'i)»0-min^-C/*»f^' 
Ittn^ i. It 2. 
lAvfim ( IWUaD. Mabid^ra, 1, 1<3' 

n^, 127 lu ; li. ^3' ^^ . - 

l-Umv, writer of Bijddbial rec^irdii, 

K 111 
I^7ovp«), town in Od^a, 1. U7 "^ 


afct>iebAndl« (to moTetbc), i. 4 "*» 

.Imm* sect*, i 144 °** US' . 
J^j«huti— Cbi^ki'tU ^-i dtstnct III 

C«Oti*>l I"*1i»'i ii 27'- 

JijipiiTti, in Orisftft, i*. 2C4 n* 
JiiklitibMi, il 147 H* . 
Jalilftbfia, ill K4*'i"U '- 9i °* 
JalAUb*d Taliey ffttlp^iB. 1^ S5 ^; 
Jltiinciiiiu- (Sbe-liiii-t\>-l")* i^ 167 ^f 

174*** , . £ 

jdiinas, twtftted Imir, »u 17&* 

JaijiAlgiirLi, L I14B. ,^ 

jftffiU (cben-pu) tiee. n. 19 »- 

40, 04, 7» ; 13 ■' ^- *^* ^7* *** ^'- 
Jammu or J«miv,. t^^r*, |«fb»r» 

Jmutk», vi. 7S n- t - ^11 -. 

Jannk-iptiri tCb'cti^^bu-Tml, ". 7S »• 
Jftiilsandlia-ka^b*itUiik, il* iSl ». 
Jjirsn river, L 29 ^i. 

/iif^'o* (p*?iKi«ng *i*d ^f?"^f; 

the pic, 19^ n* 
jd^i. mudi*8 uf biitb, I* 04 ^* 
JuTji, prijbabiy Yftm^uiJidvlp*, "* 

Jamrati, I 165 u., l«j n. 

Jrtyaslna (She-.Ve-^i^nn), tn CIii"?* 

SViiDg-kiusi, ii. 140. UT-^ 
Jerm, town in B;idnkaba«i, i« 42 "< , 
J§t« (Sbi-U-yu^nJ. ibe g»rd<^ "V L 

11.4 n., 5; Finoe, ion of K">«| 

PraisAHJijit, ii. la ^ 

SbiMg-bn, i. 44, 45^40, TO; 20a, 

ii. 4,S, 12, 13* 
Jbelnm rivtr, h 163 d, 
JlrttfltaviUaiiii Bddbi»*ttT6 (Sbing 

yun)f i. 210 n, T»j|jt 

mttv^, i" Cluut^«^ Tong-»hutt,lM 

2lS, 219» 23^1 ^59- 
Jmaiuitnfc (Sbing-y*ui "^ .tT"- 
Jin-jo^sieu— K»binti<9l-liS u ril 1 
Jin^ia-Un ftaAgbAr4ia*i. u 56 

Jilaputra(Chnii*ii»-fo-tA-lo\, in ( 
oeati T^tli-sbln^'-tJ^vi. miibo? 
the r«-c/*t€-*'i-f^'«M-«/'*^ **;^75' 

Jt-D-tnug-fo— Dlpt^n^itT^ BaddliB, *. 

JtaVi!)<iK*irt% i'- ^^ "' , , „ .^4 
JlvakaiSlii-pi>-kiu),ui Cbme*^ >ciil 

bwo, 1. 00; ii. 152. ,._j .. 

I jjfHifijSwi (Ming-tiniigK •I'W^t »>' 
JftAuiaiundra CCbUyuebJ, M it 

lit i^H 


^^^^^ INDBX. ^^^1 

Jiitnaprasthdna SdUra of KUyi- 

KAmAladki (Kin-moJAag-kin), ii. ^^| 

jaMjnitrm i 155 iu 

20a ^^H 

Jti^ river of Ho'tiauj L 4 n. 

KamaldkA, If. 22. ^^H 

Jij4^HiU]6rhita, L 98 u. 

K4miLri^pa(Kiji-ma-lu-po], L 215; ii» ^^H 

Jnr-mo-trt — JituiAdLiri ?. 

195, 204 n, ^^H 

Jii-lu— Tjitb4gata, I gg. 

kajitittda (kien-p»'lo), n w^^lleu ^^H 

_ J 11 Til >idha (J 1 1 J - J 1 >o - tii ) ^ 1^ district n ear 

cliJtb, blanket, i. 75. ^^H 

■ Sir-t-pul, i. 4S, 

Kamul, ], 13, 19; puljandT? in, i. ^^H 

■ Juiiiti4 or Yiiinun* {Pn-naJ, I S7. 


■ Jun&gibdb in K4tlii&wft^, tu 269. 

KiitiEL, fii^tber of Yli^a, i. 55 n. ^^^| 

■ J^gAiia [Hu-i»hi>kit;n), L 48. 

Kun^d^vn— DeTit B6dbiaaUva., i. ^^1 

J^hht^ (Slii-ae-cli a)» niontb^ L 72. 

190 u, ^^H 

J>6tUlik* {Cii*u-ti-9e-kia)j iu CIjU 

kanahi {kk-ni-kin) tree^, iL t5<X ^^H 

_ iii^e Siij^4i, ii, 167. 

Kanaknmui^i (Kia-no-ktu^mtin'Mi), ^^H 


BuddbA, i. 49 ; it. tg. ^^M 

1 K. 

Kiinakpttr vilbig*^, ii. ig fi. ^^H 


KanJiuj, L 43 ; 206 Q. S«a K^iuya* ^^1 

■ K^Blf Al?t)A or K^ivaudbA (Han-p&i)- 

knbj^ ^^^^1 

fc^lo), u S9. 

KMchiiUamiliL (Cbiu-kin-mni])p vviftf ^^H 

HiBlljiit, E5r>bgti or Kaphas, HTer, 

uf Euniio, i. 141 n. ^^H 

V i, IM a.? 56 11., 67 u. , 90 D. , 9 1 n. . 

KA&cbtpnm (KiMn-cbi-|>u4o}— Coti- ^^^^H 

r KMi£L*(R?^U'ft),iL 264 n.. 265 1, 

jiveram, il 171 th, 22S, 229, 230 ^^^^H 



K^itii 1 altar — GatidUOi^ {q, v.), i. ^^H 

K«obclih&di oi Pitiint, L 9S il, ii. 


■ K'ltiriiftliaD, river, i* 39 Qp, 40 tt, 
^ * Kafflr-lng* — BuddljiaU, 1. 91 n. 

kandu {hfun-to), plant, L SS. ^^H 

Kiinerki coinji, J, 65 u, ^^^B 

l^nn^^— aimark^ndi i. 32 &. ^^H 

Karibapur, i. 225 ik ^^^M 

KiLikhuBru, ii^ 303 n* 

KMmhkfi-ril'yn (K)H*ni*ftP<kiA), i. 33^ ^^^| 

Kajttfigb61& See Kjijtiagba ; Kaij^u- 

103; 56 »., 117, 151 f., 156. 173, ^H 

giidtS NiyaggamS, ii. 193 ii. 

175 0., 176 u. ; ii. ^S u., 99, 100 ^^H 

Kmj^ri, Tillage?, 11. 193 0. 

n., loj; 109 n. ; a^vt'i^kirdmn {mas ^^^M 

KAJtngbara (Ki0<chu*bob^kM4Q), Ka- 

Jour. A. S^ Bitntj., voL xviL^ pL. ^^^M 

■ jdghirA or Ko^JingarbSj c^outiiry in 

u p. 494), I [03, 109. ^H 

■ EiRterti lodia, i, 215 11, ; ii. 193, 

Kcmjui, a Durd »t4t«| i. 299 n, ^^^1 

1 ^^ . 

K'^ibSri caveK, L 92 n. , ^^^| 

KoJ^t^ira^Kaiianj, i, 206 n. ^^^| 

V K^k&puri i, 225 n. 

K^ii-eit f^rovince, i* 13^ IS ; 24 n. ^^H 

Iidt£d — period ui time, i. 71. 

Katiy&kiibja or Kdnjaknbja (Knib> ^^^| 

KiilA'i'Ebiiuu Sue KhiUiu 

mu-oh'ing auii Ki«{i*«k<'* ^^^| 

KJilti-^kit^Mara!, 4i][>p<is«d flit^ of Tftk- 

kw5), Kanattjf i. 205 f., 206 n», ^^^| 

Abiu^itil, i. 136 0. 

307, 217, 21 S ; ii. 74« ^^M 

KilApi I] ak a 1 Ki ii - ] - pi- oa-k ia) ^ to wo , 

Kiui-fingf Ciiine«i« gtsDftml, i. 30« ^^^H 

i. 08 ; iL 177, i8a 

Kiio.chntig-^Tirrfan, u 13, I9t 9!^ ; ^^^| 

KAlAsoka (^0-chu-kia), kint', ii- ^S, 


II,, 90 in, loz u. 

Kdu- r^iiitij;*, i*in nEtrutr^ i. 6. ^^^H 

Kdli (Kie-U) r&jX in Cynead— Teu- 

KapfiUdb4i ina, ^^i va, h^ ct, i, 55 n*t 76* ^^^| 

t^eng-wafig, L 121 u. | 

Kapiia, ii. 54 0,, 223, 224 ii. ^^^| 

Krilia^Hi (Ki^^Iiiig-kin), ii* 207 f. 

K^Lpilavo^tn (Kio-pi4o-fa^AU*tu}, i. ^^^^ 

JtnlpavftlMhSf widbing tree^ L 105 

IT, 49 ; iL 13, J 8 u., 19 n«, 167 ^^H 


n., 390 n. ^^H 

KAUi, ill JuunflAr, i, 186 n., 1S7 a. 

kapifljata (kia'plti-Bhs-lo) dt'l — ^^^| 

KaJyftn% in th« DukhaDi ii. 255 n. 

pheasant, i^ 33. ^^H 

ic^btmdhdtu (V'o-kial)p wudd of 

K&p i^a — K ia - pi ~ii II e, a k t n gilom north ^^^| 

■ d^ira, i. i tU| ^0%. 

uf tbtj K4LfnL rivsr, tbe KjJipiah ^^^H 



fit tlie Mu^sitnmaijTina (Elliot, 
HiM. hid., vol I p. 47)j I 53» 54. 
55 n., 56 11., 57^ king of, u 90. 
9t, 97t 9S 136, [76 ti.; IL 3S1. 

KupifliA ^iCi^-pi-tba), in Korthrna 
Iiiilin, I Sg, 202, 206 lu ; iL 79. 

KapStiki (fJi£e^^n)-cotiTetit^ ii. 1S2, 
I S3. 

KApill nr KivftI— KAbftl, i\ 54 u* 

Kapurdjigjirki, i. 114 tj, 

K^rddUU riTtir^ ii, 320 n* 

Kira^khiUi, peopl^p i. 26 n» 

Kafiikortitii miftiuUiua^ L 12 ti. 

itii-dia ihu-tshH) do til J i. 75* 

KAnL-mt»to» tdwn, L IB. 

Kftrandai or KjAtauilii (K^^^^'^'^li 
il 1591)., i6<x 

K. ira 1 1^^ ^ ^'9 uvmh & ( Kia-Uii- t'^-ch ub - 

yieo), i 00 ; ii. 159. 
Kjira-turfl^ — i'uL-kmeh or Turka, 

i. 20 n., 37 n. 
KnrH^Bhaht* or Karshflr, i. 13i 17 n., | 

18 tu 
Kai A-8011 (of KlivprotU) river, i. 90 n. 
KardLof;l4o, river, nortU bmiicli of j 

tbtt Oima, i, 39 D« I 

KarntdyA^ rivert ii, 194 n., 195 n. 
Knrobu (!) (K'i«-p^u)-t'u), it. 299 n. i 
ituHbi (p*iu^)i ii. 65 u. 
i?(trflt<Wi^ (tiii-M^Jp L §9 ; 81 ; ' 

lip 96* ' 

KamA, king of A^ga, iL 187 u., I 

2Dt n. 
Kit rt i^nrb, neiir B liflgd] pur, ii, 1 9 1 n., 

20t 11, 
Kurnasii varn^ ( Kie > U • nh - 111 - fa * W 

[}a)j iu CiiineA^ ICiTi-*rhf & drntxiat 

iti Buiigd, i. 210^ 2T2; iL 201. 
karp^rti (ti«-pu-luj, cauipliiar, ii. 

Kar^m towr), 1. 301 u. 
Kafflhnr or Kiir^ijharb, iJefliapa Bame 

ftrt Wn*i or Wa-ki /vtid *0-lti-Di of 

Hill Mil Tsu-fcJii^', i, 13> 
KArttikiA (KiiL-la'ti-kitt) motith, J. 

Knrunamava — AvnldkitMriani, t 

yU^ (IfMt-t/if ), plalit, u 46. 
KalaDna (Ki-eliwaDg-n»?)| i. 26 n. 
Klmpiirii (KianhtJ-pu-lnJ, i, 237, 
Ivittiatiia (KLuh-ahwaiig^iii'kia)^ i. 
34. JS n* 

IWiiyti (kia-«>ia), "bri^fk or oclirej- 
culoiired upper robe o| tLie BugcI* 
dUa pdeilfl, L 53, 95 u ; ii. 49, 273, 

EAehcar fKie-iUa), i. If, dO ; ii. 
29^ 299, 306, 

Kj I* 1 1 titLmfii) Ju- pfit-vatit — Mt>i igir, ii, 

Kula Tillage, ii, 32 it, 

ILisuL r«l^iu ut PLolismv, ii, 299 ii« 

Kacrioi of PE^f^Ieiii J, iL 209 n* 

RaAi oonutty, i. 67. 

KjlaipQr, t<»wii, i. 199 n* 

Kaiiiitr (Kia-alii-mi-li), 1 116, II7, 
134 ti., 136-137, i43. 147. J4St*, 
J 50 u,, 156 II., 163, 165 II. , 171* 
192, 196^ ii. 312. 314, 315. 

KojTrf^jlf^ Kdu wttpa or Kd^fntipit 
— Kii^iijlr^ i, I4S D. 

Kriailr, ti>wn in tlit; PjmjAH, u 173 n. 

iC4!*ya,[jri BtjJdbn (Ki;i-*hi?-pnjp i. 
39, 18. ei, 66, 67. 68, 109 ; 4S, 
SJ u„ 76, Jlj, 121, 122, J24, 
"25. 137. IS> 238 ... ; tl 13, 
22 11., 40, 4S, 5511,, 76, 113, I24f 
125. Jjo. i>r, Ij9. <43. *4l. i^h 

163, 164, I So, 223 TU 

KA-4yapM and K.ulru, i, 137 n. 
Kiiiytipapura or Kan-irdru'/ias— Ka^ 

nitr, i. [4S n. 
Kd^jMpijfoA { Viti^kwuu^-pu) selioil^ 

i 121. 
KaLogblu Qt Kuutia^ (q, v»% i 

42 n, 
K>i|Rk, ii« 205 n,, 207 n,, 303 n. 
KatrA mouiiil, aI Marhittik, l iSt i>« 
KatjAyana (Ki^*'t'ii-jen-tiJiK autbnr 

of the J6Aftff/iarintfyn4ii4|m»< 

lAitfUi .'^itrftfrt, 1, 175, 176 tu I U* 

254. 2S0. 
KA.tvdyatj[i[»iitrJi's JfiiEj)4ipniiC&4iia 

^S'tidtra, i. 15s Ti. 
Krt 1 1 - chilli g^-Q u m 1 1 r f o f tlie Uigurs, 

i. 17; ii. $26 n. 
itaw^H— a 6i^h, ii, 297. 
Knnndtiijn (Ktaii*cLitn*Jii), L 00; ii. 

55' D., 121 n. 
Kau44ujibi (KJ:au*3iUaitg-mi)^ L 30, 

es J 234,235; ii. 2t, 322. 

i. 75, 166. 
EAvi>rt Tivefi ii. 231 ti,. 237 n, 
K^v^rlp^ttJirij^in, 11, 233 lip 
Ke, a fiit^ulou* hnrt«, mbk to ^ « 

tbouj^nnd H tk dtky, L 4. 
Kebild, K?^libM,orKebM CIU«^pu- 

ta-na) — Mebeket, i. '^^. 

^^^^^^^^^^^IN^^^^^^^^^^ 343 


Ktth (Ki-abwang-na), I 26 n., 35, 

Khum or Kahi-MChum, eaplUt of 



Durw&J!, i. 4! tt. 


KhaiiAia-bokk or Taagh*D AaUiban- 

KhuUn, ace Khotan* 


tu, i. 13 B. 

Khw&ra^TD {Ho-lUnb-mi-kk), I 


khadira {k'ieta-lo), twig, L 68 n. 



K'i^ familf n&me df the Chan, L 


tlid TvU|jioiiB hUB; i. 96 d. - aame 



of A temple, i, lOT, 

Rial- hi en — Sttabbod m, * sage of mora! 


Khin of the Turks, u 2 J. 

cnnduct/ ii no, 171, 


KMuAbiid, in Badakjiliftii, i, 42 n. 

Kiadan-t^ij - chuh - yuen — Karaii^a- 


Ebiui(l»giri ill OHisjaa, it. 205 thy 

vfi^^uvnna, tl 1 59. 


306 Q. 

kiadan — BfinghAtAma, i. 92. 


Kti-xrri. - M&ii i k p iir, i n A u dli, i . 

Kifi4a-ti-kift— KAi-ttika. 


210 it. 

K \A'] o-pi- ii3-k i *— KAlapin Akft, 


KhiiMkas, Khnlas. S«e Kie^nhA, 

Kiii-nio-lang-kia ^ ICimalaAk&t 11. 


Kliavamllm? (JiV-i>Vu-L*oj^ iu 29S, 




Kiturao-lu-po— Kitmarflpa, ii, 195. 


Kliuwak pn«8t ii. 286 11. 

kiang — ambtr, I S9 n. 


- Kbt^A, in Otij^riLt, ii. 266 ». 

K i A-ni -fly *kia — Kan i ihk a. 


■ Kijdul i>r a^rddbunknti, in Dm&j- 

Kii«i.»o-1o— KA*nla, i 44; ii !S6. 


I fiur, ii, 194 n. 

Kbio-tri-nio — Qautama, ti. 35, IJI, 


■ ELigtiU nr KItakHh, idf^ntiKed bj 

K la-pi -fib 0—Kapi^ 


B Cunningbam with Simliapunt, t. 

JtMi^fAa— Jtaj^ffjvft rube, ii. 49, 



Kia-ftbe-pi>— Kftfljapa, iL 113* 
Kia-fthi-mido—KaAmlr, I 136, 147* 


Khie-t*i-Bbi-fa-lo*^ciipiUl of 'O-tin- 


|i*o-cbi4<j, ii. 176. 



Khi-ii-ftub-m*i— Kbri^hmst i, 42. 

Kk'ithi-pudo — Ku^pnra, i. 237, 


KUlnk'but, on& oi the Muiiy&n 

Ki^u-minrf — ^ilpoithdna md^4. 


images, l 51 n. 

Kiau -aban^' mi ^- Kau^iitbL 


Rbm^kai'tBAl^inf the uicid bordt^rs 

kiaushe-ift—hatidi^a, nUk, I 166. 


or islandi^ i. 3 n. 

KU-ye, Mount Gay A, ii. 113, 


Kbtgtimi in Tiirkist&n, i. 31 n. 

Kia*«be-po -^ Qa}6-kiL4yapji, 


Kbt»«BpeA — KiiMEir liver, i. 97 n. 



Kbdkatid, a KlumriU in Turkidiiii, 

Kia-ahe-po-fo — Kftayiipft Biiddhi^ il 


i, 30 n., 31 ti. 



Khttraji&np L 35 n., 4S n. 

K'le-cb'a— Kncbbfl, iL 265. 


KbuF&AmiiL— KliwAri£iti^ ^. r. 

K'ie-ch'a— Kheda (»), ii. 266 n. 


Kbott (K'wob-«eh-Ui), L 43 d, j ii. 

Kw-chi — Gacbi or Gaa {q. t'.), 1. 491 



Kie^cbn-bcih-k*i-H — Kijughira nr 


Khtitan or Kb 11 tan (K'iu-ftft-tan-pn), 

KhajiA-ham, ii, 186, 193, 


in ChihifKB Ti-jeUj country, tli« 

Kie-jo'kio-flb6^Kanyikubja, L 205* 


Li-)"ul of TiWtsiti wHtflr«, i* 10, 

Kie-Ia-tio^flU - fa - Ia * ua— Karrjaen- 


18, 14, IB, 1&, 26, TS, S4, S«, AS, 



*1, 106 ] 287 ; if tiei^, i. 89 ; ii. 

Kie-U— Kali, i. 131 R, 


30S; river Yu-tiei), i. 13; J94 ; 

Kie-Ung-kia — KaJiftgn* 


ii. 301 n,, 307 n-i 320 D. 

kk-ni'Ha — kanaka tr«ea, ii, 1 50. 


Kbotlin, KbotI, KutI, or Khatmn 

K'ien-kwei, Prino^, i. 23, 


lKho-to-b)» i, 40 n.« 41 n. 

k ieii'po- ht^kttmhalti* 


KbintAta or Kbost^ q, r, [K'wob-aeh- 

Kien»t'o-]o or KitfH'tVw©J| Gatid- 


to), i, 43 ^' 

Utm, i. 31* 


KJioEdAr, ii. 277 n. 

Kle-p'iin-t'o — KbabniidbA or Kiir- 


KhriqLEna or Ki^hm (KUi-ti-B«li- 

cbit, IL 298,303,305, 


mo), i. 43 n. ; ii. 2S9-291. 

K te*pi* la-fa>«u-tu — Kap ila¥a«tii , 1 ). 


KhrtddalamMffa, ti, 164. 



Kliiilm (Ha4iri)t i. 40 ti., 43. 

Kiif-pi-thrt^Kaintba. L 202, 


Kbuhii river, i* 43 ti* 

kk-pi-ta—kapiuha fruit, i. 83, 


^^^^^^ 144 ^^^^^^^^^^H 

^^^^^^1 K'i«-pU-tA-aii^Klli{y, f. n 

E t *it -ki*u -cliA-po-t'o-ihan ( £ iikkiil:i> ^^^| 

^^^^^^H kit*pti*L>—hiTp4raf c»m|ftbor. 

p4ck^), ii. 142. ^^H 


^^^^H KifNflbi— IT) Eiahgir 1 14. 3«, St n 

L 42 ; iL 292. ^^^1 

^^^^H il 29S. 299, 304, 306. 

Kitt-li-kia^Kulika. ^^M 

^^^^^H ltk-/u^<o—hi>oU, il. 28aw 

Kiii4iu*po.t'i>-flbmii ^Giirup4flAgiH ^H 

^^^^^^H Kih-m«lj--Kuchi, 12471. 

iL 142. ^^M 

^^^^^^H £i-jou-i— Kwuauj. L 43. 

Klu*ld-to^Kul6ts, ^^^1 

^^^^^^H KikfLiiA (Ki-kkng'iia), iL 2S2. 

E*iu-]u-w-patig4 L 56 IL ^^^H 

^^^^^^H KNkmtjg-iiii^KikA^A, iu 282. 

Kio-mi-i*c»— Eumidb^ q. w, ^^^H 

^^^^^^V Ki-ka-to— An&tlupt^dad^ 11.4^ 5. 

Ktu-pA-mo-y — OanamKU Bddbi- ^M 

^^^^^^B Kilit, iL 

BaLU¥4, ii. it>4. ^M 

^^^^^^H Kt'lt-aeh-Qio — KrishBia or Ki^brti, ' 

Kiti-n4*po-li*P*o — GHnapribhi^ L ^M 

^^^^m 11 3S3, ZS9, t^ 291. 

tga ^H 

^^^^^r Ki4i.t4io*kiu-eti'>^Q|1ilhrmk^(a, iL 

Eiu-pi-Bbwang-nA-^OdTliuia, t ^^H 


199^ ^^H 

^^^^H KUi-to— KritlT»m,i. 15a 

Kiii^l».44— Gdp&lL ^^H 

^^^^^^H Kin~obi'pivlo — E^Thdntmnt ii 22S. 

Ki n-m- tau- im— Ek ht it^ti, i i. joS. ^^^^H 

^^^^^^1 iiJicfrv^uUbAnattit iL 26$ n. 

K_"iu-*h»— GljA«ha, L I42. ^^^H 

^^^^^^1 ll»ff^t4tni*f i. Sa 

Kin * ik€ - po * i»n — y^fd^iinm^drn ^H 

^^^^H KingAl^aaAgi, L 122: 

^Itfra, i. 160 a, ■ 

^^^^^^^1 Eini^-kLik--04Lij^« riv«r, i. II, 

Eiu<«Ui-ti]i-km--Gdlrinn mount, H 

^^^^^^^L K»ng-|»ii — ^uirintik* tch«.>oL it 

ii 313. ■ 


Eiu-ibi4*i— Ch6*htp», L 236, H 

^^^^^H Kin-bn— UpAgnptA, I 1S2 n. ^ iL 

Eia^lii-QA*kie~lu— KiiiiuAfftT*, iL ^M 


JTiM-f i^ ft Chiorse wi>rk, L JO n- ^H 

^^^^^H Kin-kwal — SUiir«oiAti, il 171, 

Eixil-k&ni detert, L 32 0. ^^H 

^^^H 36a 

Miiat, fiw, L 151 n,, 154. ^^H 

^^^^H Ri hl-kift — Kaaiki, or Ktoi>(ik«, 

KliiM^ ho^m, M. 208 t). ^^^H 


EoliiOglM orEmlug^L^ Irou GaiM, ^H 

^^^H KittiuuM, iL 69. 

i.360. fl 

^^^^B tim-po4i>^^himifktraM^ ctoeodH**, iL 

Kok&lL iL 9 »* ^^1 


; K«>keb& riTvrt L 42 n^ ^^^^| 

^^^^^^^^^ Kio-'rh-^KftrnitAiivnrn.i, 

1 Ki^b» nor, I 13 ti. ^^^B 

^^^^^^H A VI - f Af - pa& ' iun — K6th^ Kmnkd 

Eoikhi nalioB, L 35 iw ^^H 

^^^^^^F ^dUva, L [93. 

Kv-li-tj— Hiriti, moilier of d«lll«ll%j^^^| 

^ Kin-ahl— Suvarniuefltr*, L 199. 


^B Lim-fi^ifkantd^ iL 96, 

E0I4U-E0I&U, L 177 »^ ^^M 

^^ Kick-kio-jen-ci* — Kubidiiiif f , r. 

Kf^^diiip, ainriple ut Buddb^, L ^^M 

fCi-pin, Gopb^iie, ar UtrnJ, i fT« 

12t u^ ^H 

1<W; TCti#tmk« for Kftt^^lu'tut-lo, 

Ktiiig-kiD-iiA-pti4o — EogkttnApuFtt, ^^^H 

L 1470. 

ti. 235* 253. ^^H 

Riqfbixtii, i 27 n. 

E*i4Jf-u*t'u — Kdnj/klba. ^^^H 

i''i-«aiV--tu Wit to tbii ^roood^ L 

Eufif-JTJ town. L 29, ^M 

Klim. Sec KbrithttiA. 

ii- ?5J f> ■ 

Ki^vaiig>iift^E«ih, q. n 

KoDj^llift (Kotig-ti*i*o}« perb4p« ■ 

Ki-to-lo. enffiqQ««| of, i 100 iu 

Qjitij^im, iL 3o6l H 

Fi4e--«ii6JUi£a, i 127 u. 

EdpL^ii ur Kdpb^ Kibul riTer« ■ 

Kiu-€be^lD— 6tirjj&r«, li. 167, 

L 109 0, ^^M 

K*ia-ebi— EucH f* »< 

RoHA^ iL 207 ft. ^^H 

1 Kiu h-yn or Kong-jTi, eiu, i la 

^^^^^ Kit 1 h ^atiwaiiy>Di*ktft-^Kntn*nijig 7. t. 

EorK t9vii« L 1$. ^^H 
K*^k. i- iS t.. ^^ 

^^H Kiu .kia-li— Kul&St 

^^^^1 Kiu-kiu-eL*ft«VUii*ttKi^ ti 95. 

; 4l>|4,L«t^ IL 209 L, 21411, ^^M 

^ 34S^^^^^| 

Kfi«aK SMUtbern, Ji. loon. 

KtmjArjv {Keii-»iifj-lo), Bbaikanvai - ^^| 

Jko-tdng-ckaen^ a L'biuttse troikf u 

m4, king i.»f KiLtijai^Oim, li, 196^ ^^^^^H 

13, ■ 

197* 19^* ^^^1 

Ji6^f\okarahi ^datra (Kiusbe-p&u- 

KMm4r;>jtvA (K^u^mo-lo^ibiK 11. I JO ^^^^M 

ImvK I *93- 


K&MhaAld S^^xtm. I 193 n. 

KimiAralAbdba (Kn-mo-lo-Wtd or ^^^^H 

K^^pyam in KacUha, ii. 577 n. 

Tr>n4;-4beii), I t^^; ii. 2lS, 301. ^^^^H 

KrftkuclicbJmutU (Kui -l<»*keti-di'iiii- 

Kijm&rnn^jii— Sri Hnriiljii nf K&iil>i- ^^^^^| 

V<t)t Ji BuddhHf i. 48; ii. iS, 19. 

H^piS i. 2r3, 215, 216, 2E^p ^^^^H 

Kri^bm^ ur Ei«lim (Ki*li<uL'inu}^ 

Kiim&riJa^jA^tMit [42 u. ^^^^^| 

ii, 2$9^ 1 

KiitD^un^ 19s lu ^^^^^1 

J'riaAwipflJliAd {He-fen), dark furt- , 

K\imbhngb6n?iin^ town, IL 23! □. ^^^^^| 

night, L 71. 

Kumbliftn 4tdp% jL 65 u. ^^^^^M 

Ki^iilifA river, JL 217 ti. 

kumbhtrtu {km-im-l^f), ii. 49. ^^^^H 

Kritlyns (K?-li-to)» Ch. Mni4e, 

KufnidiuL — Kiu-ini-t'ii, b 41. ^^^^^| 

brtught people, iTihubiUutd of 

Ku^iun-lii-tO'to— Kiim&r^tiJjdlia, L ^^^^^| 

Kainilr, i. 150, 156 f. 


kr^ia (ke ti - 1 11 - n 1 1 e) , li difttaiicfl , i 7a 

KuQdlA (Ki]- nil -lung), Fnnee, h ^^^^M 

kihana {I'aa-na), »m{dW»t m&iaijrti 

139 f., 14^ ""t 141 n. ^^^M 

of tKjie^ i. 71. 

Kriniir river, in KAbiil, i. 90 n. ^^^^^M 

Kil.dTiti, Riilii (Jiu-jo-ileii) Boiilii- 

ktiniftkd (kiLUi-cb'i'km), vvut«r vfi^* ^^^^H 

li^ttVi^, J. I2t. 

17a ^^^^H 

t£al 1 attriy iU ( Tia - ti -1 1 ), i 76, S2, &q ; 

Kuiidiiz iir X^tiigb&ti (Hwub), i. 39 ^^^^H 

ii* 256, 270. 

ti., 42 ; ii. 2S7, 2SS, 289. ^^^^H 

Knbitigarbhj* BA.ihiflflttT8, U 1 1 n. 

Kiiiidiiz, orSoutlR-riiSurkbibriverf ^^^^^| 

kghauma ^t'j-O'ino}, liuen, i. 75. 


Kjihuiiad^FA (T'seu-ufi), iL ^84,, 

Kiing— urigioal it^ino uE F^ Hi nil, ^^^^H 

Kti!ui'(Hu-hati), ciiittiir/, i. ^ 


KuitD-ndn — Japati««i u&mis uf Avii- 

Kurig-fiUn, I 13, 3S ^^^H 

Idkitt^v.iro, 1. 60 n. 

A^rrvy-aA^ii^j^— cit'Hld ur mjal TmU ^ ^^^^^1 

KubAAli&n — Eio^bn'yeti-tiJk^ i. 40. 

j. 9S 11. ^^^^^^ 

KucbH f^r Kucb^ (K'iu-cbi), i. IS, 

Kazikuom (Yuli^kiQ^UiAng) it4pa, ^^^^^| 

T8 ; IJS 0*, 19, 24 I il 67 u., 313, 



Kiirniu vidk'j, i, 43 n. ^^^^^^| 

hit -eh' i — atuber di»h* jL 129* 

1 Ku*bwa^-cb^'v — G6kan|hll eonTeiit 

1. 43 11. ; iu 292. ^^^^^1 

i. 1S6. 

Kurga-n-iiabti pbunj u 41 n. ^^^^^M 

Kuib'Uiu-AhiDj^ — Kan^'ftkubj&i i. 

KiirkiJi&r, 142 n* ^^^^^M 


Ktmidvlpii^ uae of tUti fu>ur coiiti- ^^^^^^| 

kuiJf -cff ikia—htndikd. 


Kiijj »«6bbiiii (?), iu 74- 

KuniknbtiLiH, 184^ n« ^^^^^^| 

KukAil CKiu-kiA-Ii), Hbiksbiinl, il. 

KuruaAni^-ka-gi^ib — Kjinmanvarniif ^^^^^| 

9 : ditcb, 9, 

210 ^^^^^ 

Kiikkufii p4dagi ri (Kiu-kiu-eli*ii>po- 

kuifi, grftna at gi^id itmeo^ i, §% ^^^^^^t 

t*u-Ahiitv), Cbinepif', Kbi-Ufuab&ti, L 

KiiMdg&nipnm (Kni-flUe-kie-lA-pu-U»)i ^^^^^^H 

611, ; is. 95 11., 14-'. 223 n. 


} Kukku^ftpadn. vibilrA. ii, 142 n. 

Kuiati4bUii, 1. 209 n. ^^^^^H 

1 Kukkuiftraaii {Kia-kiii-cb'a-V-lati- 

Kniknagara, St?» Ku^ina^nw ^^^^^| 

1 ma), ii. 95. 

Kniiipurft or Ktiaabbavnpura, !. ^^^^^| 

KiilAb, pnrt iif Su^mntif i, 40, 4 J n. 

237 ^^^H 

KiilikM (Kiu-li^kia) villngHf iL 175, 

Kimblia ttiWD, perhnpe the cnpital ^^^^^^^ 

Kiil-i^^^mb kulAu Uke^ ib 297 11. 

of Kaplia^ L ^& u. ^^^^^^| 

KuifiU (Kiii-hi-t'i), tUi? district vf 

KuahAna (Kwel*Bhwjing), L 56 u, ^^^^^^| 

Ku!ij, i. 177, [78 H. 

Ku-ibi^Kuiiiniij^nraj ii* j6ti ^^^^^^M 

Kui]i&r.i (T Chi^tiiO'lo), iti Soutberti 

KuHigttLiimkih, KuHiiiitgara (Rhu- ^^^^^^^ 

Itidiu, iL 231 II., 232 b« 

i nhJ), KuiiuiLgitrt, Kuiiit)&i4 {Kiu* ^^^^^M 

^^^^^^ 346 ^^^^^^^TNDEX^^^^^^^^^^^^M 

^^^^H »b?^Dii-k'ie-1ci), I 61, 03 B.. 132, l^tk or LAra, lonL ^^| 

^^^^H 133 ; ti. 31, 40, 4t« 69, 73,90, t6t. 

Lira*, VTljjis cf VaiMilf, i, 100 lu ^H 

^^^^^^H Ku -ase, — R u - iki»>ti, the ui 1 cte tit lund 

Lam^b&n {L&n-pu), Lamp^ka^ in m 

^^^^^H i>r Lbe trii^urv, it. 336 lu 

KAbu], i, 56 II., 90, 91 D,i 164. 1 

^^^^^H KuBtAiia (Riu-ia U-Qoi) ur KbdUn^ AaM'drit^ Anp^tirat, 'AAfirayai— ■ 

^^^^H ii. 30S, 309, 31 1 1 3M* 315. 31^1 ^^« Ltau^»&ki^ or MtaraQdu, i | 

^^^H 31^ 319. 323, 324- 

. 9<>. 

^^^^^H KiifiUuTS tliQ cbiUl, iL 31 1- 

lidti-chaa^ city, I 18. 

^^^^^^H KitBtimnpiiriv (KcLi-gU'ino*pu-lo)y 

I^ji^b (Lmg-kiii^lQ} «duiiti7, iL 

^^^^^^H Iti Cliin. ilwii-koiig, enpiul of Kaii^ 

2?6, 277. 

^^^^H yUkubJA, I 307 t ; ii. Sj, $S, S6. 

&tn^-«iM*Akit^'7— ertujpbor, ii. ^31: 

^^^^^H kutu, 

Uitdmidra SAlra. (Uag^kla^ktiig), 

^^^^H RiuL See Khutlin. 

il 251, 253 n. 

^^^^^^H Kurlra — VftiJr;ivarm, ii. 69 n. 

Lan-uiu — RiLmii£raii>&, i- SO ; iL 3jL 

^^^^^H Kwa-cfaAU, J. IB; 17 n. 


^^^^^H heai'i-^-iarana, ii, 64 iu 

LAD-pc^--IJltngbA^, i. 164- 

^^^^^^1 K w Ang*dh€ u^ A min vtLi- mftti, i w S 1 n , 

La Pai! pt?arl-fiiliety, il 351 u. 

^^^^^^H Rw&ng-chouj tow Hi L SI, S3. 

lapU-lat'iH dhh, U IT, ii. 139! 

^^^^^^B Ktpatfi-pihSiti^iidttm mipul^am^ 

(]ieu4ib ii. 149 ; mines, i, 43 u. 


L4nt or I^-da. {LoAol, I 100; il 

^^^^^H Kwiiij^^'po— Y,v&£n, ii. 148. 

266 n. 

^^^^^H Kwang-Jml-^P^lbhAmit^4^ ii. 171. 

I Ar^xa ( Northerti and SoutlteniK i. It 

^^^^^^H KwAti'loi divimLti<»u of^ i, $B. 

Uiiki, Mouift, it. 351, 352 tL 

^^^^^^m Kw%u-8hal'&«£*-Uai, Kwjiri-abai<yioi 

T.aun-Td^n, i, 9C ^^M 

^^^^^^1 Kwmn-tAs -Uai, ar Kwan-jia-- 

LAU-SbftDp i. St. ^^H 

^^^^^H AvAldkitenrarS, 1. 1» ; 117 ti.. 

l<!m (U4o), meaiitire of tim& ^^H 

^^^^H I3S^ ii. I7A 173* 1% 1S4 tj., 195. 

I AvA^xji ( Lft-f a- ui), i i . 33, 34^ ^^1 

^^^H 324. ^^h 

Inw, ftdtainialratioQ f»f, i. 83 t ^B 

^^^^H^«' Desert" vlUgrjn^ I ST. 

Leu-ka, t&me ■« NH-ftj-|K), ii, 325. 

^^^^^^H Kwe!-U«u*mu^M4Htl. L iii n. 

Lhdyal, Tib^Ua na^uie of Lahul, U 

^^^^^H Kwel-ihwang— a tribe %ti tU« Y^el- 

177 n. 


LiAng^cbiiti] iu Kan-aub, i. IS; 17 n,^ 

^^^^^^H Kwen-liiii moiiutnsniy L 13 n. 


^^^^^H K'wuh-B«b-to--Klioalf ii. 3S7. 

LiebcbhaviK (Ll-eb« p*c»), !, 13, SS, 

SS; ii, 67 11, TOfe 73, 77"t St, 


LieQ-bwii^Pa4linrt.Tatit 141 ti« 

iiA— cbeBtiiut, T, SS, 

^^^^^^H iiibmtt, forced, L S7, 

li-ho — a vegKtAble, i. S9. 

^^^^^^H Laci-lth— IJlrft rpr MiUvA dytiOft^r^ 

^Mul^ prefe^r, i. 83. 


^UihdLt a Vt!ry siii.ill tneaa*ir*, t, JtK 

^^^^^^H I^djikli, not 111 be ide»ti6«il with 

Li'itija'i river, ii. itl, it. 13$ D- 

^^^^^^H Vki-bwiu or Eie*eba, I. 1^ 

y^mi — MiLb(k'b.impi, ii, 2od. 

^^^^^^H lA'tisrm — lATATii, ii. 23. 

LIPK-cbi'tQ«^ i, 97* 

^^^^^^H la-fo — tavtij Bait, li. 23 n* 

Zfliy]r-ife*a4*irt^— iaiUw, or Idtmldtm^ 

^^^^^^^H L&gbman — l^kti-pu, vulg. fur Liiiu^ 

idmSiUf^ \l 351, 

^^^^^^H i- 90 n. 

Litig'^bMn mnttntaiMB, L^7 ; 25. 

^^^^^^H L4U6r, f^f Li^b&wAT, ntmr th^ E&tI, 

/i— p«ar, i, SS. 


Lii]-hwu-«iii^0lpaUT&rtiiA, 1. 204. 

^^^^^^^ TiaIiuL (Lri^ii-lo), i. 17X 
^^^^^^H I^jward, Uiwii in Uiuldk^hjiii, 

LiD*tA£e, in Sban-tmig, L 93. 

Li'po-to — Rttvata, AynsbBOat, iL 74^ 


Li<sbnii njt'unlain, wbere Sbiua wa4 

^^^^^^H LlkuriAn, or LakCtvji, ruined ettj 

tilling tUti ground when Tao cmiiifi 

^^^^^^B of-ar Kililti iL 277 n. 

to caII htm to the t^mplre, L t« 

^^^^^^1 iaksf*arm (Biaiii^), urnhka on BuddLio, 

Ltti, iioUA^ of, t. 83^ 

^^^^^^H iSS 1!. 

Lia*U— Vinldbabs i, 48. 

^^^^^H LiikUijau, in Audb, n 210 n. 

/iw-W— kpis-loKuli, ii. 129, f49t 


^^^^^^^^^^INDEX. ^^^^3^^^^^^^ 

LiUabfiB (?)♦ LichchbftTit, \l 70 n. 

n., 155, 160, 161 n., 176, tS4, ^^H 

little Vehicle. Sefl HtniiyiLiim 

196, 206 u., 26a ^H 

Li^yul— Kbotao, L 13, 07, 

M%hii.(Mo-k*ie)^ montb, i* 73, ^| 

Ijcib-tior, I 90 u., 12 n* 

MiibAbbadrA riv«r, I JSS d, J 

Lt*-hii-If>— Mbulft, iU 67. 

Mab&b6dbi (^angbArdmi, it. 133. ^^^J 

Lo-{ or Ro-bi coMDtry — AfghaniBtan, 

MiLhab(V]bi tree (Mo-bn.p'u-ti), 1 10 ^^^H 

i. 3«. 

Mabfl- Hrnbniur^ju (Fan), i. 203, 204. ^^^^H 

Lo-in-riUlo— B6bitilla (t), 95, ii. 1S4. 

MftbaVtmbmftiAlifttnpatiJL 127. ^^^^1 

Ml^nicAi£» lords <jf ibe world, i. 

M^b^biimpS (Ho-bo-4^iien-po)f Cb. ^^^^^| 

10 u^ aa< 

Lia-i, in the aaitern penjiiBiilji, ii ^^^^B 

LakdtttLmviditifl (Sbwo * ch' tih - ■hi- 

200 ^H 

1 pu) itcluwl, i 50, 

MaUAebina, i. 2t6; \l 19S. * ^^ 

Loogblr (Lftii-kiOoT^, in 277 0. 

M*bM^T.i (Mu^ho-U4»%* and T»*. 

> Lo-mo-in-tu— tba Helinaiid valley, 

tieii), ii. 74. ^^^J 

ii. 2S3. 

MnbiUl^r^ bill, ii. 190. ^^^H 

Lo^lo— ULm or I^^la, ii. 266 n. 

Mab&dcva, n priest, j. 150. ^^^^H 

1 Irfjp, dfnerf, i. 19, 24 n. i river, i, 30 n* 

Mab&d£vji tAjhr^ ii. 230 ii. ^^^^^| 

1 loquat {p\l L S9. 

Mnli&kdtnfCbin-woagj^Vatilmvana. ^^^^1 

1 Lrfj-taif B-pi-tol— Ii4<llm-Svamir I M, 

Maba-Ki^ynpA ^Ti-kia-abs-po)/!!. ^^^^1 

LtJ - to - w ei - c!b i — Kiik U v iti sani; 1) ft- 

142, 161', Sue Kd4>apii, ^^^H 

, r&oia, ii- 202, 

M&b^-ll, kiagoi tVie Ucbtibbiivis, i, 13, ^^^^H 

• Lo-u-lo— LahuL 

MjdiAinnn^alm ii. 2 tn ^^^H 

1 loliu {kO'htiM)^ i. 96 11. 

MahauiAyfL ( Mu-bn-mH-yi-), IL 1 5, 38. ^^^H 

Lo*jiiiig, cltj, J. 1&, 18, 84. 88. 

M^-ihAiiLiiit|;;Al.iputra, \ 30. ^^^^^| 

Lu ooutitpyi L 4 tu, 66 u. 

M Lib A.iMdl river, ii. 66 n., 209 n. ^^^^1 

Ln-hUU*kia— R6biUkft, L la?. 

Mabiliiaii>A iMo-bo-imn), ii. $$ ti, ^^^^^M 

Lti'kwong BuUbied tbe Tiutara, i 

Mfdi/iiicLiidn, jT. 94 n., 102 u. ^^^^^1 


MftbH 1 nui 1 i L 94 1 1. ^^^^H 

1 Luiubin! garden, L 60 ; ii. 13, 24. 

MaMpttrimtrdf^a SUtra, u 124 n« ^^^^H 

» ?«« — dj«c«iir«e*^ i, 80, 

MfebAprHJAp^ti (Mo-bo-fto-lo-Klie-po^ ^^^^^| 

Lung district or mQiiuULtiA, 1. SS^ 

it), i. M. 40 ; ii. 22 n., 143 11. ^^^^H 


MitMtitsLtr^ (Mo4iii-U-ebH li- ^^^H 

Limg-BiAng Ereite, ii 32 n., 40 n. 


Itin-uai)^— cliiikravArtiHr ii. 124* 

MuhctratnaiiTlpa ialaiidt ii. 2 5 3* .^^^^^^| 

Ln-sbi cmivent, lu JIJJ^ 

]U:di&4fl!a Saddbiirum (MD-bu*eia-Io}, ^^^^^H 

Xii*yf — tleer ftirest, it 45- 

2 ^^^^^^H 

MitbjL^idi, ii. 82 IS ^^^^^1 


MuhflAaingblkii {Mi^-bn-aaTig-kH-pu ^^^^^^| 

' Hji-Bbing— A^Tt^jitA, iL t5a 

nnd TA-cboiig^pii) Ai^buoL, i. TOi, ^^^^^| 

Mad4wcir (Mu-ti-pu-lo) ur MumW, 

Tl ; 12 J, i6z ; ii. 2S7* ^^^^^H 

in Rohilklmiid, i. 190 11. 

MnhdBtii^ffhti, ii. 165. ^^^^^^| 

M^bn^a (Mo-tVp^n), ii^ 104, 105, 

Mabjl^jlra {Mii'Hu<A4-lD), tL 63 n. ^^^^H 

107, 108* 

M^biUtl^ucigiidb, in Bomgal, iL ^^^^H 

. m^ihiikA (ino-t*n-kift), fruit, L 89. 


' MidbyiMlfi^ (Cbon-^kwe). u 3T, 

MAliistbnvim Bcboob ii. 1 5. ^^^^^^^H 

1 Madhydnta YMdga J^dHm (ChuT^f-- 

MabAvAim (Mo-bi^-fH-im nnd Tii-lin) ^^^^^^^^ 

[ pm<fen'pi-bin)» h 32 6. 

azLH^didrilmii, i. ] 24 ; &\te of^ i. 44^ '^^^^^H 

1 Madby4nlilia (Mii-eien-ti<kia), tbird 


1 p*triardp, L 53 m, 1 34, 156 11, t 

MftM r Uihd«h& h^dMru { Ta^pi-pQ-»fm - ^^^H 

(ffliiat, T. 149, 150, 

inn} i>f Biiddb«d||nL. ^^^H 

1 Mtdra tribe, i. 16& n. 

M*-droB-pji (Cb. Wu-je-ii*i>), ii 41, 


IS5 "^ 

MabA7iL34t!^ b T8. ^^^H 

Magfldlui (Mci>kie.t*o), i. 54, 55, T44 
n., j6S, 2t$i n, 76, 77, Si» S7, 

MabftvibiVi^vi^ltia (Mfi-bo-pi-bo-lrK ^^^^^| 

chu-pn), scb'Vfil, M- 247^ ^^^^^^1 

I 90, 104, uS, 138, 139, 140, 149 

Mnh&vflkahii R!<^Ld (T^L^abu-aLU )|[.2oS. ^^^^H 


MsHfiitm (Ta-ctjmR). the Gnsat 
V<;hiLle, i. 3S, AT, Sit 41, Hi, 70, 
Si: 91, ifo, U2, tlj, t20p 137, 
146, 147. t^i 176. 177, 180, 181, 

191, J 9 7, aoi, 207,225,226, 227, 
t2$,2Z9; ii. 64 n., 65, 7^» Sl^ 
8a, too, 103, 104, I33p 'S^i "9Si 
208. 210^ 212, 221, 224 n^ 229, 
347, 254* 257, 260, 264. 266, 269, 
3710, 273, 275, 277, 381, 2S4, 28ii, 
joS. 309. 
MAkdfdw^ SatrdUnkdta (ikd 

i. 226. 

M«l*fcidTft(Mo4ij-in'tVlo), li. 91, 92, 
tjl I brotlier of A-^kw, ii, 246 L 

M ^Mtmlrntnuli, ii, 207 ri. 
Il*ii4!4ihir»*li>vi4 (Tn^TBtJit-t Vi-tit?ii )j 

IC^I, L 114, 202 I il 44, 119, 127, 

161. a63, 276, 277. 

> M3- 

lt« f it^ vjirn.p iti-ji i Mo-lii ..«ib i ■ f r,- ] u ~ jkj- 
Li), ill Central ludia, IL 271, 

Mn'J^igft-pM — Aninjdiiba, le. 3S ti« 

mbt (Bff» bo) rjvtir, n. 139, 142, 
360^ 269. 

Mabimkuln iir MllitrakuU (Mo-hi-lru 

Ki^Tiitr, L 119 1^, I2Q n., 167, 

l6S» l69» 170. J 7I' 
M*UIiilsaka (Mi^s!i;t^atV), Oil, F*l4i. 

|>u, ftcb*><»l i. 121, 226* 
Mfti4in — VikriuvdiiiL conTeut, i. 

Miil<t« — Ghmcfle for Krittyaa, inlm- 

bjiiiiiia of Ka.4ri)tr, 1, 150 n. 
MiiitirSvft {Mtfi«U-]iye) B6cibi*atLv,i. 

i, 89^ 30, fiS, T8, 79; 134^ 1 37, 

ISSi 226, 227, 22S, 23 S 11 ; ii. 23 

ii*, 4^47i 1*9* i^Or 14^, 143. M4* 

11 y, 22o» 2^3, 224, 225, 226, 22 5i, 

154. 275 11,. 313. 

127 ; 11. 313 
||ji|jiiiiit, i\ luieftirmury, i, 134 n. 
Miiu$^ (MiJV-k$e) fidii, i. 102 ; ii. 125. 
AEAkti^idwil, ii. 74 n. 
X.ikHiU (Mo-!i(j-jan) dtfftert, ii. 325 n. 

vlly, iu 231 II, 
Makk<kt>i iMu-lo kin-cb'a, ait^ Chi- 
1li*J*i*>K il 2J0, 231 IK, 232 u,, 

MiLi««jttUir SaiO[mhn, L 199. ^ 

U^hkVJi tMo>k-[i'o}, L It; i 
265, 26S, 

^32* 333 ; M»lftjr«^lri, U. 252 u. 
MANlivt) talikud^, ii. 252 il. 
MalU (M.>-ii*) tribe, iu 36 (I., 37, 38 

H^-uiiug— A4viigli6AliAf ii. lOO 11, 
Mail I peuple, ii, I9S. 
ma^nm — cornehiLii dmh, ir, [29- 
MiluaTa (Mo-oa-p'o), n yuuiig lirAh* 

luau, ii. 176. 
MivTi^y^, ii. 29 ti. 
M.infc'Jn (Motig*kie-U), Mafifntiiwr^^ 

or Mnugult lu Utl}'4i;:», L lat u. 
M^f^jiftiahidim. AiiiraUi^, n I96n*1 

mdai {ma-ni^^ grm, i, 73, 7C 
M&tdk>'il3a t4j|itf^ L 136 n., 145 u., 

146 n. 
Mk^imra or Mari6rliit^. 
Ma&juRrl (Man*cliu4bi-H, mnd V\%\ 

Miii*kin-t&'!4iiig p'u'a;t)f i. 39, if j 

iSo; ii. 320. 
Mua-kca-^Mnilrid^vt, L 9fiL 
mjMjuert uf tk« Hiniiiiikj i, 83. 
mnn tiers *»f NSpAl prtijik, iu So* 
MnriSrbiU (Mcvnu-br>-ti-u, ntiil CL| 

Ja-i) or Manintn, i. 98, 105. 
MAiiuAltnkrittjfia of Kiiimlr, \ix Cb$« 

iie^e Mttl-te, i. 156 T I. 
M^ru (Mo-WiLHir), i. Oi» 69, fl3, §9 ; 

iS2 II.; in 21, S3, 59 11., 69, 70, 

71, 121, r 24, 132, 133, I S4, IS7* 
Miru'ft teMipumn, IL 69* 
Ma/KLKafSa— Samiirk.^Qdf i. 32 ti* 
Miu-j;tlm ti'^uutTy^ ii. 255 ii- 
mdrgti^ wjiy or rtic'^tii, ii, 105* 
M4rgii4ij«Ui4 (Mu-km-^lu-lu), monitii 

i. 72. 
Mttrgikpii, Margua (Mo-liiu^ 1, 9T. 
Mftrpo (Mm-I^J'Po), Lidik, u 17^11. 
inamagti nte«, i. 54; with a flowffrp 

RfqftAr^ iip 63 n.| 64 II. 
Mu^aliing — AivajitA^ Ii 1 75. 
I^ImhUt of the law {Sii»*tkji4ug'fai,-AAp]tl 

Tripif«k4c1] ftryii.— 11 it leii T*i.iiigy 


124, 125. 
Mathura (M- -t*ii-lr»), i, BT ; 179, iSm 

II., 182 tL, 191 ti.; il, 74; mK^rip-] 

tiuup. i, II. 
Matipuri (Ma-ti-pu-!y}« in 2iuhlU| 

kbami, i, 189^ 190^ I9t n. 

^^^^^^^^ ^^^^3^^^^^H 

^^ilJpti-Tjetji (motbcr-clind), il. tcxi ii. 

Md-boda-cb*a^Mab;iT^bf m, ii. 255. ^^^H 

nmt^i. 75- 

Mii-bri-pi4io-Io'0bn-pn . — McdiSvUj&^ ^^^^H 

Miitsya tir Viiau cjuntry, L 179 lu 

ravl^ino, ttcbooi, iL 247, ^^^^| 

mau'tfi€—fn£ckn fruit, i. S9. 

Mo-hn-sndo— Mab^aiii, iL 63. ^^H 

1 Maud gal jay arm (Mu-t«-kU4u) ]!o<U 

Mo-k]u-atiid,»-M]iri,MjiIrabiu ^^^H 

^^ liijiaUvii,^ Cl]^ Ti^ii^ti^u, iAtiit! ^tji 

M o*k*ie— ' M k*hii iij on 1 1 u ^^^^^^H 

^H Miiiidga]jipiitra,i.39, iS/j iL6* 175. 

Mn.kitf-t\»— Mllgmdb:^ iL Si, S2. ^^^^^H 

^l«aii-Au-/»-£o— wi uMrLa. 

MCkiha, iWii^che), miha,pa.TiBhi^, U ^^^^H 

Maurj^^Mftnjftn^ 9. #. 


Mayi (M<>-ye)i motbtr ^>f Buddha, 

Mo'Ea^p'o — M^lav^if iL 26ok ^^^^^| 

ji. IS, 16,2311., 3S, 39, 130* 

Modu— Malta, ii. 3S. ^^^1 

MAvApMrf or May^i'ii iMt>-ja-l«j), 

Mudo-kiu*cb'a— M^d.^kaK il 1S6 ^^^1 

, Hjmdvirt, L 197 u. 

Modii-su, perbapa for Mu-k-itO ^^^H 

iMiyitfns#, peiMHiokn, J, 138 n. 

MMrjxt ur Lndtk, L 17S. ^^^^| 

M&yara-rdja (K'oug-talO'WAtig)^ i. 

Mo- In-y e — M A kya, i i. 232. ^^^H 

1 26 n* 

Mo-iin^p*o — MAnaviw _^^^H 

raeasureB of leiigtk in Indin, L ja 

Mntig Inke, L 3 ti. ^^^H 

tnedioineR, i, $6. 

Mongir— Hlra^japarvatn, ii. 186 n , ^^^^M 

Mfjjasitljeiife, L ran. 

190 ^^^H 

ilil tn-ti-ye'p'n-tw— MftitrAya B6d- 

Muit^iiJa, L IT. ^^^^H 

LiaatlVH, ii. 47. 

inor}kt?y UAcetic, L 234. ^^^^B 

MeDcinA, iL 2I0 in 

Mom, a gras^-i^ntter, iL 123. ^^^^H 

irnerchant cbief— irlfAfAf, ii. 12$. 

MAHyim (or Maurya) dyu^ii^ty, L 17; ^^^H 

iiiBtempftychotiia, i. S3. 


meu-rft*— iwA/tff. 

MAriyanagarit, city fu^mded by tbe ^^^| 

Mid Jinibi, i. 30, i8. 78, 

MkjA yotttba, i. 17. ^^^M 

Middle V«bidL., il loa 

Mo-^u— MitKArA MtiiigL&rllTniL, i 124. ^^^^| 

MidnApui-, h. 206 n. 

M u^ t 'k ' p'o— M adbavn,ii« 104. ^^^^| 

Mibiraknla r. Mabimkida. 

MtJ-tr-kiu-lo-Ueu — M udgnlapntra, li ^^^^H 

Miiitm^ A c^iiivt^n t.-it Vulabht iL 267 u. 


M i-mo-kiB. — M'l^bi^n. 

Morli«^r'(.-bibl--M&l|^jSu. ii. 100 n. ^^^H 

Mhmgfird, iL 273 li. 

Mu t%r ii-ti^kitt^MdtibyAhiika i^rbat^ ^^^H 

Ming, king, i AT. 


nt iit^ — tidt/ds. 

Mo- ti- p u- ] — yia ti p ii 1 ra. ^^^^^^^^H 

m.inf/*iiiinff bird, ii. SOl 

Mu-t'u-Ia— MaLbiirfl, L 179. ^^^^^^H 

Mltig-fo-dmii, tlitt land of Kn- 

Moulinien im4g« of Bndfilia, L 5 r n. ^^^^^^^| 

cbmij^, iJ. 326 n> 

Ming- pi a — Ub4viiviv6kH, iL 223 h. 

Mo-yudt» — Mny&pura, i. 197, ^^^^^^H 

Mint; Ti— CiiineBe Emperor (a.d^ 58- 

MfTgAdAvn, deer giirdeii, i. 47 ; ^^^^^^^^| 

76), dreAm t>f, i, 30- 


Mitbiia, iL 78 n., i^g p. 

M n t: b i 1 i LI da ( M u -cb i -Un - t%ii )^ {.! b inese ^^^^^^^^| 

Mi n -ki • tn'ian jf *p' u *sii— MaHj nil 1 13o- 

WeD-lin, L 83 ; ii. 41. 128, 131, ^^^^^^^| 

dhl«it,LtTii, ii. 23a 

Mndgtilagiri, Mongir hilL ii. i$6 n. ^^^^^^^| 

mMa {ma*t-^e) fruity pluttatn, L 

Mitdgiiliipntra (Mn-tf'-ki«i-iit-tjieu), ^^^^^^^| 

M ; ii, 66, 163. 

MuHgn^bf tbe ^ent, Pill Mti:^!dAn, ^^^^^| 

MdSfJi'po, MatbnrA^ i, 179 n. 

i. 39| 39 ; iSo, 1S3, 187; ii. 175. ^^^^| 

MoK city, i. SO. 

176* 177 □., And Muntli^alyAyi- ^^^^H]adL IL 1391). 

nnpgtm, L 40, 09, 61, 108; 235; ^^^^H 

Muhftnl, ii. 112 II. 

ii- 6« 7, 9i t6K 178* iSK. ^^^^1 

>bi*Li*iii»tVli> — Malidndm, ii. 91,92. 

Mi)^bi4ti n I'll io' kill) country, i. 33. ^^^^H 

M'>-bi«io-kiU'lo — Mahrrakntti. 

Mn-bo — -Amu ri^«r, i. 3^ "' ^^^^^^| 

M<i-hi-ish1*fa-lo-pu*lo — MRLe»fViir<»- 

muAitrta (innn*bU'b^to)| diviwun nf ^^^^^H 

pttra, iL33S, 271. , 

time, L 71* ^^^^H 

Mo'hi u— Margi H u iw 

mtt'i — jipri<!uL, L S7. ^^^^H 

Mr)- ho — Mttbl rivt?r, iL r39. 

MCliatliiln^pum (Hu4o^iMn^pii4o), ^^^^H 

■ H ' bo-€ben '|iq — Mab ^h nn 1 piu 

Mult&Q, ii. 274, ^^^H 

^^^^^35o ^^^^^^^^B 

^^^^H iiiulbeny ae«<T, U. 319. 

14VA-1 r^\Uy, I XT, »1» 34, 3B,iof^^ 

^^^^H Mii4o-«iLii-|)u>lu — MillaeiliftnapuT*, 

560., 91,9611, 

^^H ii 274* ' 

Naga'r4|a iCh.L&og-Wftiig), t#inpH 

^^^^^1 Mundu or Entka rock ^ i. 1 4 5 n , ; iL 2 ti . 

i. fie. 

^^^H Mvig king, I 176 rt., and 24^' 

N^-dijiinft fi6dbliiitttYii <Na*kift^V 

^^^1 HiiAgdi (Miiiig-kiif-H), ^Ah^U, or 

k-cbti-nn), Oh. L<ii»gmhii or Lung 

^^^^H MungAJl, Mai^4kvur, i. 9i lu i 

iiieiig, 1. iSgo., 210 f., 2i|f.22Q 
f,, 223, 224 n. 302 ; ii. 97t 98, i»tk 

^^H izt, 134, 135* 

^^^H Mmig-km^ii— Muikgili in Udfiti<i, 

N&gMTmiuia, ii. 133 u. 


NAgbnr, i!« 209 u. ^^ 

^^^H Mu^'km — TiKkJlii Dr lAuhpn 

Nagra city, ii. rS d. ^H 

^^^B 2RS« 2Bg, 

Nai-uao-t*o— Narjti*dft rivrr, tl 159. ^H 

nut— plum, L £9. ^H 

^^^^H Mtilijmi (Mung-'kiQ), m BadakshAii, 

NainifijaiilL (Niden^Uftn^sa) lii-tr, H 

^^^H £- 42 u. ; iL 2S3, 2S9, 

Ob. Peti-la-cbo-boi, n. 54, JU, ^B 

^^^^H Mumli tiiounUtn^ \l 144 u. 

ti5, 120, 129, MO ti^ H 

^^^^^P MuraQdiLfl, nittivi'& uf Lcitjitilka, i< 

jVji»i>aM7ljRd abmd^Ai [F^-shM^^ ^M 


tin^), ii. 54. ■ 

^^^^H MQrdHbliiBhikU (Hwnti-iing-pu) 

Xji'kie-lo-bn — Xngnmbara. ^H 

^^^^^B icliool, lion. 

Na-kwa, liuter of Fub-bi, i, 7 «. 

^^^^^B Murgb^b vulley^ j. 4S n. 

Kilandft (Na-Uu-tu) •ftdghlrtoii, l y 

^^^^^B rnnfltiLrd Aeed — Sinapis gtaucis^ i S7. 

204 n., 216 ; n. 102 n., 110, tfiTi ^H 

^^^^1 Miieur-iiuTa, Mougol name of Ling- 

t6S| 196, 204 u, ^ ittic!«ui«, il. 17a ^1 

^^^^^H fllifla mountaiiit, i, 2$. 

Na-Iai]*tu — KiUndn, ^H 

^^^^B M a- 1 e-k in- Ig — Mau dgal j ^yanii. 

naiiU'ilo^tik^Ul^ H 

^^^^H Muxcirt, ley»t u 19. 

^^^^H MwaD'chii— P6rnjikvarainr4jiS ii- 1 74- 

Uiueii Teiang, i. Ha^ ^H 

^^^^H Mjn-buhtk, or TUoaund ApriDgn, i. 

N;i-1o-ki 111 — ^amkira, it, 252. ^H 

^^^H 27 

N"a-lo-yen-tUl— 'N&iaya^ad^va, ^H 

Kanda (Naxi-fu), il. 2 u,, [6 u,, tj, ^H 


46 n.i 94, 102 M., 167 D. ^H 


N'nttkinj i. 13. ^| 

Na-pi*ka, birtUplaCA of £/%kueb-^^H 

^^^H NadIkA4taF4 (NiA-ti-ilft-filie-po), li* 

obb&nda, 1. 48. ^M 


HaTmpati (Ziii.cbii), 'Mord i>! iD«ii,'*^l 

^^^^H Ha f''-p'> — NnvMpa, il 325. 

i. 13 tt., 14, IS. 16. 41* ^1 

^^^^^1 K A- f (j-ti-p'o^k ixA V— N AmdS vakuln. 

Narafiimba (Na-k»*i!&ng-bo), irEI»£«^H 

^^^H KA^itN (Ha-kie), i 5 n., II, 63 1, 

ill tbe Paftjftbj I 143 ii,» 1 66 11* ^^ 

^^^H I JO I, 136. J 49 f.f I59p zor, 237 ; 

Nftrijaipidd^va (Nft-lo-je»*tii:>), itt- 


tbor, 1 9S. 

^^^^H Nftgn AnaTftUptA, ii. 41, 

N ArAjanftdlvm, roy&l ituck of Eim^ 

^^^H Kflgm Apdfilm ('O^po-Ui.lo), i. 12a. 

Hip*,'iL 196, 

^^^^H K&gA'DlUakfrf 11. 103 n. 

NifAjKnad^YtL, ti. 262, 263. 

^^^^^m N4g^i fdiiutaiu, i. 6S. 

n4/HkUa (nadi-kido) frtiii, eoctik. 

^^^^^H Istm OopiiljiT i, 93. 

nut, i. S7 ; iL 196. 

^^^^^B N^rabrafia, Cb. LoDg-ch^ej^ li. 297. 

Karnmdi fNid*ino-t*tj) rivfir, ii, 251. 

^^^^^^1 N&ga maideD, tale of, i. 129 f, ; ii, 21. 

Kjiriiktra (Ka-b-ki4o) iiliuid, tL 252. 

^^^^B N&g^ Nandu— KJUauda^ ii. 167 n. 

NiUik iiiscrtptLDnts if. 220 n. 

^^^^^1 Nd^dvandat \. 211 n. 

Na vad A vakw 1& i Ka-f 0- ti ^pV kii*loK 

^^^^1 Nigapa^|iiiitt£D, ii. 231 u«, 333 n.^ 

town on tb« Gfti^fet, i* 233. ^H 


Navafidgfti-b, fi« 78 n« ^H 

^^^^H NagJira or Nagark5|, old capital of 
^^^^H KuItlU, L 177 lu 

Navapa (Na-£cKp^) «oiiPti'^, ii. 335^B 

NATaaaAgbArtCDA — Datii* uC ft tH^^| 

^^^^^B K^^opa AtQi^utr^jTo^fr^ NngaraliHra, L 

pie, i, 14, ^™ 

^^^^B 91 

Kvjkatbj town in TurkiAtlD, L 29 n.. 

^^^^^H Nag»rab&ra (Nakie>hi-bu), iu J:iJiL> 

94- _^ 

^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^1 

"Kplnr. 11 230 lu 

Niijkmid (Nu^cliih-kien^ town^ L ^^^| 

^^dtiaii4tLji, Juiim Tlrtbamk&n, il 

; 29t 30- ^^H 

269 u. 

Kii-kla/o*lu-clni'fia — Nftg&rjuua ^^^H 

K^pAl ^Ki-po-Io), i 16; ii. So, Si n. 

Eiklhisattvf^ ii, 97, ^^^H 

Kefifj one of tii^ BiLini} Au iujuge#» 

-Rijatjrddha (nt ku-hu), fruit, i 307 ; ^^^| 

1. SI n. 

grove, ii. 2j; 25, 3 1 ; tre*?, i. 4Q, ^^B 

KeraifutkMuiksK&M, tL 143 n* 

€3; 11,50^ 126. ^ 

ti^^rt-^iih^rt — AmU fniit^ i 89* 

jV^%£ri£v^fit«/umAA ^<Sif4d {In'miwj- ^^^H 

ntjdn^mihlc — Amalji fruit, i. 89. 

cA>ifjr-/«-mfi7-/un), ii. 2rS, 220 in ^^^| 

J* ifl-ti * k ia-i.h c-pu — N Ail i ka^y a j ^^ i u 

A'ytts^u^ra »?{£«|7^ ('O^^t -in-fit r>- ^^^H 


cAir7i-4^Aan-^'-fii» iLud Shun-rhiiit/^ ^^^H 

niiMN/it (»i-fo-«ii), Cb» /»*ytt«», 

|/-/uii) of tiungbtvbbudiBp i, 160, ^^^H 

twelve, i« 142. 


9 i*-/o-f J *if a^n t r dja iia rvba. 

Kystki Of Ni^a, L 95 u, ^^^H 

Ns'jatig, tuwu, ii. 324. 


K ijrAn, vallpy iu KiipiK i, 54 n* 

fttMj^as (Cii, Z'w), lliu eigLUen 

Ocu (U-clia), iu 2&S, 324. ^^1 

BohiKiU, i. 177. 

'0-eb'a4i^At4ti, ii. 265. ^^M 

J^i-ir«4*u— Kjagrodfaii, ii. 50^ 126. 

'O-ciit^-lo — Acli^iL or AobAniy ^^^H 

Ki^kieft-^N i rgra 1 1 1 h mb. 

CJjiue&e Sn-Uing, ii, iiS^ 257; ^^H 

K^lei>*»hiftti-iia— Nairailjad4 nver, iJ. 

arLat, ii. 26S, ^^H 


0-cliou-t<j-kJn--AjiUkmH, i. oa ^^H 
'0-cLu-kiEk— Mliy<)ka, ii.' 90 ti. ^^H 

Kilftj-iu or LilSJntij western breni^h 

of iljo Kaimftjnhft river. 

OBinu, Norse pod, i 65 n. ^^^| 

nUdpifa inf^-jw-cA'd), public t9- 

Odm oT Udra (U-cha), DnB«n, 11 204. ^^H 

ewrdi, L 78 0. 

'0-fa»<chV~'AvandA, Ii. 28cx ^^H 

Ki4idt3, i, 68- 

'D-fo-tu^cbe.tii-]-«liUa4q— Araiaki- ^^H 

N U ED ah i'gutjg— Tibetan ufttnu of 

t&ivara, i 127 n. ^^^^| 

MadhyAotika, L 134 n. 

'0-hi-cbi ta4i>^Ahikftli6tia, i. 20D. ^^^H 

N 1*1110 or Che*ria-tu-iia coimtryj ii. 

Obiu<l, UdnkhAnd^ t>r Waliaud, ^^H 

.3^5' . , , . 

n4n./i3S, * ^^B 

mne bcirdera or islaodfl {khiu-kat- 

■ -j ' k 10- cb*i 11' j \i — A jMta Eaundin- ^H 

Ual-in), i. 3 D., 17. 

ya, 11,46. ■ 

Ki-po4o-N*^il!, ii, 80. 

' Q*ki-ii l Q e Akn i <*ou utrj, i. 13, 10 ; 1 7* ^M 

l^i rgracthaH (Ni-kieu), Dsgambarauor 

*04aii-k]A-Un — cQiriipt form fur ^M 

H linked JaiuuA, i. 50 - 55 u., 76, 

ArilfTa K&krna, li. 54. ^M 

■ 14S D. ; jL 45, 66, 158, t6S, 1%, 

otibanun — s^4ii tn^e, k. 265 ir. ^H 

■^ 199.208, 227, 231, 

O'U-ni— Abreu^f on tU@ Oxui, i. ^^^H 

fiij'tfcMa, tbc extinction or dee t ruc- 

42 ; il 285, 2S9. ^^H 

tion of luffi'hnj^f ii. 105 n. 

^O-lii-ho— Arunaj Ch^hM Dtikhta- ^^^H 

^kwdm {Nit-p'an)f date of, i. T5 ; 

rAu, u 61 n./62 ; ii. 1!^^, ^^^| 

73» 99i to6 Ji.; 150 (lOO yearfl 

Olyujpuf^f i, 10 n. ^^^H 

befort: Aii^ka)^ liate fruui, i, 63^ 

*Q-iao*lo-kia -^ dmfduka fruU, ii* 95, ^^^^H 

103; 151, 156. 174; place of, 1. 


83 ; il 175. 

D'UTin-t'o — Aiiaisdri| li. 154. ^^^H 

Jp^ifrdJta S^tra^ L 70. 

O-niiu-tVpu-io — Aiiatutkpun^ iL ^^^H 

nuAadffdf PiU fiufdanatn — mats, i. 


75 0, 

*Q-t]i4iu-t^o^ — Aiiiruddba, ii. 38 n. ^^^H 

Hiu-t^on country, in. 83 tu 

'0 110-wei, king of, i, 100 n. ^^^^ 

»tU' ieu-sluitt-fan^^6*irthiidnjtndami. 

0-pi-au — fianic qb Upiftit, KapiMn, ^^^^H 

nivaraTMi$, tivi?, L 152 u* 

accuidingto Cunuiugbam, 1. 55 u , ^^^H 

piwitanfl (iil-fo-fliMm) rule, i 76* 

56 n.p 59 n., 63 n.; ii. 285 n, ^^^| 

KortJi ludiJi, i. 10. 

^U-pi-tVkie-la-ua ^ — Aviddbakar^A, ^^^H 

^*ijrtherii msige of mount ainji, i 

ii. 6 If 62, 6;^ ^^^H 

t6o and b^iUr, 

^O-pi'iti-mv-ka^Mht-lun — AhindkaT^ ^H 

Kii-cliib-kitju couiitry, L 29, 3a 

makMa t^dxtrUf L J 05. ^M 

^^^H ^^^^^^^ 

^^^^^^^1 *0 * pi'ta^mo-minff-eJiiitff-Ian — Saih- 

Pft-Hn-fn— Pit Ylipatra ot rifTi.\ i 

^^^^^^B ifuktdlthiiiarmiihrldittHi Sdttrtt, I 

60, Be. 


PalodboiJ, vi!kgfj io KiUnl, L ns «, 

^^^^^^H ^0*}2i'tii'mn'fd~pA-itha-itin — Ahiii- 

Parngbfln roMimtnina, ii, 285 n, 

^^^^^^M dkarmtt Vih/td»h^ or Ahhidhat' ma 

P&mir (Po-mi-lo) mounUms, 1 If ; 

^^^^^m makdrM^Wid i^tUtra, i. 1$$ K. 

4t 11., 15511.; iL^gg. 

^^^^^^B *0-pi'ta-mxi* »h u n -rM a n 4i-lil n ^Ntj d- 

panfim {imt}-nn*%a\ jjick* fruity i, 

^^^^^^B ^dxiUMdra ^dttra^ U ry5. 

SS; ii. 194, 196, 

^^^^H *0-p»-lo lo^Apnl&U uAgm, i, 122, 

pa&ekdbhijM^ iU^tkin-i'onglil 139 


n., 20S u. 

^^^^^^H '0>|Hi'j«-k'!4i^Lhit-pii — Abfaiftvn^iri* 

Pn&cliikln— RrjIiilkli-iTid, u 2oO n. 

^^^^^^1 v&«tim«el)iKji, \L 347. 

P»licbAii4 i-iver, ii, iSo 11, 

I^^^^^H nrd«a1«, L S4. 

PaanWikha— P4&cha?ikho (PAli), « 

^^^^^^H Onng-uor (Rtfig>iu-Lui f), 1. 13 i) . , 36, 

divitie umtidun, T. 08. 

^^^^^^^1 Oriasi^t il, 236 t). 

Pant'hararsKit or P^iilf-A attirj^iXtf 

^^^^^^^1 OrtiiiiK (Hi> inoT)* li. 278, 

pan'jAwf {Paij-che jue-«««]^ festi- 

^^^^^^^1 0-sbp-U-ni— As&clb&riinii eotiventj L 

vd, L 38 J 31 n., 52 n. 


PlTidr^tliSn— PuHljiddbbbtbiaa in 

^^^^^^1 p-H)ii-po-kiu-»f ift^p^i^iA — JU?«gbft' 

KajJmIr, L r^^Sii/ 

^^^^^H i^hn BArlUi««ltvA, 11 loa 

Pa^do* -»f PHrdivM, L 183, 1S4 B. 

^^^^^H Y) clii^pV-Khi— ^ilvi^jitnjl 150. 

r^nini (Po^nUiu), tbe (rrammiittinj 

^^^^^^1 ^O-abo-to-fa ti~AjitHVMtL 

i^ Ii4« ]r6; bU biribplace, ^ikr 

^^^^^^1 *0*i»u4o— A^iirn, 223. 

ttiriti i 114. 

^^^^H '04in<tiVdiMn^Atj'&tia*ukg1ft, £1, 

pAfija river, i. 41 u. 

^^^H 377* 27% 

PAlkjm diatnct, ii. 194 n. 

^^^^^M Stnt (wu^it), cut, i 146^ 

Prtljabtr vtilky iq KjiviA*, i. 54 n. 

^^^^H OOajKm, fttre Ufa^ 

^^^^H Ourghft or R&i^U (Pi>4q-k ki»), ii. 

as ; «i, 29, 


^^^^^^^^1 ctx4ie«d 8)iiitbi1'>wt>4H], ii. i^g. 

nasSld (q. vO* »♦ ^9^ 

^^^^^^V Oxn^f Am^ifUrya (Pn-tjiu) n>?r, i. 

pA(i-ti^— Kavandbft, RAbftiidbs^ <€ 

^^^^^T 9T: 1 2. 33* 35 i^- 37t J^t 39 ^i-, 4°, 

S«rikkiiU i, 89. 

^^^^B 41, 4a Ik, 43, 114. ] 15, 125, 126, 

P*ao-chii— tUttiwli^tp* or Cejlan, il 

^^^^^^B *0-jr«-uiu-kbi— Hnyaiiiukbft, I 229. 

236, 240, 

^^^^^^1 '0-yu or Wu-yaii, 11. 9D Ti. 

pao p^in*/ — pre^iont plieber tir vaw, 

^^^^H *0 jn~t 0— AjddhjH, ]. 724. 

*t, 137 n. 

^^^^^^H Of^n^^ U j j A^ io] in M&Uta, £L 270 1 1 . 

Pao-U^ — T*ipiir, i, 1S7 n* 

P'ftO-Ul— RHtiiAkiirn. ii, 68. 

Pao.yutit^, i. 13, 23, 25, 33. 


pAr&clilii, a trih« in AfgiiaailetAn, tL 

^^^^^H Ta, riirer In Sben-sU u 5. 

285 ti. 

^^^^^H l^cirAfiMa (/ii*ftfi^i rtt^Nt, it. tg4 n. 

Pamdisfl, we#t«?m, i. 227 ti. 

^^^^^^H Pib 1 Ti 141 1% i *^r A vn 16kii0Sviifd^ 60 Q. 

pafxaHdnUf in finite'] j tmail mPAAufe, 


^^^^^^H chi^fitnmiU, i. taon. 

tai] af VMubati«!biu i. IJi, 

^^^^^^^H Pafltii&rjiti (Liett^iiwn), moiUer at 

P4rilvaU (Po'k*-yn) mouiiatefj, i 

^^^^^^B Kuti^lu, u 141 n,, 204 I). 

68 u., $8* ii, 214, 

^^^^^^H Tiii^hiiti, OT PntiftbthiitA, town, ii. 

Pirb»tt viUftgi*, ii, tSin, 


Pmrihtapka, ii, 175 n* 

^^^^^^1 i^awd 6guj« of Euddbft, 1. to2. 

PMiik«iPo4i4i0), t. 42 n. 

^^^^^H PiiJApAti or PrAjipftii, ii, an. 

Pimia, place ineiititmed l*jr PtoletnT 

^^^^^H nacri4k4, i I4S 

in i fgliKtiiiilAn, ii. 2S5 n. 

^^^^^^H P^U-im^ — ^V-iTJui^ or Tflrnii, iL 3$l. 

PftT^i «li t hitrii (Fo* lcN&bi.iiia*t*«n£> 

^^^^^1 T*U, Til)ag« i Q E4bia» i. 1 ts tu 

HAJi^iC 2S5. 


^^^^^^^^^^ INDEX, 35J 


■ Pftr^va or Atya Par4Tika (Po U*»hw 

PbaniBmanei, king of Khorairoii\, i. 


■ fa), Chm*}m Hie-t*UD, I 9S, IO4, 

35 0., us. 


■ JOSH., 151, I5J. 

Pbo-shu-Kii^Vasumitrfi, ii. 26S n* 


■ ParthUuft, i. 37 n* 

PlmUlmmiA, town, iL 255 n. 


1 PiirVftU (Po-fiv-to) ccmtitry la the 

pfitfUanthm tmMi^a ("an mu-loj, i. 


P.ttijillj, u. 275. 



PArvatt or DttigA (Po4o-yu), goddesH, 

|?Y— loquafc, i. 87, 


i. 60 n., 61; 11411.; il 314 Q. 

P'i-cheu-p'o-pu-lo — VichavApuni, 


PAr j-fttni (Po-li*ye-U)-lo) couutrj, i. 

Vnftmapura, or Balmapura, capital 


17^. J 79- 

of SIndb, ii. 272. 


PaB^uad 1 . See Prass^naj it 

Pidshan, i. 13 ; 17. 


PMupntMs (Pu-Hbu-po*to), aecetjca 

Pien-Ki, ediU^r of the Sl-^-ki, I r. 


^ BinpTirwl with afiben, i. 55 ti., f I4, 

■ 176, 200; il 45, 261, 271, 276, 

■ 277, 279, 280, 2^t. 

Pi-lo-mo-lo — MImdr, ii. 270. 


Pj'1o-£4-1o— PtlUB&na mountainap L 




I>(ifn/* (tT^j-cli*ii-li) tree, iu $3. 

Pi']tvRhan-oa- — VimSana, 1. 20 1. 


P&ta ] i p 1 1 1 ra { Pu 'Cli*a* 1 Me u-ch'iiiK}, 
I &S, W, €T, 70 ? t'. 70 n., 83, 

Pilns4i a (Pi-lo-io-Io), Cb, Smng-kiu- 
■hau, mountain in Kj*pi^i*fi7,6i 



85, 86n.,90!i., 167,223. 

Pilu or Po-l«i tr«e, i. 96. 


Pathargha^i^, ii. 192 n. 

Pi*hi-ahan f-^r Pi-lu-cbs-ni^Viura- 


Pfitnfir i^ 16. M, i6; iu 113 ti,, 

cbana, i. 87* 


- 136 n., Mi n^ 

Pi-lu^t*e-kiiL--ViHidbiika raja, f . 1 2S, 


■ p^fm ifto-tO'lo)^ begging 'diBh of 

Ftmu. (Pi-tno}, town, ii. 322, 323 u,, 


■ Biidaim, L 78; 60 i]., 9S; ii. 



■ 17S.2TO, 27S. 

Pi-mo-lo-kMtifkff — VimaiaMiiti rtt- 


■ Pitriarclig, firat four, f. S3 11. 

■ Patti or Pati, perhnjMj Chtoapiti, L 

tra, ii. 67. 


Pi . m .Iu m i -to4o— Vitaalami tra, i. 


■ 1670., 173 n., 17511, 



■ P**u*I., Bftuie as Frth*hL 

Pin'<'hin—TaUpatriUa}if;a .fdHra f. 


peach it'nu)^ ehUtdni, i, SS, 174. 

i. 191 n. 


pear {U)^ ckinan^itpHira, I 88, 174. 

Ii'ijij^— pitcher, ii, 65 o» 


pe»rU iJb), fira, L 89k 

Plrtfi — Sdmarfidfi^ i. 79. 


pe»rl-fliil)<!rj' in Ceylon, ii, 23, 
Pesu— KAintlanki, ii. stoa 
P^h-flbwui, white waifir* i. 29. 

P*ing-k'i4o— Vifiirila, ib 217. 


FMng-lo, villdige, i, 4. 


Piiig-wimg of tlia ChAn fataily^i, SO, 


pH-U tre^, I 62, 13, 66, 73. 

Puig-yang, district, 1. 11. 


Pe-lo— V4^9nuUni, i- 17, 93. 

Piii-im Mis/imtain, i. 78. 


P^enif-lni-shan — -FairjIiMidj i. fltt. 

PI n -pi - Bh A-1 , P*iii -p Ui f i-lo — B i m 'j i- 


IlepiKXifTot — VaiKravanflp i, ^g n.^ 

fAta rdja, ii. 102, 14S. 


191 n. 

Pi' p o4o^Pi ppdk * atone bonse. % 


period of the true law, i, 94 ti. 



period of tbe ;mage<t, t 94 n., 106 t>. 

Pi-j/o-iha4m—Vibhdthd J^ditm, i 


Peraiii (Po<]i-«ie, Po-eze and Pu- 

151 □. 


ia-aae]^ I 16, 91, 92 utu! tiute^ 37, 

Pi-po-«li<K-Vip&^ i. 165. 


51 n., 99 ; iu i40^ 277, 279, 300. 
Per^iiirkAj town in Afgli^itHl&n, ii* 

pippala tree, i. 99 j ii. 14, n6, 12S. 


Pippala (Pi*i>euhj)j iu 15&; cave, i- SI. 


2S5 n. 

Pi-pu*lo— Vipula mount^m, ii. 155, 


^ Feftb&wAr — Purueliapiira in Gnnd* 
I hftrrij i, 16, 103 i 109 11,, 1 [9 n, 

pertimmofif i. S8, 



Plr P&liohal mflnnlaini^ i, 163 n. 


Pi.gija-tiien — VAi^rava^a, ib 30^ 


Peimthiift, Pi3«likid&vjit1, UevKiXa- 

pj-^ao-kia — Viaftkba country, i, 239^ 


_ wTiSf nfUireXai^cs, rlfvffAatt, i. 

Piuiiiin, i. 99; ii. 69 n. 


B 109, 120 tL 

Pii^a Mbc?UHneQi]s»^ i, 60, 


H Phalgu Hver, li, 1 1 2 n. 

PifakfiM, thn^e, i. J04, 152, 153, 154, 


■ Ph&lt^impi (P'o^U-km-tia) montb, i. 

155, >96; il 307. 


■ 7^^ 

Pitl4ilA (Pi-to-Bhi4o), ii, 279^ 


H VOL. n, z 


354 JNDEX. ^w^^^^^^^l 

Pi*to*kiji (willow twig), tootU-brufeb 

Pu'l f»- jtt — V a 1 1 1 imiiaii te rjj i, 6 Sy ^| 

vAgbirJluiaj i, 6S, 

f9; ii. 214 n. ^| 

Pi-to-ahi-lo— PitAiaa. ii, 375, 

Po4u—?ilu ir^e, L &0. ■ 

iH-fjiu— Bhikftlin, \l S. 

P*i-l«-hi (if Po*lij-lo^Bolor eouti- ^| 

FUt'ii cuuutry— Bhidii, i 36. 

try, i. 93; 135. ■ 

plantain— fw^cAo (meu-cUeJi j, t6j n. 

Pa4u-abaip QatidbA^m, I in. 112, ^M 

pUtni {nmX L 87* 

Po-lu-kie-ehe- pa — Bbarukai^idiiLva ^^^H 
or Bbar6cb, iL 359. ^^^H 

Po-ciritli— Pit^U, PA|^Upulr», ii. 

Sj^ 223. 

Pod u - ^1 1 ^ p 1 1 - 1 u — L 'u r ufthapn na. ^^^H 

po-rh'i — ei^stal di«h, iL 129* 

potvAndry, i. 17^ ^^^H 

Po-fii — Vaibpi, 

pou)ej^ruu;4t«^ i. SS. ^^^^| 

roh-hih'kEa— BdlultAor Atiii, i 24- 

Po-rni-Io--P&mlr, Ii. 297. ^^^H 

Po^ho— Balkb. 

Po^na^BaDzm couiitTy, i. Si^ ^^^^| 

Po-ho — BoW (1) kingdi>ni, i. SO. 

Po^rduft or Po&rowil, ih ig^ ^^^^M 

** poUonoiii tbifif t?«, tb^/' i. SI* 

Po-ni^-Bhandj, Tniiiiatf>ri L 2IO, ^^^H 

Po-ke«n» tample uf, l »9. 

Fo-pi-fel-kia— Bbftvavivekaj ii. 3^3. ■ 

Po-kbu-lo— ViUtukj iu 190. 

Pfirua, L 136 n. ^H 

Pf>-kifi4— Bkogai (')i t^*'"i i^- 314- 

PVeba — Pituabjra motitb. ^M 
Po-ebi-pV — Vatoibbn tongb&rAmat ^M 

Po-k U Utig" 13 w§ blftn » 

Po-ln^tao^PeniB, ii, 240, 

il 195^ ■ 

Po-li, town, i, 47. 

pi)-Mc— Per^in, i, 99 n. : il 174 il ^H 

P©*ii-bo — I'Vokhiii', fierlia]iM in Ba* 

pQ-Bi5'-wib—Pn>&6 lift jit, ii. 3 u* ^M 

diikibftn, i. 42, 

p&,iai—Bddhi tre*', i. loe. ■ 

Po-li.|u*, B-jjor difttrtctj ii. 2S^>. 

po-tal— perbapB tb« Fci-ti (Eotik) ■ 

Fo-U<kia-raa-Pbilgunft mouiU. 

of ITiijeii Triian^j but may ataiid ^M 


for l^iaksiiAn, L 101 u. ^^H 

Pn-li >&«— P^^Jt 

po-tA'h — Bkadm fmit, i. SS. ^^^1 

lolitini'se, furiiis nf» 1* 85* 

Po-U-Wpc-to— Bhadnipidii iiiO(Qtkt>^^^H 

; ^ii-li")«-ttj-Vi>^rftryltra ur Vjiiid-^Ji, 

P6tftTaka (Pu-lik-la-kifti mutiiilAii], *• ^^^H 

i, jK 179^ 

114 11.; ii. 2ji n., 2J3, 251 D^ ■ 

P'i>-lc)*Uili'rpii-iHi-lri — Bmhtnaptira, 

397 P. ^^H 

L 198, a«d liiiditioua^ 241, 

7>o-e(iu— grape, i. SS, ^^^H 

Po-lfi-kie-f'*-t'au-tiu — Pr&bliftkara- 

Po-tl-B&dM Tib&ra, i. T«. ^^H 

varddiintia, i. 210. 

Pu- ta-«bii,t]g- D A— Badak sbiD , t . 4 1 . ^^^H 

Po4o-ki-po-t i — Pn\gb6dlii mouu- 

Pti^to-lodiii-cbit BbadrAniclii,il26|»^^^H 

titiii, h. I [4* 

Pti*t*aiJ— Vnkaliu or O^ua rivtr, lii ^^^H 


Po-lo'lo-Bulurp ii. 298, 

2S9, 292, 294. ■ 

Po-lq.lo-ki^ — Mgba or Ourgbn, 

Pi^-Wii[]g, niuiqiiia, or Cbang-kicii, L^^^^| 

towD, ii. 322, 324 


Po^lo-tueij — BrtbutMW. 

rrabliAktimyarddbana ( Po'lo-kie-f A'^^^H 

Po-k.mo4o*ki-li— Brabtningiri^ ii. 

t'lin *iia) Chin esc Tac^-k w oii g, i. 2 la ^| 


Pmbbftiai tra (Pc* - Iu - p ho - n^ i - to-li*), ^| 

Pii*Ju*ni for Pi>-lo*iiii— Tfi-mrit rivftr, 

Cbiui^ee K WJLng-yvu,died iu Chia% ^M 

iL 45 ti. 

4.^.633,11 t7t. ■ 

Po*lo-iii.aa6 (BAn4ra»), ii, 43, 44, 

Frabb&pilLi Widhiaattva (Ru*tniiig- H 

45 n. 

p'ii^»)^ iL 4S. ^1 

py-!.HNi-U-tti^WJ4ii^' *- BlMdityarftJji, 

j^rojiatjAinci t»r circumambulatiinif i ^| 

il j6S, 173- 

103 n. ■ 

Po*bn>bf*- mi-tu-lo, Prabbimitra^ 

Pi*gWi*lbi lPo-]o4i»po-y> mono- ■ 

ii, 171 11. 

Ui»iiL 114. 1 15, 133. ■ 

To- 1 n-ii-na *bi* to* waa^ — PraaAaa j i t 

Prigjjr6ti#h^ cApiUl of EJkntAdkt«, ■ 

r4ja, ii. 2, 3 n. 
PWi>-»1*oa — Varasiira loouutain 

ii. 195 (1. ■ 
Prtijap,*tl (Po-lo-abe-pii-ti), Ch. H 

pv», ii. 286 

S4nq-Gbu. II BbLke^bunl.iL z, 23 n, ^M 

P'oio-tu-lii— SuUtiir*. 

PmjMbbadra (Pftii-jo-p^g-t'o4o), il ■ 

Po-lw-y e-k iar^ Pmy iga, 

103 a. ■ 



IPruiftutijlt rflija (Po-ly-si-ii*i--shi -to- 
wan g and Po-^z*-mli), Cliiaene 

3ii.,4t tl n., l5i^o. 
pmddra {t^ah-yueu} bt*il, i 123 u. 
PmUmdksfia^ i. tSl li. 
Pr;ityflkii BuJillit (H'le-cbi-fii}i i. 

U, 43, 64, fi7j BS j vekici*-, i. 52, 

79 11,, 112 ik; iL 2og. 
Pruvjira^Qiia rftji uf K;3-4Tnilr, i, i^Sji* 
Frajigft (Py-lo-ye*kiaK AUabiliftd, i. 

130 U, 23+ 11. 
JPr«ftice %i> tbe 5* ^it-ii by CUaog 

pTOceB^i'^ii <if irjififfes, i. 22. 
Ilp9K\aU I'l lUnXtttt, PLiaiikalAmtlp f, 

lorj 11. 
Prom& ill r^iif tnA, it. 200 tu 
Pu-ho— BukLinrii* 

IPujaauriiirii A)Hi*hiunt (Ku-sLe-au- 
uil-lo)^ it* 74. 
Pulak^i (Pii-W-ki-Bhe). W(f*t«rii 
Cbaliikywi king, U 144 t»n-i 213 u., 
it 256. 
■f^-la^na-ffl-ruu— rarnavarmijiL I iS. 
^ »lo-k i -!ib0 — Pit luk esii . 
Fulumslyi— AndiirA kbigp iL 269 n. 
Pi i -ua I i V er — J a uj 11 a u r V am u nil, i . 3 7* 

IPunfiuU (Pua<Qn«t*Bo) or Puu-it*, n. 
kingdom ou tbn bordura of Kou- 
mlr, I 162 L 
Pmidiirlkn^itryA, for PjidmAyatt, i- 
204 n. 
jjunrfrrt, Hiigar-^^onep ii. 194 11. 
P uiid*^^'*"^^^ i^**^ '* ( P Q a ' u a - fa - t*nti- 

i)^)j country in Bengal, ii. 1 94. 
Pun -na- f n-i*ai j - i>*-*Pu tidravard im nft. 
Pan-nii-U'o^runacb, I. 162 L 
pu^^aidldi ipun-yarvj-BhC'to), Cb* 
I'u-nUe and Tijieiifj-liii bouses uf 
cbarity, i. 166, igS; il 21411., 30 j. 
PllrnH. (Yueii-raLui), atitbor oi tbe 

iVibhdaM S'datra, i. 162. 
Pflm&dbiahtbAuft ill Ktiirutr,!. IS^^'* 
P^ruamaitrAy aRlputrit ^Pu * la *im- 
mej - ta - li - y tni • di- fo - ta - lo), Cb* 
Mwau-tV-tseu^ L I So, iSi* 
P{ii iiiivaruiiL tPu-U-ua-fa-in**), In 
Cbmedti Mwun-ebeu, ii, JiS, 174, 
Purujibapura (Pu-lu-aba-pu4o)» ucjw 
Ptf^bAwaj-p i, 33 d.| 97 n.| 226 tL 

T^TvaAilik (Fo-p'u^bidu) mon^atery, 

iL 221> 
P{ii'vairi!l^lia j(Fa-p^o-pi-ti-hyJ| 0(i« 

of tbe finir dvtfuift, i, Jl, 
P u- »e-pt> -k'i 4 i — Puftb [jag ; ri. 
Pii^iikidAvati (Pu*abi-ki-io-fa-ti). 

IleuiceXaaiTK, cipiiid of Gandiiai .»> 

i, 109, III n.i 112 n. 
Fnadbkni ar PudlikiLla, auu of Bba- 

rata, i, 109 n. 
Pijilijwigiri ( Pu-ie-po-kbi4i) eaiighi- 

r4nhi, i* 20 5. 
PuA^itia CPtj-Hbji) mtintb, i. 72. 
Pti!i*—M/At tree, ii. 116. 
Fiilbui or rjttilb, iii Ceylon, iu 

251 n. 

R1dh>\ St^iiie? (Lo-tai*&Z'pi<iui), 

i, M. . 
Ril^di (Ho-]o4nO, iu BadaksbStii L 

42 n.p ii. 2S9. 
lUg b a ur O u rgba ( PiHlo-lo-kta ) , 11.332. 
U^buU (Ho4u'biiL-bj ur Lii4iii-lo), 

tan of Uaddbn, i. 88 ; 60, 61, 180, 

tSi ; ii, 18, 43, 167. 
Raivata m Giru^ragirl in SuriUb^ra, 

ii. 269 IT, 
lUjii BiaiLl-ka-garb^ li. 66 n. 
Rdjiigr'fli^* (H(j4.^-sb«-ki4i4ii), Chi- 

□eee Wang-abff, i. I lo ti.^ 153 ; ii, 

43,4^t47 ii.,S5n.,iJon., J49"t 

i6i n.t 162, 16$, 166, 167 Up 

17511., 176, *77, iSS, iSl>. 
R|tjag|1h}% (Little), i. 44. 
H4jaiiia1i6udn, ii. 207 jk, 209 ti, 
RAjapuri fHn-bT=sbB-pu4t»} or Ri- 

jaurr^ i. 163, 166 JJ. 
EAJAfltbAiiija Sura at Valabbl, ii. 

267 n. 
RAjai I ri — Rijji p u rl 
RAJK'tr, ib 155 11., 1670. 
Hajjlltia ydUge, it, 184 n* 
IMjyavardd b an a { Uu- 1 1 j -abe-fa^ t'ftn - 

iia), Wan^-tsaisg, king, i. 2tO, 211, 
BA,kiha«a (Ln-ta'a), ii. 244. 
fiakBh.isjl(Lo-t»VDiuJ, ij,236ij., 240, 

Raktavitl (Lo-to-wei-cbi) aaftglil* 

T^ma, ii, 202. 
Rilma, i 109 n.; jL 54. 
BAmnis^mnor MmagrAmn (Lan-mo), 

i, 80 ; li^ 26 tu 
R4n)Mi}ya, delta at tbe Iriwadi^ ll« 

ago a. 



Rufij&nmii} town iu Btrt]g«1, Lz6 U, 
lM|4i river, ii. i n. 
U^Ut T^Ufly, i. 41 n. 
ILitandvtpA (P'io-tiU'u), Ceylon, ii 

236, 239, 240* 246. 
R itiiilkfira {PVw^siJ, ii» 67, 68, 
H^timkilli^ ir. 67 ti« 

«evciU, I 205. 
I^atndi^i of Mn.-i, I 211 p.. 335 n* 
RilnmfVf u. 24S lu, 251 n<» 252 Uh, 
lUviii^AiiradA, kkem Tibet^fii, 155 n., 

297 n. 
RAvi rivt*r, i, i66n., 167 n , 1 73 11. 
Retoni*^ BihldUiiSt (Cii int^sd) PUgntii, 

I 9. 
** Re covered- sight cop**' ** (Tts-y«n- 

UtiJ, AptaudtravaTia (/tilieiij, Ap- 

f«d giurmeiiis inUrdiateil, L 25, 
nelica (»Ae4i) *ciHra, i 46, 59, 60, 66 

«*» 16.', 161, 186; diviMitiu ofj iL 

41 ; relsc caak^tff^ n. 317, 318^ 
iyv[itA(l4-pci*t'>) Ajkidiijut, ii. 74. 
EflV«%nfLJ, ik 64 \u 
RUhi iStu-Khin), ii. joS, 
^lsbi-iK*va, i. 227, 
riee {kin^-i*^)^ i* 19; riee of PAr- 

y&tm ripeiifl in sixty dajs, L 179. 
mck irioriiifttery^ iu 215 t 
RohiUka(Lu-L!'t}i*kU) atilpft, 1. 127. 
liu.-^bilti in Kitj-znt-tOi i, 4^> 
Royal Umily, i. S3, 
Rubruq^iia, oit«d, L 14 Q^ 45* 
ruby di^h (cAm-cJlu)^ iii. 129. 
Hudrfiik.!ilia, a Brdbmsini 1. t^^ n« 
R (it-a I tnai J gft u ( H id u -HI b * mi u-kiea ), 

i. 43 
rfJ/Mi (fi/i), ti. 94 (1. 
]{^pri,Bmhiim hf»Jivea(i| iL 22, 3011* 


Sab^aN (Sri-|ioh) merohatitB, i. 74. 
*Sahdavidifd {Skit^-miTttf} SdMra, i, 
7S, 116, 153 n* 

171 u. 
Sjiddliarma ball, 1. 203 ; ii. 2 lu 

SiiddJiarma Lankdvaldra SiUrOf il. 

251 u, 
Sa itihixrma Putidartka S^tra {Fti- 

h)i'it-kinf/)f ii 73 n.j 154, 
Sad V aba (So*to-|i'o*ho), Cb. Iu 

210V 2J1 f., 214 f, 224 n- 

XayaXa ^ ical EiJtfu^ij^a, L l6§ it. 
SftgblQt&a or Ch«f baaUa, >- 39 n>t 

Sah&tirt, iJ. in. 
Sabaldkii (S'kh'bo) wetM^ L ^ 
SaliAwH-^r village, u 201 ii» 
SntiHt'Milbet, Sr&VtutI 4?ity, n, I IL 

ciple, ii, 76, 
l^'illjij^m, ii. 153 11. 
HjuIAei, Ceylon, iL 336 11. 
84k A era, i^ |7 n. 
84kak (3be'ki«4o), towii in TAlkikVp 

I 165 II., 166 n. 193, 
Sdkflcji, L 239 tKj 240 ti^ 
S.ikiatiL— Sbi^uiii^ Y- *'* 
a:ikr;i (Ti-abih) Dfivtifidra ctr lodn, 

i. 58, 95; 115, 125, tl<4 n^ 30J* 

204, 21S; iL 9, 12, 25, 30t 33, 

34t 4l» 59* S7 u., 123, 137, IJ3, 

I4S» 176, I So. 
.^kkr^itya (Sbo - kia 4o - 'o ^ t*ii - to) 

kiti^t i. 16S. 
Sikyii B6dUi«*ttTi (Shib-kui-p'u-iAj, 

L92, 93; ii. 9, II, 2a 
S&kya fnwrljr, enuntry of^ t. it, 
$akya mnkk'ttfl, il ijj ta. 
dftkyivpiitra, a tible^ i. 11. 
fld^ (*o-/«), trees, L 1 33; ii 3* 
SAli^ {BJia^k>) Ayuabittfit, ii, 74. 

iL 265 n. 
Salilturti (So-li»-tU'lu)| ne&r OUiadi i* 

Sulom district, u I07 Qi 

S&ma.k>i (SbtfU'^mRl, «ou of Dtikhulc 

(Juh'en has StMiiftiiiklia)| i. tit n. 
SamddJii^ I 50 1 53, 162, 304 1 ii* 

179, 219. 
**f(fiswt-j4Mti, L Tft n., Tfi ; tll H. 
S^inmj&A (S«-Eiio-jii)i) iiigQa»t«fy^ ii. 

Sainiirkntid (S.i-tii<i-kipQ), 1. 31 t3*i 
32, 3311,, 3411,, 5511, 3611, 

ohV), ill £A4teru B«ttgaJ, iL iio^ 

199, 20a 
SauitiMuit ^Sbi-mo-ih«-ri(i), ihe fifU 

of tomba far kying iha d<i«d, I 60* 
SamiLQg&a, towo, i* 45 d, 
4Mfnan£uiuttfJt:/iii<.c/AtIiiuii, il« 7^ 
■^dmav&ln {Pinff)^ L 79 ti. 
tUmU (Sh]^-mi)f i< 93 ; ii« it, 996* 
.^ jHbddki «Ut4t, iL 151. 



^^^^^^^^^^^IXDEX, ^^^^^ 

S^ralkiglia (S/^n-p'u-lcm) Ayu»bnm*, 

#aii7^id^I (ftflng-tifl-cbi) robe, i, 47, ^^^^^B 

ii- 74. 75* 

53, 75 n., 96 ; il. 33. ^^M 

SamtiuddLwata (Tih-tsiii-clii)— Sai- 

Siiiig'ho-pu*lj— Sitnbapurn, i, I43. ^^^H 

vArtLrLsiddLa, ii, l6 n. 

Siiai^kiiyti — KjtpitliAj I 303 n. ^H 

^^jjg-kia— Simlitt, i. 341, 343, 344. ^^H 

fttumtiiia vi Sii-uu4i*«:Ui-f»-lo| ii. 

Sliig^kU-lu — S iibbala, ii. 334 f. , 24 1 L ^^^H 

277 ii. 

S!\ ti g' k in -h\ 1 e— SnngkMyti. ^^H 

K Sitrtigha, msvmWj, L 1S3 n. ; U. 63, 
f 16S n. 

8dtig-k'ie— S&Akl^ym iL 223 11. ^^H 

sdtif^-k^O'eh'a — MetHf/kahhiht robe« ^^^H 

«^tj%j»^na (jrwii;?), ii. 94 ti* 

Sii^g-kiiig, i« S3, 33. ^^^| 

Samka^yii (SJlng-kia-jsheJ ooantry, J, 

SajigUw&la-tibii, ]dtniUf^.€<l by Out]^ ^^^B 


(liDgbam witb S4kfilti, i. t66 n. ^^^| 

Satnraatlya (CUing-liftng) tcliool. i. 

Saikg ob if to vvn t nt bi; ?An j4b, i. 1 43 n. ^^^B 

2CO IX., 302, 230, 240 ; iL 3, 14, 

B^itig-fiban, i. 93, 27. ^^H 

m 44, 45i ^7i ifi6, 301, 361, 368, 376, 

1 2791 2«0. 

Scing-t«h— SAiiti r, i. 103. ^^H 

3aui-rAja (Slutn-nl-la-iibe), i. 135 a, ^^H 

Sii-aiii*JNb (SamajBrt ) cunvetit, 11.316, 
Sii^mo-kieii— Samarkand^ i. 32^ 34^ 


SAfij^vii— Sjingseita, j, 109 ti. ^^^| 


gjif^jayn I3lifi,-a>ie-yi9)--l'ili S^ifi^a, ^^H 

SJima Utfl , — Sumntata. 

ii, 175, i;8. ^^H 

SatjjptiU'iilf (S^u-|»o*&u), LadAkb, i. 

mntakthikd (saiig'kioki) robe, L ^^^H 

178 n., 199- 


mrnvday^ th« inoreaee or accam- 

Suakliyiv (S4iag-kre), Cb. .Su-Zufi^ ^^H 

muktit^i uf mistirj from piudioai^ 

xylite in r>f pLiUifiiipby, ii. 104, 323. ^^^H 

ii. 105 ti* 

S itkiaa— Kapitbo, i. 203 ii,, 204 ik, ^^^B 

Samvut era. I 106 n. 

2d6 11. ^^^B 

Srirnvdiji (Siiii-frt^fllji), n. 77 a 

Siin-ti!<>-ta-cb*j%— Snmat#»^ij ii, 11 a ^^^H 

5cm^Jt ^SlawiWdAi (iSan-Biixio-WJi- 

Santfipdtanikiiif&i il 164. ^^^B 

■ p'u^lih ii^ I22i 219- 

SamipiUa dMi uf bouk^, i. 80; ii. ■ 

H Satkt/idt^lbhiMat^mhfUaya ^4t- 

3 16 11, ^^H 

H Im 1 1 ^U 'pl-ta-mo-miiig-oiii ng^lun )^ 

Sal n - po- b i ', otherwise M i>- 1 -^q — Sam - ^^^H 

H i, TO - 113 n. 

paba or Lad&kh, L 17S. ^^^B 

H SaTtt^ulidbhidharma S'diira (TbV o- 

S'Ui-p'u-kia^ — Sambdgba Ayuabmat, ^^^H 

H pi-ta-iJiij-Uiu) ol DbarFu&trftta, i. 


H iia 

jtau^kdra (biog), ib 94 i'* ^^^^| 

■ Sajhtiuktdqamm {Tta'O'han^kina)^ L 

Sa<|nio^fiLa-ti^ — SiirpAufibad], i. 125. ^^^^B 

■ m 

Sa-prib — Sab<B.i[) merchaataf i, TC ^^^^B 

K JBpiaw Itfw-llo-kJ). bemp, 1. 53. 

Su- [ >*g«b *la' t'^i -al 'i*u^Sar virtbaEsid ' ^^^H 

^p'BlidbifiM (8biit1g-ilO'kU-fc>-e^>y nr 

dba, it. 53, 53, ^^H 

^" Ba^^T&sikii, patriarch or urbut, i. 

Sapupar^a cave^ i* 153 n. ; iL 156 ^^^B 

52. S3» »34ii- 


S4A(.>hi, sctiljitiireft, L 303 ti.; iL 87. 

S'at'add., fourtb of tbi mx ««aionHp i. ^^^H 



^iTii-kt[A — Sutr-kuiA^qrarfDW'WttUi ^^^B 

Saiigjeus (Sanjnyn), govettior of 

23 ^^^H 

TI<?i^*feXati7Ttr, i. 109 n. 

Sftraii, ii. 64 n. ^^^H 

H SuHgbabbfkiira (Stng-kia-pVto4d), 
B Chlo.Cbuiig-bin^l 160^ I93f.» 1931 
V t94i 195, 196 ; autbor of tb^ N^d- 

i'ai^na (i-kwai). il. 64 n. ^^^H 

SArui^arfltlm, il. 46 n. ^^^H 

Sarhiiid in tbe B^itndru con p try, L ^^^H 

f^uMdra S'dJitraf i. 1 6a 

I7Sn., 17911, ^^M 

t SaAi^bad^ i. 193 fL 

a-irik-kiil (PaD-to) lake, 1. 19, 13 ii.| ^^^1 

^L B3*A'{biid^v-Af traualatnr of ibs Ahhi- 
^P dkarmajMnupraillidna S'dMtrOf u 
^ 175* 

lu 29711,, 29911. ^^H 

SAriputra (Sbe4I^U«n>, Fnll, Sen- ^^H 

jur^ i. 38, 39. 69. 61: ^1^ S* <>. 7» ^^H 

s^Aghdrdma (oeng-kb^lan^p I 55 n., 

9- 10, 67, ISO, 1 54. IGJ. 175, 177 f., V 

74, 93, Ac. 

180. ■ 

^^^^^^^^5^ ^^^^^^mDEX^^^^^^^^^^^^M 

^^^^^V i^rtra {tht-U) t«lic2(, iV 6o, 66, loo, 

Sba-cfci, ^w&t cotifitrj of* h 41 

^^^^^^^ i6i; (livkkdp iL 39. 

^ia4iMtjAd {l(m-ahin~tho7vj]^ u 149 

^^^^^^^K B&rii4tLi ilisirict, it 46^ 4S ti., 54 tu 

ij„ 152 n,; li. 14311., 163* 

^^^^^^H 8iir|i.ttiabaflL (Sa*]>tit»~tih&Hi), SUe- 

itbadtiw, c^ivern of tbe, i. 94, 95, 

^^^^^^H ju CPUVfJ^tt 

*" sbftdow-cDTfrred "— uame of m t#tii- 

^^^^^^H S^rT&rtbn»tddba (Sii-p*o*l]Q-k-t^a-Bi 

pie, i. 47. 

^^^^^H t\0 "dimi^l, ii. 3S ti., 52, $%, 55. 

Sb-ibdberi, near th<? etippa»*d »it« of 

^^^^^H SArvAitltaiakldhH's iium (Yitj-t«'U-l- 

TaJiah«i!iIft, i. 136 II. 

^^^^H 254. 

SbadumuLt ^tltt-lu^ioo], llisiiir, 1 

^^^^^^H SnrvilrtliAJ^fildLia or S^mbdddhaim 

39 »^ 

^^^^^H (Yilj-tjiai-dii), ii. t6 p. 

Sbiibr-Siibi— Kpob. 

^^^^^^H SiLrvfbtivMa (Sbwo-yiU-Uai-jiv pit) 

Sbai-pau — atrouj; wrnamenf, ii, Bjn^ 

^^^^^H «<!biM>I, u 70; sS, 19, 24, 49. '^it 

SbftkhnilTi or Slngn&n (Sb)-ki-iii|, i 

^^^^H 174, 190, 192, 196, 224i ^^6, 250 ; 

41 n. 

^^^^H ii. tS2. 27^,278, 299, 300; B4r- 

Sba^lffb, perbapa for Su-kli— Elib> 

^^^^^^H TilftlvMn. book«^ L 155 n. 

gbar, i. 90, 

Sba.]ii— Saiii, A^uabmAt !J, 74, 

^^^^V rti*«^n'}. 124. 

Sbado*kir^, (hMibttiill^' ft*s|omi bj 

^^^^1 8NAieikii(Si>e^9bAti^kb), Cb. Tui^h, 

Julleii {Jiim.^ vnb li. fji. 43f|.;ojj) 

^^^^^^H king u( Kiai^]iauva.itiA^-Niir^li^ 

tti Shyri^kA " CbAnkar, 2ij^*^, 

^^^^^H dragviptNi I 210 tf 212 I ii. 43, 

1-57 ■«..5S V. 59 t»* 


Slia-io-li-t<>— SAliuibbii (f), il 75, 

^^^^^^^ Biit^uJrti {SbB-t<l-t^t-lu), ctiUDtrj on 

Sb/imbbit {Sbaug'uii) ci^utttrj, li 

^^^^^K tbe liver BMadm, L ijS. 


^^^^B Sa-i'A-ni-»bi-fa-lQ — &tbfii}«dvara 

gha-mi — ^irAiiutrigni. i, 9t, 


i?Aan— ,li/**r r&^ij, i, 79, ^_ 

^^^^^H &*ata^stimaipul^a (Kmng-jpih^ u 

SbaQg, iwwff of, ii. 325, ^^^M 


attfi rty ni td Aoi/i fi nff^ ttpdM yftj/Ok ^^^| 

^^^^^^M Siitiuj ill- ^HUdrii liver, i« 1G7 u. 

Sban-cbiiig— GidirmJH, il. ||S, ^| 


Sliang-kiivM— UlUniiidiiai i 126. H 

^^^^^^^H S&ttagudAi itf H«rodato!) (lib. iiL 0. 

>baiig-mt— SAuibl, iL 2^^?, 296. H 

^^^^^^^H gt) Hiid TliiLragiiaU of tbe mBcn|i^ 

Sb'-ui^-tiiu-kiit^SAeuiJw^i {jithifiilKl ^| 

^^^^^^^H tiojiK of lhiT]\iM^ j. 61 ti. 

Sba^niukbn), 1. lit. ^M 

^^^^^^^^ Saitildk^i, 

Sbivn-£iMo-4ii — S^itiarijrc H 

^^^^^^^^K^^ ^Littiipjinni CAve, i. 153 ''• i ^^» '5^ 


^^^'. I 

^^^^^^^^^^^H SAtUivfMJi or Snpt^iYArsba, L 6[ n. 

SbHu-eii, pruvifice, i. II. ^M 

^^^^^^^^^B Sj^utt &titika (KLug^pu) «chi}ub^ 1 1 39, 

SbeikbpLiDL billsw it jSj n«| 1S4 n. H 


Sbe*kie4o-^AkaH 1-^161 H 

^^^^^^^^^H ficbguU gf tbe Buddbistii L Sa ; 


Bbe-U-kio-to~'SrlgiipLiii, th I5r. H 

^^^^^^^^^^ iteiy&oniifrt/atvu)^ mXt 1. 7 1 L, 72 n. 

Sbi'-ll-ts^u— S&Hpitu^, iL 5, 6. 15a H 

^^^^^^H^ irti'-c7i ? u nfff ab Lh < t'a tnn it^r^ 1 , 96 u. 

«A^n (exc^ellerUl b^amei*, L 20 ti.^ J2^ H 

^^^^^^^1 Bt:i]^-km*pi»-t^O'lg — Si.^ Aghmbbjidrn, h 

54,61: ii. 37S. ■ 


*'*^Am — VSiiand^ U. 94 n. ^M 

^^^^^^H trng-Ha-chi^mn^hdli riibe. 

Sbeti-hieii — Subbadt^i, li JJ* ^| 

^^^^^^^L '' jemm^"," 3J6 

^Aew-iirci, peril (d, i. 84. ^1 

^^^^^^1 SStrdHb^a— Stitri&b^ri, i. 31 n*, 991 

,^heU'iifiif-t^on Stlha, ih 154 0, H 

^^^^^^^H mvKU Biuidbftfi; u. 26 1. 

Sbeii-tiiayi^ Sbm^-uia-kin— 4S4iii«kt H 

^^^^^^^^H seven Tii'^intalu mugei, I. 10. 

Bhrn-iumi:, outi uf tbe ** tlirev tuve- H 

^^^^^^^^H seven preueijua tbUif^a, L £oj. 

rttigTi*," J. 7 iw H 

^^^^^^^^ Ht?aa, i. 

«Ac-nu-X-T[j— ^fidLo. H 

^^^^^^^^1 Htveii tre'aBuri^ of a holy wbeel-kitigj 

Sben-piM:baLi^^atnbudvl[Ki, 1. 11 ti., ^M 

^^^^^H 74 

3^ I 

^^^^^^^H Bewi^t (Sb?>wer) town, ii, j a. 

Bbe-ee-^b'a^^reinhtbA uiatttli. ■ 

^^^^^^^1 SewUiiii, i^ 62 n. 

Stieii-ab*n, or LxstulaOf pmbftbiy t^m H 

^^^^^^^^^^^INDEX. ^^^^H 

H Ch«fcb«n fif MtLTGO Folo, i. 13, ShumAn (Su-maii), in MavArun- ^^^| 

■ 3i n., as apd note. 


^ Shen-tUe-je— Saftjjiyft. 

SLiiii, Ii d«fiCQrtr?Ant of Hwang-ti hi ^^^H 

Shen-ihi— SuiiattA, f. iT. SB; ii. 3. 

tbi) &i^'bth gf^neratinii, i. 2; OtJ@ ^^^H 

Skea-sbi— SwgEitaa, ii. ^13. 

of tbe tire kingi^ L 8 ti. ^^^H 

Hheu-ai, proviacp, u l2. 

Skttn *chituj'U' litn^N^dtfdnmdra ^H 

She-»hnng^kia— J^a^nka, 

^dstrti^ L l6a. ■ 

H SLe-Uhit'u4u— ^lUadm, > Shung-ll, lempl«, L IS. ^| 

■ ^be-w«i— ^rfivaBtl, J, 44, ifi ; ii, 3 ». 

«Auu7(», Ligb-fliivuured «plnt«, i ^H 

^ Sbe-ye-Hi-tm — J^yaafiiiAj ii. 146. 

S9 11. ^^H 

Sbie-tiii— J^ftfiibl f i. S3, 

Sij uii ■ t'o— CI 1 undoi ii. 32. ^^H 

Sbi-fti-kU— Jlvnka, li, 1 52. 

Sbu-t*o4o— Sfldra, ^^H 

Shiplmftn r^r SbakUu&n (Sbi-k'i-ni)^ L 

Shwo-jih-tAAi-jeoU'pu— tbe SarrAn- ^^^B 

41; it. 295, 

livildA Bcbtftol, i. t^i n. ^^^H 

Shih— Kakra, ii, HS* 

Srih'kdh (He -bug) muuhtama, i. ^^^H 

ahik — idki^apiitra^ nrl^, i, 11, 

91 ^^H 

^hjh-kia-fo— S&kya Biidrihu, ii. 145. 

Siam, ca^ed Dwftravntl, f, 200 n. ^^H 

Shi h *k i ;i - p u -axi — gilty a B6d U i«at ETd^ 

Hang—iahhana, points uf bt-nutj, ^^^H 

i. 102 n,, T45 n.« iSS 11. ^^^H 

Afan£^-'«am;^}ia, Ii. 94 0. ^^^H 

Sldi riTcr, L 12 tl; ib 304, 309* ^^H 

Sbikhtiftii(Shi-k^i-Tit), iLags. 

SiddhArtba^ 11. 22, 226 n. ^^H 

Ebi'k'i-ui— SbitcbnAn or Sbjkbnln* 

i^tddliavuttu (Sih-fun^cJiawf^ u 7S, ^^H 

Sbi"]fti-iia-fa-U— Hminjavatl river, 

»ih — rt?/ja, ii, 94 1), ^^^H 

ii- 32 "* ' 

Sih-t'an-chanff miA Sih-li-'pQ-t%*t&—* ^^^H 


SidtifuxvaUUj I 7S P. ^^^H 

$ki4i—daiaMla, iL 7 n. 

Sthdn river, Sjr-darja, L 30 n., ^^^H 

8hi-U-U»-to— SrlJabdhji. 


Sbi-lo - fa- n*— S riLv*n», 

MaAcxJlvf, a l««nier, i, 191 a. ^^^H 

Sbi4o-fa-ahi-ti— StAv»8t!, iL fp 

MffAyamilrra, ii. 36 n, ^^^^| 

Hbi-lo-jiu-tVlo — Silflbhacira, iL 1 10, 

dtida, five a.[id tea, 1. 47 u. ^^^H 


^llabbadra {Sbi-lo-pu-t^u-lo), KtJiI- ^^^H 

Sbi'l u - to-p*in -sL e - 1 i *k 11 -cb i -^ bro ta - 

bien, teaclier of liiueii Taiaug, 11* ^^^H 


no, III, 112, 171, 197. ^^H 

«Atn£r — a puitj !. 66» 

Snii'Htya (Shi-bi-'o-t'ie-toi Ch» ^^^1 

H Sbj-H^o-iihe-nii — ^iima^flriA^ "the 

Kiai-cbif HsLrHliAvnrdbAna nf Ka- ^^^^H 

H fit^Ul of tniijb^ for iiiying th*? 

nauj\ i, 2[0 JK, 211 n., 2tj, 215, ^^^H 

■ d^ad/' b fta 

2t6, 217f 2t8, ZI9-22I ; M. J70, ^^^^^M 

H Fhinff'i-tttt^Pftniindrlhasaty^ ^di- 

174, 19^^, 198, 23 j, 234. 235 (J. ^^^H 

" (rd, i. 109, 172. 

^liaditjH uf Ujjajitil, L ID» lu ^ ii. ^^^^H 

Shtn^'hiau-in-shih'lun^ i, 240. 

261,26;. ^^^^1 

8biTig*kwRD— PrrteAnnjit, ii. 2i 

Billdk^ib Vf . uf TnUbbl, ii. 267 n, ^^^^B 

Sbin^-lin — J^tavaua, i, 202. 

8i*1an-Bhaii — HilaA^ri, ii, 249. ^^^^H 

Sbing'tni — Srl^;at»tji^ li. 151, 152, 

8iba rirer^ |2 ii. ^^^^H 

H S^hiji^-minff—SabdavIdt/it 

H Bhingsbeu— ^ilUbdbi^ I 226 n. 

■ Sbing-tii, capital ftf Su'cbtieti, L* IC 

Nilkwomi s ti^^^, iL 319, ^^^H 

S'ilpiiMth4nai'idgd{KmuminyX t. 7S, ^^^H 


S h ing-y n n ^ Jtiii fitii v^h m 5 a» 

Simba (SA11L' km), BuddhUt pntri- ^^^H 

Slijii'tii — India^ i. 69. 

iifcb, L 119 i]«, 120 n. ; legend of, ^^^H 

Sbi-to-Jin^ Shi-to-yueii^ garden of 

2^6 f., 241 f. ^^^H 

Jdto, ji, 4 n., 5. 

Sithhak (Cbi-«ae-t0«u), ion fif Sim- ^^^H 

H ^bl-tVip — VAanbiindhit, i, 172. 

■ SlK»-kii4o-'o-t*ie-tu— ^kraUkiya, iL 

■ 168. 

1i}%, king ot Ceyli>u, i, [SS; ir. ^^^^| 

241 ^^^1 

Simba!3.(SHt]g-kia4o), Cf*ylf*n, i. 74, ^^^B 

Shu — Athari'ti'Mit^ I, 79» 

78: ii, r3i 1S3, 206, 22S n., 23; f., ^1 

thuh-imau — SK^ahueD peppAri ti. 365. 240 u,, 246 f., 24S f, ^H 

^^^H 360 ^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

^^^^^r Sithbftpura (Sang-ho-pii-ln), in the 

th« nZi^Milp^I^arB^ii/Hiiik «VJi- 

^^^^V P&Rjflb, i. 143, 144 ti.; iii lAlii, ii. 

(ftJ, L i6r. 

^ 24a n. 

8kitIM*uiiti of Bsid.iba, L 67, 96^ 97, 

^^^H nriJidmna {■ite'Utu*ehvang)^ lioii^ 

Sknil^bone TibAr*— Hldd*, L 95 «■ 

^^^^^^^ tbrone, L 75, 

Sif^^ai— SkythUoa, i. I^S n. 

^^^^^^K Simur or duuior, Zi/ii/XX<&p iL 231 n. 

Skjtbian inv»df?r»— VrTjjls, i 16. 

^^^^^^H vinopU fftaucft, uiustard seed, i. SS« 

Snowy Mountniiia (Him&lAYnB), i. u; 

^^^^^H Sin — S ill < 1 U ri ver. 

Hitidu-Ktifth.att, i, 49, 50, S2-S5> 

^^^^^H ^huUiu (Siu-tu), ItiduH river, 1. 30. 

% 901 13s. 143. <77. '99. "^ ^^ 

^^^^H 36, 102; 97, 114, ^3, 134, 165, 

So, 119,127, 15s, iSS? H^'l- rr 

^^^^H 172 ; ii. 272, 273 275, 276. 

Sno wy .rn< kmitaiij- uu'ti— 1 

^^^^^^H Bnighiil^ae imagefl uf BaddbAf i. 52 n. 

ZiaifTQt, SubbftVjjatU or > 

^^^^^^H SiDg'Biiti^hm— <)niig*isor or ** atony 

t 12a n.t 126 u. 


X^aPOT, Sushdmii, Suv&rna, '»r SubAu 

^^^^^^H Shi-t ^-h-ni — HfUlaifudlidrani, 

river, i. 145 a* 


Soudb, i. 34 n. 

^^^^^^M Siii-tu— Iiidui or Bindb ri\?er. 

Su-hiag — AcLira or As:hm« **«•;, 

^^^^^^H Sin-tti ciiuntry, 11. 235, 23a 

ii, 21S. 

^^^^^H Si-pi-ta-fji']ii-«]e— ^v^tivarmi. 

Sn^kin-tido— Skandhda, 

^^^^^^^H B£-po'ta-t:L — S^rvodatA. 

aoldiijrfl, i. Si, S7. 

^^^^^^H Sir-i'pu], 

So-ll — Chfila, ii. 249 n. 

^^^^^^H Slreoa, the, u. 24O n. 

So-lin-ten-pitn-teu-fa, "tit* prine* 

^^^^^H Sirmur ju North India, I 2S6 n. 

wlio iieizeB and bold^ €nulj/' XAw 

^^^^^^H SVWm, thn^ixTlj B«ui£L}U, U 72 n* 

of a king, i. 100. 

^^^^^1 Stt4 {^UUt), Z^riihhikQ river, i tz, 13^ 

Sana Kolivii-a and B^m Ku|ikA^n», 

^^^^H , iu 298, 209, 304,3^. 

il 1^711^ t89&.,254i]. 

^^^^^^^H SlindruB oi-SHtndru river, i. 17S n. 

Sduaka arbflt, i. 53 n. 

^^^^^^H SI U vana, C lu H m 4i n, ' ' (?u Id ioixiit,' ' 

SSnbhfindar, il. t$6 n. 

^^^^H 16$. 

S>rui3, tonii on the GA^gee^ i. aoi n. 

^^^^^H Si- to— Sic A river, u 90 n. 

Su - to- p*o-Uo— SAd V »h arAJji, 

^^^^^^^H Siun-ju, ]. 5 T). 

XovdifTot river, i. 126 d. 

^^^^^^^1 ^iTAdSvA^f ij. Si n. 

SphttavnrAs, JulienV restiiratluiQ of 

^^^^^^^H Siifi Jdtcikn^ 

Si'pi^to>fado<^Bse, i 61 D« 

^^^^^^^H Sivik:i HT Sibika-rAja (Slii^pi-klA], i. 

spha{(ktt {p'o-ehi), rock crraisL iL 


, 27S. 

^^^^^^^H Sl-^jiiig njii — Btilniftd^vt, L 113 rv 

Sraiintna fSbA^men), i. 69, 71, T« j 

^^^^^^^H six e^tniordinary «7euU (fu-Mi)^ 

S5, 09, &c^ 

^^^^^^^H tbc SIX n; ma r kabl 6 war a tmiiig«iij 11 

sratjiaiia'^ ctothtng, L 76* 

^^^^^^^H tbiit Cb 'ill -pi tig (i^tirt^d tg the irst 

^i:^Vj\, ^r&v/iatA, king, li, 1 is. 

^^^^^^^H Hauemp^rur (ac. ig^t by wliicLi 

^NSi'f^JLvi (ching-weii), a diBcipk, a. 

^^^^^^^H lbt» laitt^r bri> light the feud&i^ry 

^ 14^. 143' 

^^^^^^^1 prtQi:ea into subjection, u 2. 

SrAviifttI (Shi - lo* fa - nib - ti), in 

^^^^^^^^H fiix ^urtti, or fuur cnrdinnl pqjnts 

^^^^^^^1 wlili j^Knith and ntidJr, i. 8. 

Cliine*e Sb*d-wei, cily, t* 44. tfl ; 

^^^^^^^H »ix suporuaturU £4cuUiea, li. 143, 

I06> 2401 ii. 1, 3, 14 It., I&T1. 

^^^H '63. 

iriihfht {than^*thu\ uiercbatit cbief. 

^^^^^^^H Bu \\nyn of birth, 11, 214 n. 

ii. 125. 

^^^^^^^^H Si'^tt'kit lifvs&U-tu wnrld (sif« Hret^ 

Sdgiiptii (She^li»kta-to), in Cbiiie«<t 

^^^^^^^^H achDeider's iVciJ. 0/ jtfi'C^. (rctH/.^ [u 

Sbiug-tni^ king, i. 10; it. 1^1, 

^^^^^B 42), i. 

< "5^' 

^^^^^^H ^andhm, i. 161 n. 

NiiLiarthEi era^ i. 210 0. ; 11 Bt n, 

^^^^^^ SkandlmdhdHi'd^aniu (YunkmT- 

HHbatta^ Silhet dUtrict,iu 195 n. 

^^V king), i. 95. 

SrtkriUti{She-H-kt-li.tii-ti), iL 306 n. 

^^^^^^ ^tandkadfidfu - uptfsihdna SAtm— 

iSilkttbStra (Sbi4i-ch*»-tA-lc»K tu 

^^^^^^ft ( n en-ki^t-ch u khig)^ i , 20 r . 

Bnrnia, ii. 200^ 

SriiiiUiim (Shi-tUliuto), L 226. 


^^^^^^^^^^^ INDEX^^^^^^^^^^fii ^^^1 

ifltingftr, iti Kaj5m!r, u 158 n. 

Su^h or Srugbna (Su4o«k*iD-tia), 1, ^^^1 

^T^m^l 113. 


Sratdi'anna {S$U-o\ I 49, SL 

iuA — births, L 100. ^^^1 

Sruglin.1 (Sn-ln'k*in-TirtJ, or Suglip 

dtiA-nta/ — A faring wheat, L 50 t}» ^^^H 

di8tH*;t, i, tS6 L, iSjr 11. 

^u-hu-to--STiit, ^^H 

^ ru t«v iiii^^t i kdti t S 1 ii - 1 u - to-p* in-*h e - 

duicide, i, 33^, 334. ^^H 

ti*ku*t;KiJ Bh'ikiihiu Cbini^se Weit- 

^ui dynoAty, 581-618 A.R, i. 18; Sn. ^^H 

urU-pili-jih, ii, 187 f^ 254, 158. 

StikhJiTftU paradinr, i, 13411. ^^H 

5*c — YajuT-tiday i, 79* 

hiktft'pahtha ipe-feti), Hgbt fort. ^^H 

Sue-clie— MaitrAja^ if, 47. 

uigbt, I 71. ^^^H 

Sw-jeh-hu, a Turkish Kbiln, i.45 ti. 

Su-^a>aa<t*ang-oa ^ — Surastli&Da, iL ^^^H 

itafl* (reiigiou^), hikk&U or khitkkha^ 


ram, L gfi tj. 

^ii'h, aticifiiit Dome i>f Kie-alia, u ^^^^H 

Sili&iiMviir* {SirlVni-Bhi-fa-lo), it^ 

38 ; u. 306 n. ^^^H 

NurLberi] Iiidtih, L 183 f., 186 »., 

Stilt&iipiir— TfttntiimTiiTi^, on tlie ^^^H 


G6uidii river, L 173 ti,, 175 n., ^^H 

Stbttvim (Shaog'tao-p«) acbool, i\. 

177 t^ tSt n., 237 IK ^H 

24, 133, 164, 199, 229, 247, 260, 

8n ]u<k*it]-iifi— Smghua. ^^^H 

StLiraumtf (KiQ-bvrui) Stbii^'irn^ iL 

S^m,! (Sii-mo^aUe), a Naga, L 126, ^^H 

171, 268. 

Suuiana ar Sftratmap ^ dova, i. 126 11. ^^H 

■ioDe (metallio), Chineaa Uoushifi, 

^ouiSciha Bddbiflattva, I gi n. ^^M 


Stimfint, Muunt, L 10 ; IL 162. ^^H 

*t^, U SS n-i ^T " r Ac. 

Sn-mO'flh^^-SOLiniL-nii^^ ^^^| 

Sti-intii8 or Swat riVisr, i I09 n. 

Stin, lived under tbe E^iaterd Haua ^^H 

SuHhadra (Su-]Ki-t%-hj)^ Cbiueae 

, (25-220 A,D.}, L4* ^H 

Shen.hiftQ, i, 53 ; il 35, 36, 

i^utia, a apirit, i 62. ^^H 

SubhaT^tu (Sii'pVfa*iiii-tu)^ riTer 

Sunagir, ^utmhiri <jr Sutiagbtr (Sn- ^^H 

Id Udjitim, L 120, I2t n., 122, 

pa-bi4o) iiiountiati, L 62 ; iL ^^H 

ij6 i)», 135 D. 


Subbati (£5u-p'u*ii)j Cbm^te SIioq- 

Suiidi^rt, A courteaan* L 48. * ^^^H 

hieti, A <ievutt»e, i. 204, 205. 

SiirKgud, S^ja i>r Adityn, i, 275 ; ^^^| 

^id^ju» /(itoJta, i. T5 u. 

iL 274, 300, 30K ^^m 

8ud&dt (Su-ta D»}, id ChineAa glien- 

f^n-mnn—^Mtntin, L 4a ^^^| 

y\U Prmco YisviLntArap t. Ill, 

Bu uit<li-ahi-fu-!o — SfLnnH^vnra, ^^^| 


capital of Lni^gala^ ii. 277. ^^H 

Budftjitft, a Pmty^ka Biiddbi, i. 

Sun^-Yuni p)I(rrim| i. IG fif.i SI; hi« ^^^^ 

112 D. 

iiiisaioDp 81-108* ^^^^ 

Sudfttttt (Su.tA-to). i" C bin en* Sbcn- 

Su-p^u-fa'-Bu-tu — Subhaviia.u, L 121 ^ ^^^^| 

«hi, i, 44, 46, SB; ii. 3-5, 10; 


hill, i. 9T, 9S. 

Su<po-t*o*lu — Subbndra. ^^^| 

8 y dd J] AT Afla^ d^ v a {Tdn g-k l u -tioD ), 1 i. 

SiiprnbuddUit, fiitber of Haj^, iL ^^^| 

, 30. 1*4- 


g li d d bidina- rAj a (Tai ng- fan- waug), 

Bu^pVtl'SiibhdtL ^^H 

i, iT; it. I4'I7. 21-33, S^, 12$\ 

*S^4rdngawa SiSHt-a, i. 69 n.; iL f 10 ti., ^^^| 

151, 226 n* ; rutued police uf, 


i. 40. 

^fira^dua, Prin«e, it ll tl. ^^H 

SMm (StiU'tVlo) caate, L S2 ; u. 

Sdrafi^iiMka, diDlrkt, i. 179 G* ^^^| 

90, 272. 

SiirS^Utm ur 36rath (3u-la-cb'a), iL ^^H 

Su-fa-Ia-na-kiu-ta-lo — Su9arnag6t]i>. 

26S, 27a ^^H 

Bubin, Saabdma, Zt^a^oi r'irer, i* 

Suriu^tKiiiit (Su'la-fl&'t'ang), oapUA.1 ^^^| 

145 n* 

of Per!iiH, ii. 277* ^^^^| 

SnUrUitd^khii, a work, iL lOO ti. 

!^!iral, iL 102 n. ^^^H 

tugandhikd ric^* 11. Ss u. 

Surkh-iLb or Vakbsih river, L 39 h. ^^^| 

^^^H ■ugarH^aije^ i. t6j« 

Snrkh-ftb (Soutb) or Enndus ri» 1 * ^^^| 

^^■Ji^tt^a? {Siit*kia*t(i), in Cb. Bheit- 


^^V ahi, iL If 3. 

Stirkban rivflr, L 39 U. ^^^H 



Siirkli&r river, L 56 n.| 91 n. 
Sorkh-rud river, i. 56 n. 
Surkh-but, one of the B&mijftn 

images, i. 51 n. 
Sur-kuia~Sara-k(ipa, ii. 23 n. 
Stirpftraka, Sup&rA, iu the Konkan. 

i. 181 n. 
S<irya-d6va (Su-li-ye-ti-p*o) or Adit- 

ya, ii. 188,27411. 
Susfma, king, ii. 2 n. 
Su-ta — Stidatta, ii. 3 n. 
Su'ta-lan-t'tang — ^li^ ra Pi f oka, 
sUtras (X-m/), 1. 73, 80. 
Satra Pifaka (Su-ta-Un-t'snnj?), i. 

155; ii. 164; tuweni iu liuuuur 

of th<>, i. SS. 
Sutrishna (Su-tu-Ii-sse-na), L 31, 

32 u.,'100, 
Su-tii-li-8se — Sutrishna. 
Suvarnabhtimi — Burma. 

in Chinese Kin-shi, i. 199. 
Suvaatav&(ii, iL 281 u. 
Su-yeh, Chu or Chui, river and 

town, i. 19 ; 26, 27. 
SvAt (Su-ho-to), i. 31; 109 n., iign. 
SvdrAmbara Jains, i. 144 n. 
SvAtapura (Shi-fei-to-pu-lo), ii. 75, 

. 76. 

Siv^tdvaraa (Si-pi- to-fa-la-sse), i. 61, 


Sy&wuiih, the Persian, ii. 301 n. 
Syr-d.irja, SihAn or Jaxartes river, 
'i. 27 n., 28 n., 29 n., 30 n., 31, 

5>8, S>o» 93- 96, 97- 
S//chut*n (Shuh\ province of China, 
i. 10;mL 198. 

Ta-chong-pu — Mah^-«finghika school, 

i. 121 n., 162 ; ii. 287. 
Tadwa (To-wai), i.irtliplace of K&- 

syapa BiKidha, i. 48. 
T«g&<), valley iu Kapisii, i. 54 11. 
Ta-hia — Baktria, i. 37 n., 38 n. ; ii. 

222 n. 
Tai-Hau, Empress Dowager, i. 84. 
T'ai TsuTig, Emperor, sumamed 

Wen-wang-ti, a.D. 627-649, i. 

I n., 2, 6. 
takjihana (ta-t'sa*na), a measure of 

tiuif, i. 71. 
TakshasiU \Chu-ch'a-s»lii-l4)), Taxila, 

L S2 n. ; 136 f., 137 n., 138, 140 
n., 143 n., 145 ; ii- 302, 303, 309. 

Takaha^ilAdiy ii. 275 n. 

Taksha^irft, the *' severed head," i. 

Takht-i-Bhai, L 1140. 
Tukht-i-SulaimAn, mountain in Ka4- 

mtra, i. 158 n. 
Taki, village in Pafij&b, L 143 n. 
Takka (Tsih-kia), the country of 

the B&hlkas, L 164, 165, 166 n., 

167 n., 173 n. 
tdla tree-s il 184, 255. 
Ta-la-kien— T&likan. 
Talas river, i. 29 n. 
Tdlik&n in Badakshftn (Mung-kin), L 

42 n., 43 n. 
TAlik&n (Ta-la-kien), on the borders 

of Khur&^iLn, L 48 and note. 
Ta-li-lo~D&ril, i. 134. 
[ Ta-lin — Mahdvaua safigh^Hlma, L 
I 124. 
Ta-lo-pi-ch'a — Dr&vida, ii. 228. 
Ta-lo-sse — Taras. 
Ta/caXfnjf, Tanialitti or Timralipt! 

(Ta-mo-li-ti)— Tamluk (5. r.), li, 

200 n. 
Tftmasavana (Ta-mo-su-fa-na) — Sul- 

t&npur, i, 173 n., 174, 176 n.; 

convent, i. x8i n. 
Ta-mi— Termed. 
Tauihik, T&mraliptl, in Bengal, i. 

71, 72; III n.; ii. 186, 20a 
Ta - mo - kiu - ti — Dliarmakdti or 

Dharmagupta, a Shaman, i. 76. 
Ta-mo-po-lo-p'u-sa — Dharmapala, 

ii. 229 n. 
Ta-mo-sih-teh-ti — Termistilt,i.4i n.; 

ii. 292, 296, 29S. 
Ta-mo 8u-fa-na — T&masavana, i. 

Tamrah'ptl (Tan-mo-li-ti), iL 20a 
Tan-Chu, son of the Emperor Yao, 

i. 8 n., 10. 
T'auL', Einperor, i. 8 ; kingdom, 

i. 8 n., 9, 9 n., 16, 216, 217. 
T'ang(-ti) - Yao, one of the five 

kings, i. 8. 
T'ang Hiian Tsung, Emperor, A.D. 

7 » 3-756, i. I «■, 4. 
Tangut, Tanggod, tribes of Tibetan 

blood, i. 57 n., 58 n. 
Tan-mo-li-ti — Trunrabntf, ii. 186. 
Tan-ta-lo-kia — l)antal6ka, i. Il2n. 
Taiitra, writings, i. 155 n. 
Tao-ching, pilgrim, i. 23, 26, 31, 33. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ INDEX. 36$ ^^H 

V ^m>'TiittE» pilgrim, I 103, 104, 105 » 

three worldii, i. t n, ^^H 

^ loa. 

Tia^rav^i or ChanbtnjiA, kittg, ii. ^^H 

^^m Tap6bAn — TupUfii}!, "hot water/' 

270. ^H 


Tibet, L 135 11. : Littb, 1. IS. ^H 
T i be tAr\ i^— Fa n tr i he*, i . 17311. ^^M 

^^H Tftra (IVlo) Bd^lliifinttvit, L Qfi; iL 

^B 103, 174- 

TibeUii cauuibniitjiu, i. 14 n.; triUefif ^^H 

^^F^Ai-n* (Ta'li>~f«e], i. 19 ; 2S, 29 n. 

Tivnggtid, n 57 n., 58 ti. ^^H 

V Tftrftvatt, ii, 103 11. 

Tieb-lo^Timbbukti (Tirhtit) i. 91 ; ^^H 

Tarim 1 iver^ j, 13, 13, 35 ti. 

iiid laud i>f the Vi^jjia. i- 16* ^^M 

TaKrUr (IJtO |>ibi hn«, i. 19. 

T*wTi-cUn — Lidiflf i. 691 ^^H 

T^irUrF, i, lOS, 100, 108. 

Ti«D-kwaii— JMvAB^im, i, 191 11. ^^H 

TiflhUtid (SLj^kwo liiiii Che-abI), 

Tit;ii-LL--!EM!ra, J. I U. ^^H 

1. 19. 

Tifa-bwni — Gun;unati, ii. tji. ^^H 

Ta-thHin--Dak&bjfift (DtrkbAii) eimii- 

Tih-kwong — GunaprubliM, \. 191, ^^H 

try, I 60, S9. 

I'ilrida, TUadHkrt; or TilAra, (Ti-b- ^H 

Tchiiitt fur China temple, i. 19^ 

ebi kin) cottveutf ii, t02, toz ti., ^^H 

ten good qiialitietSf V 55. 

103, ^36^. ^H 

ivU'pow iff ^dambalii, iL 75, 

Tido-^bi'kia— TiliMl^ ^H 

TengbiK Ukt*, i. IS; I? n., 52. 

Ti'ti4-pit--DiimvA/ii, 178. ^^H 

ICfftt— a i£ji;a«wrH of ten pium, i. 

f^Wii^d {dan*t^ii-kia) fruit, i» 88h ^^H 

45 "^ 

ifTi-»»e — hirMiad4na, ii 96k ^^H 

l«iu-*Ot metallic tt^uie, i, 51, S9. 

Ti-p%j— D^TfL mdliiuttva, ii. 97, ^^1 

166, 177. I97p i9S; ii. 45 4^1 

2tO| 227. ^^M 

174 R. 

Ti-pV«i-nji— T)6m*ana, 1. 191. ^^M 

Termed (Ta-mi^, i. 38^ 39 n* 

Ti p'tt-to-t-t—n^vrtdattn, ii. 150^ 20T. ^^H 

Tc-rmiHtiit iTa-mo-aib-teh-ti), i.>bukU (Tit!h-!u), TirUut, j. 16| ^^M 

41 u- ; il :2Q:!, 296, 29S. 


Tsraa ('PiirHa ?), river and town, i. 

1 trt biika» ( VVal-tdi>), he relics, ii. 35 ti*. ^^H 

29 n. 

2S4. 2Sj. H 
Tj-!;bih^ijikra or Tiidra^ ii. 176. ^^H 

Ttitragdins, u 9?^ Tt' 

ThaikftD iir TdlikAn, j. 42 n. 

Tkb j>iT aksh it& (Ti * eM * l^ * i^b'.i ), ^^1 

Tim TaiiDg or T^j^i Tan tig, i^urnamad 

Becuud wife lif AAdkAf i. 14.1 u^ ^^^| 

Weti-Wfiiig-ti, Dmpenirt u 6. 

Ti-wei, tawti It the north- wtut of ^^H 

'J'U&kitri dymtst Vj ij. Si ii. 

B^lkh, i. 46. ^H 

Tb&ij^vurn, Sth^o^rara^ i. jSj u. 

Tiz-ib, affliii>iic of tbe YtsikbiQg ^^H 

i/taiig4ij treOj iJ. 2G5, 

rirer^ j. SO n. ^^H 

Tharekii«ttarft, lJnriii«e»tt form u£ 

To-cbiijg, pil^'rim, b 45, 71. ^^H 

Srlkshfitra, Dear Protne, u. 200 n* 

T4ka^ town, iJ. 255 n. ^^M 

TbntAgUishjnf tbeCuneif'uni UiRcrip- 

Tokbdri (Tu-ho^^^T To^apo^, i. zo il, ^^| 

tigua, tbe iSattHgudui i^f Hert^do- 

37 i\. ; Ii. 6z Li., 286, 287, 2S8. ^H 

toff, i. 6[ n. 

Ti»kUfiristdti— Tiik)»&rri, i. 37 u. ^^H 

hi — piTJ^hniTiirn^ \. SS. 

Ti>-ti, eountry^ — Viillej of Ta-li-lo of ^^H 

Tkteo-sin— Vrti*iibmiflbu, i* 105 11. 

Hiafin Taiang, DirdcauQtryi i. lij ^^| 

tiiirty-two maikfl ol a Buddlia, i. 


1 n. 

To-Ia^r&ra IfdUbiASttva, ii. tdj, ^^M 

Tbousand ipHugB— ' Myu-bulak, L 

174; ietnpk, b 96. ^^H 

37, 38, 29 n.| ii. 288. 

To-lu-|io>ti-- Uv^apati, iL 200l ^^^| 

tlin^e jtfWf U^ i. 50. 

To-im'ki<?-ta«-kia — DbmiakatakiiLt il ^^H 

iUrve pifakitu, ii. 75. 


tbree precicius uVijecta of woi^liipj 

T*uug-«bcii^ — Kninilriilabdba (^yitntlj ^^^| 

i, 70, 

received ')r b 139 11.; ii. 304 ; Jiliii ^^H 

tbi fett precitiUB uues, tb**, i. §4, 

BOdhisattva, iL 213 lu ^^H 

tbree s^icred names, i^ 79. 

tfpothj Bnddb»i'ri, i. 45, 67, 92i, ^^^| 

tiiree aoverei|;riA, thffn i. 7 n^t ^^ 

Too th-br n sb i«H n^ h ii^&mA, i, 6S. ^^M 

liirt:'^ Epi>^ripe. of kudwlelge, ti, 163, 

Inpiir or Topt?ra, uti tktt YatiuinA ^^H 

Uiree ni/^a*, ii. 75, loK 

]. 1^7 ij. ^^H 



T,i-wai— Tadwa, birthplace of KA- 
syapa, i. 4S. 

towns, Indian, i. 73. 
Tovini^, a Sliainan, i. 99, kuowledgu of the pre- 
cept^ i. 70. 
TravoffcriiiMS (To-l«»-yp-tenjr-ling- 
she) heaven, i. 80/89, 40, M; 
202, 203 n. ; ii. 4, 69 n., 87 u. 
tzves. i. S8. 
tree o: i\i^ father in-law and of the 

*i>n-iij-!.iw, ii. 83 II. 
Tritliida*Ss'»a, ii. I n. 
tri'jrams^ :. 7 11. 
Tripital-a (S.ii.t'sang), L 6 ; iL 164, 

247 n. 
TriL>:takdch&r\-a — Hiuen Tsiang, 

t. 2. 
tri •Mir^.imi. ii. 168 n. 
tririiijf-Jt — tli reef old knowledge, L 

IC5 :\, 142, 152 n., 163. 
T^Lan Ash than tti, or Khadatu- 

lui.ik. t«»\vn, i. 13 n. 
f^M-<'4'J— l'»Aa/ia, i. 71. 
Tsaii-k:u-ch'u — Tsaukiita country, 

ii. 125. 
2*f •(- V/)«-fa-mo-/un — Samyul-tdbhi- 

dharma S'dstra, i. Iia 
r*»(-r(-/i— KsbattrijHs, L 82. 
r»i filiate fruit, i. 8S 
T«>iuk^ta (Tsu-k«-ch*a or Teu-li), 

i. 62 ; ii. 125. 282, 283. 
Ts^'-s}'!— Maitifiya, ii. 119, I43. 
Ts<?-li— M.iitril.ala rAja, ii. 213. 
Tst-u-ho cimntry, — probably Y&r- 

kiiid, i. 14,27. 
TVii-n.t— Kshunadfiva, ii. 284. 
T>J' -ivu — ancit-nt name of Cbo-kiu- 

k'.a, ii. 307 n. 
T-iiii-kii— T.ikka. 
T>i:i n-^-k iT»«ih-shih-8ban), i. 13. 
r«. 'Air'l'n—TaUiHitaflchaya ^dt- 

ir-i, i. 162. 
T<.\ X :v -t China, ii. 198. 
TV'u o.vr. t'Stv. i. 216, 217. 
TSi ti :i:vi, i.' 25, 29. 33. 
Ts4M • cirn^ • kio - sban — * mountain 
■.fjki;t!^ to perfect intelligence,* ii. 
il; •». 
T^ .»; like — lasyk-kul or Temurtu, 

•. 19 : :i5- 
»Vnj:-wi -i'. f«'wn, i. 18, 83. 
>f ly-.'U Punt/oi^iihl. i. 214 n. 
?vi»i;-:».M — Btiilvaviv^ka, ii. 223 

<\il^.:u totnple, i. 18. 

TsinR-t'u — ** pure land ** section of 

Buddhists, i. 227 n. 
Taioh-Ii (Feuu-tlioti) {Mgoda, i. 103, 

104. 100. 
Tsi-nhi — Sorradata birtb, i. 124. 
Tto-ht\ Tso-la-hia, i>eriod of res*, 

, i- 73. , 

t go-mo— kthauma, i. 75. 
Tso-niob — city, probably the Ni-mo 

of Hiuen Tniang, i. 80. 
Tso-tu'ze, i. 90. 

Tsui-shiug-taeu — Jinnpntra, ii. 275. 
Tsn-ku-ch'a or Tsu-li — Taaukuta, iu 

282, 283. 
tiunff — light green, i. 52 n. 
T'siinir-linL' mountains, i. 14, 10. 17. 

29. 89. 93; 5, 25 n., 37, 41, 56, 

119 n.; ii. 2S8, 290, 297, 299 u., 

Tsti-tsai — iBvara, an author, i. 1 12 

Trttl-tsai-t'ien — t^raraddva, ii. 233. 
Ts*B'-li — Maitribala, i. 127. 
Tu-fan — Tibet, i. 199 n. 
Tuh-kiueh — Huns, E-ostem Turks, 

i. 88 ; 20, 28, 30, 37 n. 
Til lio-lo — Tiikliftra country, i. 37 ; 

ii. 62, 63, 286-289, 291, 292, 296. 

302 n., 325. 
T'ui-fan — " sending - back - the- 

crowd '* stdpa, ii. i ^3. 
Tukatu (Tsu-na-bi-lo?) mountain, i. 

62 n. 
Takh&ra (Tu-ho-lo) country, i. 29 ; 

37. 39 n.. 49. 50, 54, ^S^Usi : »'• 

62 n., 63, 2S6-289. 291, 292, 296, 

302 n., 325. 
Tu-kiueb— a Turk, ii. 285, 286. 
Tulakiichi, ii. 2 u. 
T'u-lu-h'o-po-tu — Dhruvapata, ii. 

Tnn-hwang, town soiith of the Bn- 

Iniighii river, i. 12, 13, 15, 24 n., 

25 n., 84. 
Turf.iii (Kao-chang), ca]»ital of the 

Uighur ct»untry, i. 13; 17 n. 
inrqxiaus — hor-^es, i. 20 n. 
Tiiriva, satrapy of Baktrin, i. 37 n. 
Turks, i. 37 n.', 38, 40, 45 ; ii. 28S, 

290, 296. 
Turks, Ki.^tern (Tuh-kiueh), i. 80. 
Turk Kb&n. i. 39 n. 
Turkhira (Tu-ho-lo), ii. 62. 
Tvirkistftn, town of, i. 28 n., 29 n. 
turmeric {yo-kin), i. 120 ; ffi-chu^ i. 


INDEX. ^^^^^^^si^^^^^^H 

Ttlr or Turiii| u 37 n. 

U|tili (Teu-po-lt), 1, iB; iSo, tSi; ^^M 

TuBbAm or Tukiiara, L 37 n. 


l^jahjta <Tu-»i-taj bejivc-j^ u 2ft, 7S ; , 

tipdwU'^i^ (it>^o*«o-Z'Mt), pure m^o, k ^^^B 

134, 15s, 191, 226, 227, aaSu,; 

33; Bl ; ii. 146. ^M 

li. 335. 

updiiiA {ii'po-a»e'km)t a ky di4Gi|»1«, ^| 

TuftU Kurgban, a 299, 30I. 

i. I II n. ■ 

UplAu (U'pi-iia), cupital of pAiiu- ^_^B 


RiliA^m, m 2S5. ^^H 


E/.;fO*£i.Mo^{'>jc/^ ^ijrjm, I 155, ^^H 

iirna — bair drde, ttipknot, L i 11., ^^^H 

U-cHA— Och kipgdum, lu aSS. 


U'cu'ii— Udra iiF Oriisa* 

tTrniia (Wu-la-abi), Uni^t, 'Apira or ^^H 

U-i.*ii:n>g ^^r U-cbatiLr»nR^UdTftTi*^ 

O^^z/^Ts^ 111 HazAra, i. 147. ^^^H 

1.89/93,9^99,101,109; uS. 

UriLtiiib^ UriLttppM, ur Ur^^tape^ t» ^^^| 

Ufibb, ii. 265 H, 


U-eki*yett— Cjiyann, iL 72* 

Uruvtlva, su 46 d, ^^^H 

■ jiiuil, (. n4, iiJ^, 135, 

■ tIdRyft, u. Ss 11. 

Uravilv^K&Hyipit (Y«^u4&u-p'iu4o^ ^^^| 

kia-ahe-uo), li. 130, J3U ^^H 
Hmrt — pe-haa^ biiir circlo^ i. i» ^^^H 

Udnyiigtri iu OriaWL, il 205 n., 237 n. 

UrtHk-ittil moautainSf L 2J t)«, 39 U. ^^H 

Udij*aft (U-t-^-yen im|, Qu CIju- 

U'flba— Ocht ii- 304. ^^H 

Vi, king of Kuambt, i. 90; 33s j 

U-abe-yen-iia— UjjiLyint, it. 270. ^^^M 

y, 4. 32^' 

UdiijiUv-ii, ii. S5 n. 

lik*) a. bitua luaf, i. 96; ii, 249, ^^^B 

Udayibliadni, it* 2 ti. 


U^iU (U^tMxj), kiDg uf Kortli ladla, 

Unb^Lurfan, town, i. 24 tu ^^^H 


U^lnara^ kiii|^% i. 125 n. ^^^| 

Udr» tU-ch'fl) or Odta, Oris«&, ii. 

U^lrsj a ttjuut]itiuu in Ku^mlr, 1. ^^^B 

204 f. 

'34 n. ^^M 

Udru R4miipuink (Yuu-tan^UD-tseu 

U-ia-to-'an-tha'Ch^a—VlU^rS^h&dhA, ^^H 

or U-U»u-laii'l*eu), iu 54 »-i 1 39, 

motitb, il 15. ^^^H 

140, 41, 142 ti. 

U'U-lu-tii-ti«i^ — UttAr^K^'^a, i. 132, ^| 

tidaiiihara (wu-t'ati-po-lu) fruit, fig, 

U'Uu - liiti -tuo u — Udr<i- HA rnApvi tro, ^^^H 

1. SS, i6i. 


Udjiiw, wr Ujj^tiA(U-o!iang or U- 

Utkalij O^rn ur Ori^a, il 204 n. ^^^H 

cbaiTg-tia), 1 16, 30, 89, 93: 95 >!■» 

U^e<)'kia-h4i]-di*A*-U^kb&n4i. i ^^H 

IlS, U9, 120 lu. 126, 131, 134, 


149; ii^ 21. 

U-Ui-yen-na — King Udtvyaim of Kau< ^^^H 

tib-pq, II m^hi, L 00. 

iimbl, it. 322. ^^^B 

Uigtiura (Uu) [wuijle, ij, 302^ 326. 

UtpnIA Hbikiihtinif trat)aftjrmt;d into ^^^H 

UjaiD Yili^f;«, t, 199 n. 

a Chiikmvarttid king by Buddlia ^^^H 

Ujiywia lU-chi-yen), li 72* 

i 40, u, ^^H 

Ujj4na for Uiiyiua, i, 95 u., 

UtptdHV^LniA (Un b^a-aih), a Bhik- ^^H 


&hnnl, L 204, 205. ^^^B 

UjjatitA or UjjxiyjiQta {Yuh-oben- 

UtrtUiJta— Siitrijabtia^ ^^^H 

ti}), GLfti&r hill, il 269^ 

Ottari (Wu-U-lu)^ lui Arbat^ ii. ^^H 

UjJ'^yint (U-abu-yeti'tm^ iL 251 ti., 


270, 271. 

OttunuibarmaDrD1iartn5tt44ra, fouu- ^^^^1 

iinMievi-r* {u^Uim\ 1". 91 u. 

der uf the Sjiutr^ntika ngUtioI, i. ^^^^1 

UpadSia ^dttra { ir^fAt-tuifw), I 1 55. 


Upidb^Ayti {ihan(f aud /io^«/ia/ii;)| li. 

Uturu. Kdflila, ciHintry, ii I n, ^^^^| 

169 u. 

£ £tiirt£«an^ (Yu*to4o-B4t4g'kia}i i. ^^^| 

UpagupU (Ya-po-kiu-to), in Chinese 

47- 9 

^ KiU'liii, &iid JapAiteae Ui'a-kikta^ 

Uttari^^nR (U-tA-lo-ui-na), Cbp ^^H 

^b foiirtb fiainaroU, i. 1S3 ; iU SS i^ , 

^Hftiij^-kinn, kirig i^f Udvirta, i« ^^^H 

■ 89 u,, 9i, 273, 

17; I2&, 127, 131, 132, 133. ^^M 



Uttarft-shadha (Uta-lo-'an-slia-cli'a), 

month, ii. 15. 
UUardyana, uortheru march of the 

sun, i. 71 n. 
Uzbeks, i. 49 n. 

VaibhAua hill, ii. 1*5 n., 156 n., 

181 n. 
VaibbiUbika sect or scbool, i. 105 

n., ixou., 139 n., 193, 194. 
yd'pulya-parinv'vdna SUtrUf i. 71. 
Vairdchana (l*i-Ju-che-ua), Arbat, i. 

87; ii. 312. 
VaisAkha ( Fei-sbe-k'ie) month, u 72: 

iu 33, 122. 
Vaisa KAjput-, i. 209 u. 
Vai^lt (Fei -slje-li), country and 

city, i. 62, 63, 64, 66, 78 ; ii. 66, 

67, 68 n., 69, 70 u., 72,73, 74, 75. 

76. 77, 81, 97, 98, 160, 164 n. 

165 n., 166. 
Vaiimvana-deva (Pi-sha-men) Ku- 

bdra, i/l*; 44, 45, 59, 191 n.; ii. 

Vai^ya (Fei-she) caste, i. 82, 89. 
Vaiaya, perhaps for Vaisa, i. 209 n. 
vaUrakaf a twig, i. 68 n. 
Vajjis or Vajjians, ii. 66 n., 68 n., 

77 n., 78 n. See Vrljjis. 
Vajra (Fa-8he.lo),ii. 170. 
Vc{jrachrhhidikd, i. 204 n. 
Vajra dht/dna for VaircuamddJii, ii. 

Vajr.vpiini (Cbi-kin-kang) — Indra, i. 

62; 12*2; ii. 22, 36, 225, 226; eight 

Vajrapanis, ii. 22. 
Vajrapdnt dhdranX (Chi-king-kang- 

t\>-lo-in), ii. 225. 
Vajra samddhi, ii. 1 14 n., 1 16, 219. 
vajrd^^ana {hin-hangUo), iinperisli- 

whW throne, ii. 114, 1 16. 
Vakh-sh i.r Surkh-al) river, i. 39 n., 

41 n. 
VAkkula or Vakula, a Sthavira, ii. 

190 n. 
Vakuhi (Po-khu-lo), a Yaksha, ii. 

Vakshu (Po-t'8ii), Uxus river, i. 12 ; 

ii. 2S9 n., 292. 
Valabhi (Fa-la-pi), i. 16; ii. 266 f., 

268, 269. 
Vanihu Mihira, i. 202 n.; ii. 2CX> u. 
Vaiaha temple at T&mralipU, i. 

Ill u. 

Varand (P'o-lo-na) river, il 44 n., 


Varana or Vaniu (Fa-la-na) district, 
ii. 281. 

VAr&nasl (PVIoni-sse). See B&- 
udras. . 

VarasSna (P'o-lo-si-na), il. 286. 

Varsakh river, in BadaksbAii, i. 42 n. 

Varshds [Yu-ahi) — rainy reason, i. 
72 n. 

Viisauta — spring, i. 72 n. 

VdsaradaUd, ii. I n. 

V&shpa (Po-fu), ii. 55 n. 

Va^ibha (Pu-8bi-p*o) sangh&i^ma, 
ii. 195. 

Vaiiuiapuraor Baluiapura, Reinaud** 
reatoratioD of Pi-cheD-p*o-pu-lo, 
ii. 272 n. 

FoMd, season of retreat, ii, 161 n. 

Vasubaudhu B6dhisattva (Fu-su- 
fau-tho), in Chinese Shi-8hin-p*u- 
sa, Thien-sin or Shi-si u ; author 
of the Ahhidkarma-kCtha SdUra : 
sometimes called the 20tli Patri- 
arch (BoydU Ndga-ut^\\K\tLj pp. 
62, 63, 67), L 9S, X05, 108. 
no n., 120 n., 160, 168 n., 
172, 191, 192, 193-197. 225-229, 
236 ; ii. 262, 263, 268 n. 

Vasumitra (Phq-shu-mi-to-lu), iu 
Chinese Shi-yu, i. 105 u., 109, 
1 10 n., 154 f.; ii. 26S u. 

vatsara (»eu), • year, i. 71. 

Vaya Rtshi, i. 209 n. 

VSda t'i'dstras {Fei-Co), four, i. 79. 

vidana (s/teu), ii. 94 n. 

vehicles, the five, i. 79 n. 

Vengi, probably Vmgila, ii. 217 n. 

Veimvana (Chu-lin) vihalra * bamboo 
garden,' ii. 43, 1 61, 165, 1 88. 

Venus-mountains, Fensberg,ii. 225 n. 

V^58antara(Pe-lo), Pnnce Suiiruja, i. 
17,93; 112 n. 

Vissantara jdtaka, i. 17, 98 ; 213 n. 

Vibhdshd (Pi-p'o-iho), ii. 307. 
Vibhdshdpraka ranajxtda Sd*t ra^ 
{ Chung ssefdn-pi-p^o-sha)^ i. 161. 

Vibhdahd SYistra {Pi-p'O'Sha-tun), 
coujpoHed by Manorhita, i. 105, 
XI7, 153, 191, 192; cominenUry 
<»n, by Pfirna, i. 162. , 

Vib/idslid ,S'd8tm, of Srilabdha, L 

Vichavapura, Julieu's restoration of 
P'i-chen-p'o-pu-lo, ii. 272 u, 

vidalor, leafless, i. 68 n. 



66 n, Sm Yue-chi, and iL 37a 
md^f Itc {tidny) : J^aMuvidtfdt 
A^lfdim&vidifdt Chihitsdv idijd , 
Mi^Vidsfdt »Ti<i SilpaMlidnavidi/d^ 

YidydmiUi'afiddhi *y<lptm (Hci*c/ii- 

/mii)i, of VJiKiibaudhiif i 136^ 
Tiykra« in N#dl» i* 74 d- 
Vf jajft of CpjIuii, ii, 236 ti-t 239 " J 

240 n»; aiicestoru of, i, 108 u. 
Vij4J^ll^agll^aln, u I4 ; ii. 207 n. 
TtJAyMaiubbnv.k, kmg of Jihotiiu 

(T.i-yuO u 8T n. 
VijMttakdffa .i'dMtra (Shib-Bhin4ujO, 

i. 240. 
vtJMna (cAi), iDtdlfgetioCi iL ^ in 
Vikramiilitya (Cfajuj-jih) nf Sri- 

T&«t1« i. 106, loS ; tL 1 ti, 
Vikntnigditya Har-iliEi of Ujjayii)!, 

i, 106 n. ; ii. Si lu, 137 lu 
Tikratiifltlttya, Wedteni Chalukjtt 

king, i. 213 u. 
YikrtUvaiidl (iiaMin) Bafigbilrftma, 

L 162. 
VLtualaklrtti (Pi-mo-Io-kifl), ii- 6S. 
Vimi^aliHti SiUra (Pi-mo-lo-kie- 

king) ii. 67. 
Vinj«i n m i t m ^ Pi^ mn-l o- mi 4o-lo)^ i n 

Virobiw&ra, ii. 102 n.; tea Bimbi- 

trimSkthas, tbe eight delif^ranoea, 

L tcH i^'i 149. 
i?lml (kung'beu), lute, i. 141 n ; 11. 

189 fJ. 
Finaya Uiu), L 23, S8, 39, C4, 63, TO, 

79; 5S D., So, iHl ; ii. 40 li., 

Viuaya beboolj^ ip I2t. 
Finaya rtAAii^/rfS *?ik(T™ (PU-nahi^- 

pi-p'&-4ka-lun\ i. 155. 
Viigila{ Piiig-k'i-lo), probably VeAgi, 

enpital of Aodbra, Ii. 217, 21 S. 
VipMl (Pl-]>n-abeJ or VipAt river, 

*T^airtt nf Arrittu, 1, 165. 
Vipiilttgiri (Pi-pu-Jtt) ii. 155, 158. 
YtraMini (Pi-lo-flban-tiH) in Nurtherii 

Indiii, L 201. 
Vir4tii or BairAt, town, i. 179 n* 
ViTft4h»kfl<Pi-Jii-t*fs-kia),iii Cbiueftt 

Liu4i, kmc, I iS^iO ; 12H, 156(1.; 

ft. It, 13, 20. 

Viwiklia (Pi'ftu4;inl, d «tnct, i. 23^. 
TiMkbi (Pi-flbe-k'ie), Ji. 10, ft; 
chapel ill Mi>tber, i. 40 tt. 

VisnU Eajn» iL 66 11. 

ViMvaatara, ViiiVeiiitdra, or Vd»=:Mi- 

tiUti —Prince SudAtia, I U2 u. 
VitoAlfl river, 14S «. 
Vflliadflrftm% ii. 62 n, 
Vfljjia Of Vajjia (Fo-li-sibi), SkyrliiftU 

iiivattifrHj i. 16, 108 u. ; ii, 66 li.j 

70 n., 77, Si n., 83 i»,, 236 (i. 
VrUTwst tbe nine, i. 1S6 lu 
^'vultiirff, the peak of ibe,*' ii. 47 t>» 
FyiJXdrajyrt {ChiTtff-ffim^4vin} o( PI* 

Tiiiiif i, 114. 
Vvil4 (Pi-ye-«>), CU, Kwartg-pii, it, 


Wagesh, riTer, i* 40 n, 

Koi — deatb, ii, 163. 

WairAgafb, ii. 209 n. 

Wjii-iao, tiiiUelievtii »-^T!rtbiikiifl, v 

91 n, ; iL 35 n., 2S4. 
WiLkb&n (Ta-uio*flib'teb-ti?)^ i. 42 ir, 
Wjikhftb (Hn-uba), i. 40. 
Wakbahab t>r Surkhab river, I 41 11. 
Wnng-6b<j-cb'ing (BAj igrllM), ii 4j 

u,, 46. 
WnU'i, auburb of Lo^ang, L Ifl, 


wuabini^ Ita^iri of Bujldhn* i. 45, 
wati {varthd$), i. 53 u,, 58* 
Waylj(ind or ObiT>d» Udi>kli4Hd;i, 

eajdtal of Ortiidbiifa, i. 135 u. 
weapons, i* 83 u. 
Wei dyn#i*tj, Grt^at, i* 15, 84,94, 91, 

B9, 101 'f country, 86 1 i»iitgtmge, 

04 ; Tartar tribe, 84 n. 
Wen-k iai* chu- kifig — Ska n dk mlh d tt*- 

upaathdna Si^trOf i. 201. 
Weu-lio — MucbhibndEi, ii, 4I' 

bbikebu, Ii. 137 n,, 254. 
Wealem tjountfiiji (Riyti), 1. 84* 
Wetierri lU^t ^^^ Taiigut klngdoui, 

i. 58 ju 
West-em pnrodia<f, iL 225 n* 
wheat (Mpriiig) {tuk-mtti} L 50 11. 
Wbite Ulepbutit pabict — |>erbnp& tiie 

PJliiB&ra stftpj* of Hiueo Tuinttii;, 

i. lOi. 
Wbito watifr or Peb-ebwui, towuj 

i. 29. 
WiiiJbA^i^t hi 111, ii. 214 tt. 
Wi-aing-yuu— AjAta&atm Hlj«, tLi 

> WlUOB, L ^ 

^^^H 3^ ^V 

^^^^^^H Wumrn, coaiiti7 of Wesbenii 

Yaoii-t?iin, period (i.R 406), L tT, 

^^^^B ^0,279. 

Yarkfcud, probably Twu-bo rif*ir, u 

^^^^^^M vrorlds (tUausaKid)— chUiDeoam* 

27 », ; iL 299 w^ 307 n. 

^^^^f vfmng, I 

Yarkung (Cha-kiti-kia f), iL 307. 

^^^^^K Wu-chaug— Udjrioa oc^tmtrj, L 30. 

Ya^ aon of Kann, ttU Arlial, L 53 n. 

^^^^^K Wu^cliu^ **witbuut altacbmeai'*— 

Y'aaadii Ayiiibmat (Ye*fibo-tV), ii 6? 

^^^^^^^H Aiui6i^if L 226 n. 

^' 74* 75* 

Yashtivaim (Ye^B»e-chi4iii), ii. 145, 


T46, 147^ 

^^^^^H Wu-Uio-'AriiiitA, i. 152 ti« 

YaAMharA (Ye-alm^tVb), wife of 

^^^^^^H Wu4 or Wu'ki } kiagdoiii of, i>«rbnri« 

Buddbii, li S iL. 17, 

^^^^^^B ■Aixiu AM KiLrahiirj i, 13, Si n., Zi. 

jffitw, bread tU yf a iiarleyoorii, i 70. 

^^^^^^m Wu'jtih-no>cli'it iti TibtiUti Mii-droB 

Yaviinu (Ye*tn*.Mii), it, 236 n. 

l^^^^^^t — AnttVatapU l^d, ii. 6^ 155 iiud 


year, mttara, i, 71, 

^^^^^H Wu^kan-ti'^uti— the bwe«t li«U, I 

Yell rivtfr — tin? Syr-darya, 


Yeh-Lu— Kiiin of ibe Tnrk% i. 45 

^^^^^H Wii-kij i^ame ai 'O-kl-ni, L tp 

ftiid nut«. 

^^^^^H Wul:i<ahl— UriL^ 

Yellow Hvrr, L 13 n,, $7 n*. 173, 

^^^^^^B Wii-fthing, ** invindbk," — Himiij&- 

Yeii-eb*iigt L 8T. 

^^^^^^H VAtI Hver, li. 3a n. 

Yen-mo-na-cbeii — YanifttmdTtiHi, 

^^^^^H WLi'tjL-Io— Uttam AfhAt, il 227* 

Ye-pa-kin-to — Upagu pta. 

^^^^^^H tPii ^lan jH>*(43 — ^ud umb4ta f r mt, fig, L 

Ye- J Kid 0, ctnmtryi L 99. 


Ye-jKi'ti— Java, or pcrbapa Sntiutnp 

^^^^^H «rw-<*i£— dtu, cut, I 146. 

i. SL 

^^^^^^H VVu-yang} tuwn, i. 11^ 

Yerkiang river, i, 90 n. 

^^^^^^H Wu^ jau utid Wu-yAu-^vang— A^ka^ 

Ye^Ue-t^o^Yaiada. ii, 74* 

^^^^M ii- 45. ^ 

Ye^tha — EphthiditL^a^ Ts»rk trili-% 

^^^^^^^H icu-f/ii-ni-pan — uampltite nirvdmx, 

Htjna of Byxntitirje writera, L U, 

^^^^^H f6l 

IB, 90, 91, B2, 100, lOl ; 37 n, ; 

royjtl Udip» fif, u 9L 


Vfi^jili— BAlUditya-rAja, i. l6S a. 
Yeu-kiA-licv iL 32 ti. 

^^^^^^B Tajur-vMii^ [Sk), i. 79 |]« 

Yeu- i eu - p*i n -hi - kia-ajje-po— UmvilTi 

^^^^^1 Ynkkba cUdtiyAni. IL 6S n. 

Kiijapa, ii. 13a 

Yeq-pci4i— UpHii, L tSo; iI, 164. 

^^^^^^H YakkUinlji, iL 236 n. 

V 1 h -cbeu — B b ftek ara TarmL 

^^^^^^B Yiikjil4a\Wi:}ug, u 99 £ 59, lion., 

^^^^^H 127, I53f 156; a j6d., 190^ 191 ; 

virtliaHiddhaf iL 16 n. 

^^^^^^^B ft^ii by MuitribnU n&j&f iL 21^ 

YiU-Uai4'chnng— SarrirthawadK 

^^^^^^^r TakabftkfTiy&a of Kaimlr, i. 156 n^ 

a 52 n„ 254- 

^^^^^^^B Ynuiii-rUJA, iatemal king, k 64, 

^^^^^^H Yam an 4id¥ ] 1 ta or Ya vilti Ad vt pn ( Yen* 

^^^^^^B mu-ua'cbtiii), coimtrji ii, 2001 

16 n. 

^^^^^^H Yamgdri in B^vdakiib&ti, probably tn> 

YiQ-kwong-pu — Uifl Kdi^plya 

^^^^^^H pu-kiti, L 42 11. iL 291. 

8Gijr>i>l, L 121 u, 

^^^^^^H YmiiiJtiA (Chmi^niu-ua), rivL*r, L 1S7, 

mn — pTiDeiplf? in utnmomj, i fu 
Yo-ciaa— Yakflhfc, 

^^^^h i»& 

^^^^^^H jfuwj — priuolp]« in Aatrg&(»my» i 

Yaga (Y'u-kia) diftciplinf, ii, 230. 


YagAub&ra acLno', n, IQ% ti. 

^^^^^^^H Yaug-oUov^f town, L SS. 

rdgdcftdryet STditrm f ru-^ia-ite-l^ 

^^^^^^^H Yatigi'biAgar, according to Ktapmtbf 

/tt»t, i, 32^ 

^^^^^^^B equal U> Tfl6ti-hi», L 14. 

T&jdeMrifitbhdmi SdMirA {Tu-kiA- 

^^^^^^B Ynng-klu^lUtiiO'lD— Aiiguiiiuilja, 

tK-tUun), iL 220. 275, 


rCifdchdri^itbhUlmi S^ditra MtOm, oI 

^^^^^^^1 laug-lu mountainB, L 2lt 

JinapulTa, ii. 275, 




ydjnna (yu-shen-na) i. 7a 
yo'kin — turmeric, i. I20 ; ii. 283. 
yw — corner, ii. 102 u. 
Yuan-chiu, a Shaman, i. 176 n. 
Yu-cheu, town in Honan, i. 2. 
Yu-chi, country of the VVestem, i. 

78, 100 n. 
Yue - chi, Yueh - chi, or Yueh - ti, 

i. 15, 32, 38 ; 20 n., 37 n. ; ii. 67 

n., 70 n. 
Yu-chie-sh' 'te-lun-shih — Ydf^dchdr- 

yabhdmi S'datra-Jcdrika, ii. 275 and 

yueh-nffai-ehu — the ChandrakAntn 

jVwel, ii. 252. 
Yiie'i-chi tribtf, i. 56 n, 
Yueh-kwancf — Chandraprabha rAjn, 

ii. 213. 
Yuen-rnnn — PArna, i. 162 n. 
yu'fau — a gem from theLu country, 

i. 66 n. 
Yu-hwui, al80 read Yu-fai, i. 14, 27. 
yi».*iw— ginger, i. 54. 

Yuli-kiu-hiang — Kunkuma stiipa, ii. 

yuh-men — gem -gate, i. 16 n. 
Yu-kia-sse-ti lun — Ydgddidrya S'dt- 

tray i. 226. 
Yu-kia-sse-ti 'lun — YOgdcJidrya- 

bhUmi ffdstra, ii. 220. 
Yvn-kial-king — Skand/»adfidtU'dya- 

tanaHf i. 95. 
yun-thifi — cloud-stone, ii. 103 D. 
Yu-shih vih&ra, ii. 174. 
Yu(-ti) Shun. Set) Shun, i. 8. 
Yu-tien — Khotan, i. 199 n. 
Yiivan&^ra, king, ii. i u. 
VAzifzai tril)e, i. 12S n. 
Yeu-tau-lan-tbcu — Udra RAma- 

putra, ii. 54 n. 

Zapdipos or Za8dSpi;r, the iSatndru 

riv*T, i. 178 n. 
Zarafsbftn river, i. 12 n., 34 n. 


rrintcil l>y Ballanttke, IIakson 6t» Co. 
lUlinburch &» Jx}ndon 

2 A